Beliefs about GI medications and adherence to pharmacotherapy in functional GI disorder outpatients.
ABSTRACT: Pharmacotherapy is a mainstay in functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (FGID) management, but little is known about patient attitudes toward medication regimens. Understanding patient concerns and adherence to pharmacotherapy is particularly important for off-label medication use (e.g., antidepressants) in FGID.Consecutive tertiary GI outpatients completed the Beliefs About Medications questionnaire (BMQ). Subjects were categorized as FGID and structural GI disease (SGID) using clinician diagnoses and Rome criteria; GI-specific medications and doses were recorded, and adherence to medication regimens was determined by patient self-report. BMQ domains (overuse, harm, necessity, and concern) were compared between FGID and SGID, with an interest in how these beliefs affected medication adherence. Psychiatric measures (depression, anxiety, and somatization) were assessed to gauge their influence on medication beliefs.A total of 536 subjects (mean age 54.7±0.7 years, range 22-100 years; n=406, 75.7% female) were enrolled over a 5.5-year interval: 341 (63.6%) with FGID (IBS, 64.8%; functional dyspepsia, 51.0%, ?2 FGIDs, 38.7%) and 142 (26.5%) with SGID (IBD, 28.9%; GERD, 23.2%). PPIs (n=231, 47.8%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (n=167, 34.6%), and anxiolytics (n=122, 25.3%) were common medications prescribed. FGID and SGID were similar across all BMQ domains (P>0.05 for overuse, harm, necessity, and concern). SGID subjects had higher necessity-concern framework (NCF) scores compared with FGID subjects (P=0.043). FGID medication adherence correlated negatively with concerns about medication harm (r=-0.24, P<0.001) and overuse (r=-0.15, P=0.001), whereas higher NCF differences predicted medication compliance (P=0.006). Medication concern and overuse scores correlated with psychiatric comorbidity among FGID subjects (P<0.03 for each). FGID patients prescribed TCAs (n=142, 41.6%) expressed a greater medication necessity (17.4±0.4 vs. 16.2±0.4, P=0.024) and found their GI regimen to be more helpful (P=0.054). FGID subjects not on TCAs expressed a greater apprehension about medication overuse (10.7±0.3 vs. 9.7±0.2, P=0.002) on the BMQ.FGID subjects report medication necessity and concern scores comparable to patients with SGID but have negative perceptions about medications, particularly in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity; these factors may affect treatment adherence and willingness to initiate neuromodulator regimens.
Project description:Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ?6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the "BMQ-necessity-concerns differential" but negatively with "BMQ-concerns" and "BMQ-side effects". Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription ("intentional non-adherence"), while "unintentional non-adherence" (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R 2 = 0.21) and "intentional non-adherence" (R 2 = 0.24) was explained by the "BMQ-necessity-concern differential" and "BMQ-experienced side effects". The variance of "unintentional non-adherence" (R 2 = 0.12) was explained by the "BMQ-necessity-concern differential" and "B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD". In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Adherence to preventive drug treatment is a clinical problem and we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about medicines and stroke are associated with adherence. The objective was to examine associations between beliefs of patients with stroke about stroke and drug treatment and their adherence to drug treatment. DESIGN:Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING:Patients with stroke from 25 Swedish hospitals were included. MEASUREMENTS:Questionnaires were sent to 989 patients to assess their perceptions about stroke (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Brief IPQ), beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaires, BMQ) and adherence to treatment (Medication Adherence Report Scale, MARS) 3 months after stroke onset. Only patients living at home were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was self-reported adherence as measured on MARS. MARS scores were dichotomised into adherent/non-adherent. Background and clinical data from the Swedish Stroke register were included. RESULTS:811 patients were still living at home and 595 answered the questionnaire. Complete MARS data were available for 578 patients and 72 (12.5%) of these were classified as non-adherent. Non-adherent patients scored lower on positive beliefs as measured on BMQ-necessity (OR?=?0.90, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.98) and BMQ-benefit (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87), and higher on negative beliefs as measured on BMQ-concern (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21), BMQ-overuse (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.45), and BMQ-harm (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24). The Brief IPQ showed that non-adherent patients believed their current treatment to be less useful (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study showed associations between beliefs of Swedish patients with stroke about medicines and adherence. Positive beliefs were less common and negative more common among non-adherent. To improve adherence, patients' beliefs about medicines should be considered.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate beliefs about medicines and their association with medicine adherence in patients with chronic diseases in China. DESIGN:A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study SETTING: Two large urban hospitals in Hefei and Tianjin, China PARTICIPANTS: Hospital inpatients (313 stroke patients) and outpatients (315 diabetic patients and 339 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients) were recruited between January 2014 and September 2014. OUTCOME MEASURES:The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), assessing patients' beliefs about the specific medicine (Specific-Necessity and Specific-Concerns) prescribed for their conditions (stroke/diabetes/RA) and more general background beliefs about pharmaceuticals as a class of treatment (BMQ-General Benefit, Harm and Overuse); the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines scale (PSM) assessed patients' beliefs about how sensitive they were to the effects of medicines and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. The association between non-adherence and beliefs about medicines was assessed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS:Patients with diabetes mellitus had a stronger perceived need for treatment (mean (SD) Specific-Necessity score, 3.75 (0.40)) than patients with stroke (3.69 (0.53)) and RA (3.66 (0.44)) (p=0.049). Moderate correlations were observed between Specific-Concerns and General-Overuse, General-Harm and PSM (Pearson correlation coefficients, 0.39, 0.49 and 0.49, respectively, p<0.01). Three hundred and eleven patients were non-adherent to their medicine (159 (51.0%) in the stroke group, 60 (26.7%) in the diabetes mellitus group and 62 (19.8%) in the RA group, p<0.01). Across the whole sample, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, non-adherence was associated with patients who had higher concerns about their medicines (OR, 1.35, 95%?CI 1.07 to 1.71) and patients who believed that they were personally sensitive to the effects of medications (OR 1.44, 95%?CI 1.16 to 1.85). CONCLUSION:The BMQ is a useful tool to identify patients at risk of non-adherence. In the future, adherence intervention studies may use the BMQ to screen for patients who are at risk of non-adherence and to map interventional support.
Project description:A high level of adherence to antiretroviral treatment is essential for optimal clinical outcomes in HIV infection, but measuring adherence is difficult. We investigated whether responses to a questionnaire eliciting caregiver beliefs in medicines were associated with adherence of their child (median age 2.8 years), and whether this in turn was associated with viral suppression. We used the validated beliefs in medicine questionnaire (BMQ) to measure caregiver beliefs, and medication event monitoring system caps to measure adherence. We found significant associations between BMQ scores and adherence, and between adherence and viral suppression. Among children initiating Antiretroviral therapy (ART), we also found significant associations between BMQ 'necessity' scores, and BMQ 'necessity-concerns' scores, and later viral suppression. This suggests that the BMQ may be a valuable tool when used alongside other adherence measures, and that it remains important to keep caregivers well informed about the long-term necessity of their child's ART.
Project description:To characterize adherence to pharmacological medication and beliefs towards medication in a group of patients with hypertension in a large national hospital.Cross-sectional survey among patients with hypertension attending the outpatient clinic of a large national hospital. Exposure of interest was the patient's beliefs towards general medication and antihypertensive drugs, i.e. beliefs of harm, overuse, necessity and concern, measured using the Beliefs about Medication questionnaire. Main outcome was adherence measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson distribution logistic regression, prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Data from 115 participants, 67% females and mean age 62.7 years were analyzed. Low adherence was found in 57.4%. Highest scores were on the ideas of necessity and one of the most rated statements was "physicians would prescribe less medication if they spent more time with patients". Beliefs of harm about medications and concerns about antihypertensive drugs were higher in the low adherence group (p<0.01). Those who scored higher on ideas of harm were 52% less likely of being high adherents (PR 0.48; 95% CI 0.25-0.93) and those with higher scores on concerns were 41% less likely of being high adherents (PR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39-0.91). Patients whose ideas of necessity outweighed their concerns were more likely to be adherent (PR 2.65; 95% CI 1.21-5.81).Low adherence to antihypertensive medication is common. High scores on ideas of harm, concern and a high necessity-concern differential were predictors of medication adherence.
Project description:Thanks to the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected patients can have almost a normal life expectancy. This has resulted in an aging HIV-infected population with other chronic comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression. Our hypothesis is that patients' perceptions of and attitudes towards their cART, which is perceived as crucial to their survival, differ from their beliefs about their co-treatments, and this may have an impact on their medication adherence.We used the French version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ-f) to measure the perceptions of patients about their co-treatments and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (BMQ-HAART) to measure their beliefs about their cART in a representative sample (n = 150) of patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and followed at the Infectious Disease Service at the University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland. The survey was administered to all eligible patients by the order of their scheduled appointments at the end of their medical visit. The BMQ comprises two subscores: Specific-Necessity (5 identical items in BMQ-f and BMQ-HAART) and Specific-Concerns (also 5 identical items in BMQ-f and BMQ-HAART). The subscores were standardized by dividing the score scale by the number of questions in the scale, resulting in a range of responses between 1 (low) and 5 (high). Self-reported medication adherence was measured using the SHCS Adherence Questionnaire (SHCS-AQ). Adherence was defined as not missing any dose or missing one dose of the treatment in the past 4 weeks. Sociodemographic variables were retrieved by reviewing the SHCS database.A response rate of 73% (109 of 150) was achieved. A total of 105 patients were included in the analysis: their median age was 56 [interquartile range (IQR) 51, 63] years and 74 were male (70%). Eighty-seven patients (83%) were adherent to cART and 75 (71%) were adherent to their co-treatments (P = 0.0001). The standardized mean responses for the BMQ Specific-Necessity subscores were 4.46 [standard deviation (SD): 0.58] and 2.86 (SD: 1.02) for cART and co-treatments, respectively (P < 0.0001). For Specific-Concerns, the standardized mean responses were 2.9 (SD: 1.02) for cART and 4.09 (SD: 1.02) (P < 0.0001) for co-treatments. cART and co-treatment concerns increased as the number of co-treatments increased (P = 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively).Patients had higher Necessity and lower Concerns scores for their cART in comparison with their co-treatments. A higher percentage of patients reported being adherent to cART compared with the co-treatments that they reported they were most likely to miss. Further research using a bigger sample size and more objective measures of adherence is needed to explore the association between adherence and patients' perceptions.
Project description:People with asthma who do not adhere to their maintenance medication may experience poorer asthma control and need more healthcare support than those who adhere. People (N?=?1010) aged 18-55 years with self-reported asthma, taking one or more asthma maintenance medication(s), from five European countries, participated in a survey using validated scales (Medication Adherence Report Scale [MARS], Asthma Control Test™ [ACT], Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire [BMQ] and the Asthma Treatment Intrusiveness Questionnaire [ATIQ]). We performed a post hoc evaluation of adherence to maintenance medication, asthma control, beliefs about medication, preferences for once-daily vs. twice-daily asthma maintenance medication and treatment intrusiveness, using structural equation modelling to investigate the relationships between these factors. Most participants reported potential problems with asthma control (ACT?<?19: 76.8% [n?=?776]), low adherence (median MARS?=?3.40) and preferred once-daily medication (73.5% [n?=?742/1010]). Non-adherence was associated with worse asthma control (r?=?0.262 [P?<?0.001]) and a expressed preference for once-daily medication over a "twice daily medication that works slightly better" (test statistic [T]?=?2.970 [P?=?0.003]). Participants reporting non-adherence/preferring once-daily medication had negative beliefs about their treatment (BMQ necessity-concerns differential: r?=?0.437 [P?<?0.001]/T?=?6.886 [P?<?0.001]) and found medication intrusive (ATIQ: r?=?-0.422 [P?<?0.001]/T?=?2.689[P?=?0.007]). Structural equation modelling showed complex relationships between variables, including: (1) high concerns about treatment associated with increased perceived treatment intrusiveness and reduced adherence, which influenced asthma control; (2) high concerns about treatment and healthcare seeking behaviour, which were predictive of preferring twice-daily asthma medication. Concerns about medication and perceived treatment intrusiveness were predictive of poor adherence, and were associated with preference for once-daily asthma medication. Confirm the utility of the PAPA model and NCF in explaining nonadherence linked to poor asthma control.
Project description:Objective:To assess methotrexate (MTX) adherence using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) and characterize associations with adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods:Eligible patients participated in Forward, the National Databank for Rheumatic Diseases, and recently (12 months or sooner) initiated oral MTX. MEMS was used to compile MTX weekly dosing over 24 weeks. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) was completed, and baseline demographics and disease characteristics obtained. MTX adherence (percentage of weeks dose taken correctly), implementation (percentage of weeks dose taken correctly from initiation until last dose), and persistence (duration from initiation to last dose) were calculated. Analyses measured associations between patient characteristics and adherence, modeled using logistic generalized estimating equations and censored Poisson regression, and persistence modeled using Cox regression. Results:Overall, 60 of 119 eligible patients were included in the analysis. MTX adherence, implementation, and persistence were 75%, 80%, and 83%, respectively, at 24 weeks. Demographics and disease characteristics were generally similar between patients with 1 week or less and 2 weeks or more of missed MTX. Unemployment, less disability, higher Patient Global scores, and no prior disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use were associated with correct dosing. No significant differences in adherence were observed between patients receiving concomitant MTX versus MTX monotherapy, and biologic DMARD-experienced versus biologic DMARD-naïve patients. Higher scores in BMQ Specific Necessity (indicating a greater belief in the necessity of the medication) was associated with a decreased likelihood of dosing at an interval shorter than prescribed (odds ratio 0.89). Conclusion:Even in a participatory group over a short period, MTX adherence was suboptimal and associated with certain demographics, medication experience, and beliefs about medicines. This suggests a need for screening and alternative treatment opportunities in nonadherent MTX patients with RA.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess whether medication beliefs differ between women who use or not use medication for their somatic chronic diseases during pregnancy and whether this association varies across diseases. DESIGN:Cross-sectional web-based survey. SETTING:Multinational study in Europe. PARTICIPANTS:Pregnant women or women with children less than 1?year old from European countries and with asthma, allergy, cardiovascular, rheumatic diseases, diabetes, epilepsy and/or inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Differences in scores of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). RESULTS:In total, 1219 women were included (ranging from 736 for allergy to 49 for IBD). Women using medication for their chronic disease (n=770; 63%) had higher scores on the BMQ subscales necessity (16.6 vs 12.1, p<0.001) and benefits (16.2 vs 15.4, p<0.001), and lower values on the subscales overuse (12.5 vs 13.1; p=0.005) and harm (9.8 vs 10.7, p<0.001) than women not using medication. No significant differences were shown for the concerns subscale (12.5 vs 12.3, p=0.484). Beliefs varied somewhat across diseases but in general more positive beliefs among women using medication were shown. Epilepsy was the disease where less differences were observed between women using and not using medication. CONCLUSION:Women's beliefs were associated with medication use during pregnancy with only small differences across the diseases. Knowing pregnant women's beliefs could help identify women who are reluctant to use medication and could guide counselling to support making well-informed treatment decisions.
Project description:Older adults suffering from hypertension form firm medication beliefs through lifetime medication management, which significantly affect their medication adherence and treatment outcomes. Understanding whether the patient-physician communication has the potential to change medication beliefs will help design an effective communication strategy to foster favorable medication beliefs. This study aims to determine whether the patient-physician communication is associated with medication beliefs among older adults with hypertension and controls socio-demographics and clinical characteristics. Further, it examines how the association varies with two different types of medication beliefs (medication overuse and harm) for each domain of communication (informative and interpersonal). A self-administered cross-sectional survey was conducted for members of seven senior centers in a metropolitan area of the United States between August and December of 2013. A total of 211 senior members suffering from hypertension completed the questionnaire, which included the Primary Care Assessment Survey (PCAS) and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The former had two domains of patient-physician communication-informative and interpersonal-while the latter measured medication harm and overuse beliefs. Interpersonal patient-physician communication significantly explained the medication overuse beliefs (? = -0.28, p < 0.05), whereas neither interpersonal nor informative communication significantly explained the medication harm beliefs. Females (? = 1.29, p < 0.01) and participants with higher education (? = 2.66, p = 0.02) more strongly believed that medications are overprescribed. However, participants with low income more strongly believed that medications are harmful. Patient-physician communication, if it touches upon interpersonal aspects, has the potential to change medication overuse beliefs among older adults with hypertension. Identification of the significant factors which affect medication beliefs, will inform the design of a patient-centric communication program that fosters favorable medication beliefs among geriatric hypertensive patients.