Iron(II)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aminofluorination of Unfunctionalized Olefins Using Fluoride Ion.
ABSTRACT: We herein report a new catalytic method for intermolecular olefin aminofluorination using earth-abundant iron catalysts and nucleophilic fluoride ion. This method tolerates a broad range of unfunctionalized olefins, especially nonstyrenyl olefins that are incompatible with existing olefin aminofluorination methods. This new iron-catalyzed process directly converts readily available olefins to internal vicinal fluoro carbamates with high regioselectivity (N vs F), many of which are difficult to prepare using known methods. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrate that it is possible to exert asymmetric induction using chiral iron catalysts and that both an iron-nitrenoid and carbocation species may be reactive intermediates.
Project description:Reported herein is a new iron-catalyzed diastereoselective olefin diazidation reaction which occurs at room temperature (1-5?mol% of catalysts and d.r.?values of up to >20:1). This method tolerates a broad range of both unfunctionalized and highly functionalized olefins, including those that are incompatible with existing methods. It also provides a convenient approach to vicinal primary diamines as well as other synthetically valuable nitrogen-containing building blocks which are difficult to obtain with alternative methods. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction may proceed through a new mechanistic pathway in which both Lewis acid activation and iron-enabled redox-catalysis are crucial for selective azido-group transfer.
Project description:The activity of aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine and bis(arylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes has been evaluated in a series of catalytic olefin hydrogenation reactions. In general, more electron donating chelates with smaller 2,6-aryl substituents produce more active iron hydrogenation catalysts. Establishment of this structure-activity relationship has produced base metal catalysts that exhibit high turnover frequencies for the hydrogenation of unfunctionalized, tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes, one of the most challenging substrate classes for homogenous hydrogenation catalysts.
Project description:Asymmetric hydrogenation has evolved as one of the most powerful tools to construct stereocenters. However, the asymmetric hydrogenation of unfunctionalized tetrasubstituted acyclic olefins remains the pinnacle of asymmetric synthesis and an unsolved challenge. We report herein the discovery of an iridium catalyst for the first, generally applicable, highly enantio- and diastereoselective hydrogenation of such olefins and the mechanistic insights of the reaction. The power of this chemistry is demonstrated by the successful hydrogenation of a wide variety of electronically and sterically diverse olefins in excellent yield and high enantio- and diastereoselectivity.
Project description:We herein report a direct intermolecular anti-Markovnikov hydroazidation method for unactivated olefins, which is promoted by a catalytic amount of bench-stable benziodoxole at ambient temperature. This method facilitates previously difficult, direct addition of hydrazoic acid across a wide variety of unactivated olefins in both complex molecules and unfunctionalized commodity chemicals. It conveniently fills a synthetic chemistry gap of existing olefin hydroazidation procedures, and thereby provides a valuable tool for azido-group labeling in organic synthesis and chemical biology studies.
Project description:A series of oligomeric (salen)Mn(III) complexes featuring tartrate linkers were prepared and immobilized over layered double hydroxide, and then used as catalysts for asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins. Comprehensive characterizations including 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, GPC, and ICP-AES were used to illustrate structures of oligomeric (salen)Mn(III) complexes, while powdered XRD, nitrogen physisorption, together with XPS studies provided further details to detect structures of heterogeneous catalysts. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy found an interesting morphology change during modification of layered supporting material. Catalytic experiments indicated that configuration of major epoxide products was determined by salen chirality more than that of tartrate linker, but enantioselectivity (e.e. values) could be enhanced when tartrate and salen showed identical chiral configurations. Furthermore, the (R,R)-salen moieties linked with (R,R)-tartrate spacers usually offered higher enantioselectivity compared to other combinations. Lastly, Zn(II)/Al(III) layered double hydroxide played as a rigid supporting material in catalysis, showing positive chiral induction and high recycling potential in catalytic reactions.
Project description:In recent years, several organocatalytic asymmetric hydroarylations of activated, electron-poor olefins with activated, electron-rich arenes have been described. In contrast, only a few approaches that can handle <i>unactivated</i>, electronically neutral olefins have been reported and invariably require transition metal catalysts. Here we show how an efficient and highly enantioselective catalytic asymmetric intramolecular hydroarylation of aliphatic and aromatic olefins with indoles can be realized using strong and confined IDPi Brønsted acid catalysts. This unprecedented transformation is enabled by tertiary carbocation formation and establishes quaternary stereogenic centers in excellent enantioselectivity and with a broad substrate scope that includes an aliphatic iodide, an azide, and an alkyl boronate, which can be further elaborated into bioactive molecules.
Project description:This Article details the development of the iron-catalyzed conversion of olefins to radicals and their subsequent use in the construction of C-C bonds. Optimization of a reductive diene cyclization led to the development of an intermolecular cross-coupling of electronically-differentiated donor and acceptor olefins. Although the substitution on the donor olefins was initially limited to alkyl and aryl groups, additional efforts culminated in the expansion of the scope of the substitution to various heteroatom-based functionalities, providing a unified olefin reactivity. A vinyl sulfone acceptor olefin was developed, which allowed for the efficient synthesis of sulfone adducts that could be used as branch points for further diversification. Moreover, this reactivity was extended into an olefin-based Minisci reaction to functionalize heterocyclic scaffolds. Finally, mechanistic studies resulted in a more thorough understanding of the reaction, giving rise to the development of a more efficient second-generation set of olefin cross-coupling conditions.
Project description:An iron-catalyzed diastereoselective intermolecular olefin amino-oxygenation reaction is reported, which proceeds via an iron-nitrenoid generated by the N-O bond cleavage of a functionalized hydroxylamine. In this reaction, a bench-stable hydroxylamine derivative is used as the amination reagent and oxidant. This method tolerates a range of synthetically valuable substrates that have been all incompatible with existing amino-oxygenation methods. It can also provide amino alcohol derivatives with regio- and stereochemical arrays complementary to known amino-oxygenation methods.
Project description:Direct synthesis of light olefins from syngas (STO) using a bifunctional catalyst composed of oxide and zeolite has attracted extensive attention in both academia and industry. It is highly desirable to develop robust catalysts that could enhance the CO conversion while simultaneously maintain high selectivity to C2-C4 olefins. Herein, we report a bifunctional catalyst consisting of ZnCr binary oxide (ZnCrOx) and low-Si AlPO-18 zeolite, showing both satisfying selectivity to C2-C4 olefins of 45.0% (86.7%, CO2 free) and high olefin/paraffin ratio of 29.9 at the CO conversion of 25.2% under mild reaction conditions (4.0 MPa, 390 °C). By optimizing the reaction conditions, the CO conversion could be markedly increased to 49.3% with a slight drop in selectivity. CD3CN/CO-FTIR characterizations and theoretical calculations demonstrate that low-Si AlPO-18 zeolite has lower acid strength, and is therefore less reactive toward the hydride transfer in the STO reaction, leading to a higher olefin/paraffin ratio.
Project description:Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of lower olefins (FTO) is a classical yet modern topic of great significance in which the supported Fe-based nanoparticles are the most promising catalysts. The performance deterioration of catalysts is a big challenge due to the instability of the nanosized active phase of iron carbides. Herein, by in situ mass spectrometry, theoretical analysis, and atmospheric- and high-pressure experimental examinations, we revealed the Ostwald-ripening-like growth mechanism of the active phase of iron carbides in FTO, which involves the cyclic formation-decomposition of iron carbonyl intermediates to transport iron species from small particles to large ones. Accordingly, by suppressing the formation of iron carbonyl species with a high-N-content carbon support, the size and structure of the active phase were regulated and stabilized, and durable iron-based catalysts were conveniently obtained with the highest selectivity for lower olefins up to 54.1%. This study provides a practical strategy for exploring advanced FTO catalysts.