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Optic nerve injury upregulates retinoic acid signaling in the adult frog visual system.


ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA) is important during development, in neuronal plasticity, and also in peripheral nervous system regeneration. Here we use the frog visual system as a model to investigate the changes in RA signaling that take place after axonal injury to the central nervous system. Immunocytochemistry was used to localize different components of RA signaling within sections of the retina and optic tectum, namely, the synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), the RA binding proteins CRABPI and II, the retinoic acid receptors RAR?, ? and ?, and finally the catabolic enzyme CYP26A1. The levels of these proteins were quantified in extracts of retina and tectum using Western blotting. Animals were studied at 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after optic nerve transection. At the latter time point the RGC axons were re-entering the optic tectum. All the components of RA signaling were present at low to moderate levels in retinas and tecta of control, unoperated animals. In retina, soon after optic nerve injury there was a large increase in RALDH, some increase in the CRABPs, and a large increase in RGC RAR? and (expression. These increases continued as the RGC axons were regenerating, with the addition of later RAR? expression at 6 weeks. At no stage did CYP26A1 expression significantly change. In the tectum the levels of RALDH increased after axotomy and during regrowth of axons (3 weeks), then decreased at 6 weeks, at which time the levels of CYP26A1 increased. Axotomy did not cause an immediate increase in tectal RAR levels but RAR? and RAR? increased after 3 weeks and RAR? only after 6 weeks. These results are consistent with RA signaling playing an important role in the survival and regeneration of frog RGCs.

SUBMITTER: Duprey-Diaz MV 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5048580 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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