RAB25 expression is epigenetically downregulated in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
ABSTRACT: Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC) have a low survival rate, mainly due to metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. For optimal treatment of these metastases, a neck dissection is required; however, inaccurate detection methods results in under- and over-treatment. New DNA prognostic methylation biomarkers might improve lymph node metastases detection. To identify epigenetically regulated genes associated with lymph node metastases, genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on 6 OOSCC with (pN+) and 6 OOSCC without (pN0) lymph node metastases and combined with a gene expression signature predictive for pN+ status in OOSCC. Selected genes were validated using an independent OOSCC cohort by immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing, and on data retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A two-step statistical selection of differentially methylated sequences revealed 14 genes with increased methylation status and mRNA downregulation in pN+ OOSCC. RAB25, a known tumor suppressor gene, was the highest-ranking gene in the discovery set. In the validation sets, both RAB25 mRNA (P = 0.015) and protein levels (P = 0.012) were lower in pN+ OOSCC. RAB25 mRNA levels were negatively correlated with RAB25 methylation levels (P < 0.001) but RAB25 protein expression was not. Our data revealed that promoter methylation is a mechanism resulting in downregulation of RAB25 expression in pN+ OOSCC and decreased expression is associated with lymph node metastasis. Detection of RAB25 methylation might contribute to lymph node metastasis diagnosis and serve as a potential new therapeutic target in OOSCC.
Project description:PURPOSE:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the 10 most common cancers with a 50% five-year survival rate, which has remained unchanged for the past three decades. One of the major reasons for the aggressiveness of this cancer is that HNSCCs readily metastasize to cervical lymph nodes that are abundant in the head and neck region. Hence, discovering new molecules controlling the metastatic process as well as understanding their regulation at the molecular level are essential for effective therapeutic strategies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Rab25 expression level was analyzed in HNSCC tissue microarray. We used a combination of intravital microscopy in live animals and immunofluorescence in an in vitro invasion assay to study the role of Rab25 in tumor cell migration and invasion. RESULTS:In this study, we identified the small GTPase Rab25 as a key regulator of HNSCC metastasis. We observed that Rab25 is downregulated in HNSCC patients. Next, we determined that reexpression of Rab25 in a metastatic cell line is sufficient to block invasion in a three-dimensional collagen matrix and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes in a mouse model for oral cancer. Specifically, Rab25 affects the organization of F-actin at the cell surface, rather than cell proliferation, apoptosis, or tumor angiogenesis. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that Rab25 plays an important role in tumor migration and metastasis, and that understanding its function may lead to the development of new strategies to prevent metastasis in oral cancer patients.
Project description:Here we show that Rab25 permits the sorting of ligand-occupied, active-conformation ?5?1 integrin to late endosomes/lysosomes. Photoactivation and biochemical approaches show that lysosomally targeted integrins are not degraded but are retrogradely transported and recycled to the plasma membrane at the back of invading cells. This requires CLIC3, a protein upregulated in Rab25-expressing cells and tumors, which colocalizes with active ?5?1 in late endosomes/lysosomes. CLIC3 is necessary for release of the cell rear during migration on 3D matrices and is required for invasion and maintenance of active Src signaling in organotypic microenvironments. CLIC3 expression predicts lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in operable cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The identification of CLIC3 as a regulator of a recycling pathway and as an independent prognostic indicator in PDAC highlights the importance of active integrin trafficking as a potential drive to cancer progression in vivo.
Project description:The Rab GTPases regulate vesicular trafficking machinery that transports and delivers a diverse pool of cargo, including growth factor receptors, integrins, nutrient receptors and junction proteins to specific intracellular sites. The trafficking machinery is indeed a major posttranslational modifier and is critical for cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of this stringently controlled system leads to a wide spectrum of disorders including cancer. Herein we demonstrate that Rab25, a key GTPase, mostly decorating the apical recycling endosome, is a dichotomous variable in breast cancer cell lines with higher mRNA and protein expression in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ve) lines. Rab25 and its effector, Rab Coupling Protein (RCP) are frequently coamplified and coordinately elevated in ER+ve breast cancers. In contrast, Rab25 levels are decreased in basal-like and almost completely lost in claudin-low tumors. This dichotomy exists despite the presence of the 1q amplicon that hosts Rab25 across breast cancer subtypes and is likely due to differential methylation of the Rab25 promoter. Functionally, elevated levels of Rab25 drive major hallmarks of cancer including indefinite growth and metastasis but in case of luminal B breast cancer only. Importantly, in such ER+ve tumors, coexpression of Rab25 and its effector, RCP is significantly associated with a markedly worsened clinical outcome. Importantly, in claudin-low cell lines, exogenous Rab25 markedly inhibits cell migration. Similarly, during Snail-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) exogenous Rab25 potently reverses Snail-driven invasion. Overall, this study substantiates a striking context dependent role of Rab25 in breast cancer where Rab25 is amplified and enhances aggressiveness in luminal B cancers while in claudin-low tumors, Rab25 is lost indicating possible anti-tumor functions.
Project description:Hypermethylation is an important mechanism for the dynamic regulation of gene expression, necessary for metastasizing tumour cells. Our aim is to identify methylation tumour markers that have a predictive value for the presence of regional lymph node metastases in patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC). Significantly differentially expressed genes were retrieved from four reported microarray expression profiles comparing pN0 and pN+ head-neck tumours, and one expression array identifying functionally hypermethylated genes. Additional metastasis-associated genes were included from the literature. Thus genes were selected that influence the development of nodal metastases and might be regulated by methylation. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) primers were designed and tested on 8 head-neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and technically validated on 10 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OOSCC cases. Predictive value was assessed in a clinical series of 70 FFPE OOSCC with pathologically determined nodal status. Five out of 28 methylation markers (OCLN, CDKN2A, MGMT, MLH1 and DAPK1) were frequently differentially methylated in OOSCC. Of these, MGMT methylation was associated with pN0 status (P = 0.02) and with lower immunoexpression (P = 0.02). DAPK1 methylation was associated with pN+ status (P = 0.008) but did not associate with protein expression. In conclusion, out of 28 candidate genes, two (7%) showed a predictive value for the pN status. Both genes, DAPK1 and MGMT, have predictive value for nodal metastasis in a clinical group of OOSCC. Therefore DNA methylation markers are capable of contributing to diagnosis and treatment selection in OOSCC. To efficiently identify additional new methylation markers, genome-wide methods are needed.
Project description:Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common aggressive urinary malignant tumor that cannot be easily diagnosed at an early stage. The DNA methylation occurs within promoter before precancerous lesion plays a pivotal role that could help us in diagnosing and understanding ccRCC. In this study, based on a whole-genome promoter DNA methylation profiling, we used shrunken centroids classifier method to identify a CpG-based biomarker that is capable of differentiating between ccRCC tumor and adjacent tissues. The biomarker was validated in 19 ccRCCs and three public datasets. We found that both CYP4B1 and RAB25 are downregulated with promoter hypermethylation and CA9 is upregulated with promoter hypomethylation, and we validated their mRNA differential expressions in 19 ccRCCs and 10 GEO datasets. We further confirmed that hypermethylated RAB25 is inversely correlated with its mRNA level. Log-rank test showed that ccRCC patients with low levels of CA9 promoter methylation had a higher survival rate. This reveals clinically a potential biomarker for use in early detection for ccRCC, and provides a better understanding of carcinogenesis.
Project description:We have established a highly sensitive and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to detect axillary lymph node metastases of breast cancer. Amplifying cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA transcripts using real-time TaqMan PCR made it possible to quantify axillary metastatic burden. Metastases in 358 axillary lymph nodes obtained from 23 breast cancers of 22 patients were investigated by conventional haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative RT-PCR assay. The detection rates of axillary lymph node metastasis using H&E staining, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR assay were 4.5, 5.9 and 13.1%, respectively. RT-PCR assay was the most sensitive of these three methods for detecting lymph node metastases. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA expression values of both histologically and immunohistochemically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than the values for lymph nodes judged to be negative by both histological and immunohistochemical methods (P<0.0001), and those of histologically negative, but immunohistochemically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than the values for lymph nodes judged to be negative by both histological and immunohistochemical methods (P<0.0001). Furthermore, metastatic rates of sentinel nodes were higher than the rates of nonsentinel lymph nodes as measured by all three methods. These results indicate that quantitative RT-PCR assay is a sensitive and reliable method for detecting lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, quantification of metastases in sentinel lymph nodes by quantitative RT-PCR assay may be useful to assess the entire axillary burden of breast cancer patients.
Project description:Regional lymph node (LN) metastasis is a strong and well-established prognostic factor in colon cancer, and recent data suggest a prognostic value of detecting micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in regional LNs. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in colon cancer patients by measuring the novel metastasis marker PHGR1 mRNA.Using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured PHGR1 mRNA levels in SLNs and primary tumors from 206 patients surgically treated for stage I to III colon cancer and 52 normal LNs from patients undergoing surgery for benign colon diseases. The prognostic impact of these findings was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression.Compared to normal LNs, elevated PHGR1 mRNA levels were detected in SLNs from 56 (89%) of the 63 patients with pN+ disease. Furthermore, 68 (48%) of the 143 node-negative (pN0) patients had elevated PHGR1 mRNA levels in SLNs, suggesting occult metastases. With a median follow-up of 7.2 years, a significantly shorter recurrence-free (P=.005) and disease-specific (P=.02) survival was observed in patients with elevated PHGR1 mRNA levels in SLNs. Multivariable modeling showed that the SLN PHGR1 mRNA level was an independent prognostic factor. However, when the survival analyses were restricted to pN0 patients, no significant prognostic information was found.Measuring PHGR1 mRNA in SLNs provided independent prognostic information on operable colon cancer patients but not in the pN0 subgroup.
Project description:Cervical lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but its accurate assessment after sentinel node biopsy or neck dissection is often limited to the histopathological examination of only one or two sections. Previous our study showed the usefulness of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) targeting keratin 19 (KRT19) mRNA for the genetic detection of lymph node metastasis, but the sensitivity was insufficient. Here, we have attempted to identify novel molecular markers for OSCC cells in lymph nodes. We performed microarray analysis to identify genes overexpressed in 7 metastatic lymph nodes from OSCC patients, compared to 1 normal lymph node and 5 salivary glands from non-cancer patients. We then used real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RT-LAMP to compare the expression of these genes in newly resected metastatic and normal lymph nodes. Of 4 genes identified by microarray analysis, annexin A8 (ANXA8) and desmoglein 3 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR in metastatic lymph nodes but not in normal lymph nodes. Furthermore, ANXA8 mRNA expression was detected in all KRT19-negative metastatic lymph nodes. Both KRT19 and ANXA8 mRNA may be useful markers for detecting lymph node metastases in OSCC patients.
Project description:In this study, the effects of the CXC chemokine/receptor axis on lymph node and distant metastases of prostate cancer (PC) were analyzed. Further, mRNA expression data of metastatic PC were extracted from the Stand Up To Cancer-Prostate Cancer Foundation Dream Team database and differences between metastatic sites were comprehensively analyzed. CXC chemokine/receptor mRNA expression data of primary PC included in the Cancer Genome Atlas were used to analyze the relationships of CXC chemokine/receptor expression with lymph node metastasis and cancer progression. In metastatic PC, significantly higher expression of ELR+ CXC chemokines/receptors and significantly lower expression of ELR- CXC chemokines/receptors were observed in bone metastases relative to lymph node metastases. In primary PC, significantly higher ELR- CXC chemokine/receptor expression and significantly lower ELR+ CXC chemokine/receptor expression were observed in patients with lymph node metastasis relative to those without. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified CXCL10 expression as an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, the log-rank test results revealed that co-expression of CXCL10/CXCR3 was associated with postoperative recurrence. These findings demonstrate heterogeneous expression of CXC chemokine/receptor genes in primary PC as well as differences in expression patterns according to the metastatic site.