Definitions of the phenotypic manifestations of sickle cell disease.
ABSTRACT: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a pleiotropic genetic disorder of hemoglobin that has profound multiorgan effects. The low prevalence of SCD ( approximately 100,000/US) has limited progress in clinical, basic, and translational research. Lack of a large, readily accessible population for clinical studies has contributed to the absence of standard definitions and diagnostic criteria for the numerous complications of SCD and inadequate understanding of SCD pathophysiology. In 2005, the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Centers initiated a project to establish consensus definitions of the most frequently occurring complications. A group of clinicians and scientists with extensive expertise in research and treatment of SCD gathered to identify and categorize the most common complications. From this group, a formal writing team was formed that further reviewed the literature, sought specialist input, and produced definitions in a standard format. This article provides an overview of the process and describes 12 body system categories and the most prevalent or severe complications within these categories. A detailed Appendix provides standardized definitions for all complications identified within each system. This report proposes use of these definitions for studies of SCD complications, so future studies can be comparably robust and treatment efficacy measured. Use of these definitions will support greater accuracy in genotype-phenotype studies, thereby achieving a better understanding of SCD pathophysiology. This should nevertheless be viewed as a dynamic rather than final document; phenotype descriptions should be reevaluated and revised periodically to provide the most current standard definitions as etiologic factors are better understood, and new diagnostic options are developed.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a severe genetic blood disorder characterized by hemolytic anemia, episodic vaso-occlusion, and progressive organ damage. Current management of the disease remains symptomatic or preventative. Specific treatment targeting major complications such as vaso-occlusion is still lacking. Recent studies have identified various cellular and molecular factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of SCD. Here, we review the role of these elements and discuss the opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hereditary disorder of hemoglobin (Hb), which affects approximately a million people worldwide. It is characterized by a single nucleotide substitution in the ?-globin gene, leading to the production of abnormal sickle hemoglobin (HbS) with multi-system consequences. HbS polymerization is the primary event in SCD. Repeated polymerization and depolymerization of Hb causes oxidative stress that plays a key role in the pathophysiology of hemolysis, vessel occlusion and the following organ damage in sickle cell patients. For this reason, reactive oxidizing species and the (end)-products of their oxidative reactions have been proposed as markers of both tissue pro-oxidant status and disease severity. Although more studies are needed to clarify their role, antioxidant agents have been shown to be effective in reducing pathological consequences of the disease by preventing oxidative damage in SCD, i.e., by decreasing the oxidant formation or repairing the induced damage. An improved understanding of oxidative stress will lead to targeted antioxidant therapies that should prevent or delay the development of organ complications in this patient population.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic hematologic disorder that is characterized by a variety of potentially life threatening acute and chronic complications. Currently, hydroxyurea is the only clinically approved pharmacological therapy for the treatment of SCD, and the continued prevalence of severe disease complications underscores the desperate need for the development of new therapeutic agents. Central features of the sickle cell disease milieu, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and thrombosis, are established enhancers of endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis. This conceptual connection between ET-1 and SCD was confirmed by multiple studies that demonstrated markedly elevated plasma and urinary levels of ET-1 in SCD patients. Direct evidence for the involvement of ET-1 signaling in the development of SCD pathologies has come from studies using endothelin receptor antagonists in SCD mice. This review summarizes recent studies that have implicated ET-1 signaling as a mechanistic contributor to renal, vascular, pulmonary, and nociceptive complications of sickle cell disease and discusses the potential for the use of ET receptor antagonists in the treatment of SCD.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) produces many structural and functional abnormalities in the kidney, including glomerular abnormalities. Albuminuria is the most common manifestation of glomerular damage, with a prevalence between 26 and 68% in adult patients. The pathophysiology of albuminuria in SCD is likely multifactorial, with contributions from hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension, ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and endothelial dysfunction. Although its natural history in SCD remains inadequately defined, albuminuria is associated with increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, systemic blood pressure, and hypertension, as well as history of stroke, suggesting a shared vasculopathic pathophysiology. While most patients with albuminuria are treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, there are no published long-term data on the efficacy of these agents. With the improved patient survival following kidney transplantation, SCD patients with end-stage renal disease should be considered for this treatment modality. Given the high prevalence of albuminuria and its association with multiple SCD-related clinical complications, additional studies are needed to answer several clinically important questions in a bid to adequately elucidate its pathophysiology, natural history, and treatment.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common monogenetic disorder with high associated morbidity and mortality. The pulmonary complications of SCD are of particular importance, as acute chest syndrome and pulmonary hypertension have the highest associated mortality rates within this population. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of clinically significant pulmonary manifestations of SCD, including acute chest syndrome, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension in adult and pediatric patients. Clinicians should be vigilant in screening and treating such comorbidities to improve patient outcomes.
Project description:Introduction:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an orphan disease in the United States, but is highly prevalent worldwide. Only two drugs, hydroxyurea and L-glutamine, are approved for this disease. With an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of SCD as well as the success of several recently approved drugs for other orphan diseases, there is an increased interest in the development of drugs for SCD. Areas covered:This review summarizes published studies of drug therapies and ongoing trials of novel agents. Expert opinion:The development of drugs with different mechanisms of action offers opportunities for combination and individualized therapy in SCD. In addition to acute pain crisis, the evaluation of other SCD-related complications, exercise capacity, patient reported outcomes and validated surrogate endpoints are necessary to advance drug development. It is important to involve sites in sub-Saharan Africa and India, which have the highest burden of SCD, in trials of novel therapies.
Project description:IMPACT STATEMENT:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases and is associated with a reduced life expectancy and acute and chronic complications, including frequent painful vaso-occlusive episodes that often require hospitalization. At present, treatment of SCD is limited to hematopoietic stem cell transplant, transfusion, and limited options for pharmacotherapy, based principally on hydroxyurea therapy. This review highlights the importance of intracellular cGMP-dependent signaling pathways in SCD pathophysiology; modulation of these pathways with soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors could potentially provide vasorelaxation and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as elevate levels of anti-sickling fetal hemoglobin.
Project description:To summarize prevalence data on the neurologic complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Africa.We searched EMBASE, PubMed, and African Index Medicus to identify all relevant articles published from inception to May 31, 2016. Each study was reviewed for methodologic quality. A random-effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of neurologic complications of SCD across studies.Thirty-one studies were included. Methodologic quality was high or moderate in 90% of studies. Stroke, conditional and abnormal cerebral blood flow, seizures, and headache were the complications most frequently reported, with overall prevalence rates of 4.2%, 10.6%, 6.1%, 4.4%, and 18.9%, respectively. Some complications, like silent brain infarcts, peripheral neuropathies, neurocognitive deficits, or moyamoya disease, have been rarely or not studied at all in the African setting. Incidence data were scarce and of poor quality.The burden of neurologic complications of SCD is important in Africa and most likely underestimated. A better evaluation of this burden requires larger prospective studies using standard up-to-date screening methods. Accessibility to diagnostic tools such as neuroimaging, transcranial Doppler, EEG, and neuropsychological evaluation, as well as to preventive and therapeutic interventions and trained health care providers, should be improved in routine clinical practice.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an extremely heterogeneous disease that has been associated with global morbidity and early mortality. More effective and inexpensive therapies are needed. During the last five years, the landscape of the pharmacotherapy of SCD has changed dramatically. Currently, 54 drugs have been used or under consideration to use for the treatment of SCD. These fall into 3 categories: the first category includes the four drugs (Hydroxyurea, L-Glutamine, Crizanlizumab tmca and Voxelotor) that have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on successful clinical trials. The second category includes 22 drugs that failed, discontinued or terminated for now and the third category includes 28 drugs that are actively being considered for the treatment of SCD. Crizanlizumab and Voxelotor are included in the first and third categories because they have been used in more than one trial. New therapies targeting multiple pathways in the complex pathophysiology of SCD have been achieved or are under continued investigation. The emerging trend seems to be the use of multimodal drugs (i.e. drugs that have different mechanisms of action) to treat SCD similar to the use of multiple chemotherapeutic agents to treat cancer.
Project description:Background: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are diverse and encompass acute and chronic disease. The understanding of the natural history of pulmonary complications of SCD is limited, no specific therapies exist, and these complications are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality.Methods: We gathered a multidisciplinary group of pediatric and adult hematologists, pulmonologists, and emergency medicine physicians with expertise in SCD-related lung disease along with an SCD patient advocate for an American Thoracic Society-sponsored workshop to review the literature and identify key unanswered clinical and research questions. Participants were divided into four subcommittees on the basis of expertise: 1) acute chest syndrome, 2) lower airways disease and pulmonary function, 3) sleep-disordered breathing and hypoxia, and 4) pulmonary vascular complications of SCD. Before the workshop, a comprehensive literature review of each subtopic was conducted. Clinically important questions were developed after literature review and were finalized by group discussion and consensus.Results: Current knowledge is based on small, predominantly observational studies, few multicenter longitudinal studies, and even fewer high-quality interventional trials specifically targeting the pulmonary complications of SCD. Each subcommittee identified the three or four most important unanswered questions in their topic area for researchers to direct the next steps of clinical investigation.Conclusions: Important and clinically relevant questions regarding sickle cell lung disease remain unanswered. High-quality, multicenter, longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials designed and implemented by teams of multidisciplinary clinician-investigators are needed to improve the care of individuals with SCD.