Discrimination of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivar Chunpoong and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) using the auxin repressed protein gene.
ABSTRACT: Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Among nine cultivars of P. ginseng, Chunpoong commands a much greater market value and has been planted widely in Korea. Chunpoong has superior quality "Chunsam" (1st grade ginseng) when made into red ginseng.A rapid and reliable method for discriminating the Chunpoong cultivar was developed by exploiting a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the auxin repressed protein gene of nine Korean ginseng cultivars using specific primers.An SNP was detected between Chunpoong and other cultivars, and modified allele-specific primers were designed from this SNP site to specifically identify the Chunpoong cultivar and P. quinquefolius via multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).These results suggest that great impact to prevent authentication of precise Chunpoong and other cultivars using the auxin repressed protein gene. We therefore present an effective method for the authentication of the Chunpoong cultivar of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a well-known medicinal plant of Oriental medicine that is still in practice today. Until now, a total of 11 Korean ginseng cultivars with unique features to Korean ginseng have been developed based on the pure-line-selection method. Among them, a new cultivar namely G-1 with different agricultural traits related to yield and content of ginsenosides, was developed in 2012. METHODS:The aim of this study was to distinguish the new ginseng cultivar G-1 by identifying the unique single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at its 45S ribosomal DNA and Panax quinquefolius region than other Korean ginseng cultivars using multiplex amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). RESULTS:A SNP at position of 45S ribosomal DNA region between G-1, P. quinquefolius, and the other Korean ginseng cultivars was identified. By designing modified allele-specific primers based on this site, we could specifically identified G-1 and P. quinquefolius via multiplex PCR. The unique primer for the SNP yielded an amplicon of size 449 bp in G-1 cultivar and P. quinquefolius. This study presents an effective method for the genetic identification of the G-1 cultivar and P. quinquefolius. CONCLUSION:The results from our study shows that this SNP-based approach to identify the G-1 cultivar will be a good way to distinguish accurately the G-1 cultivar and P. quinquefolius from other Korean ginseng cultivars using a SNP at 45S ribosomal DNA region.
Project description:Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to "Gopoong" and "K-1" were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information.
Project description:Panax ginseng has been cultivated for centuries, and nine commercial cultivars have been registered in Korea. However, these nine elite cultivars are grown in less than 10% of ginseng fields, and there is no clear authentication system for each cultivar even though their values are higher than those of local landraces. Here, we have developed 19 microsatellite markers using expressed gene sequences and established an authentication system for all nine cultivars. Five cultivars, 'Chunpoong', 'Sunpoong', 'Gumpoong', 'Sunun', and 'Sunone', can each be identified by one cultivar-unique allele, gm47n-a, gm47n-c, gm104-a, gm184-a (or gm129-a), and gm175-c, respectively. 'Yunpoong' can be identified by the co-appearance of gm47n-b and gm129-c. 'Sunhyang' can be distinguished from the other eight cultivars by the co-appearance of gm47n-b, gm129-b, and gm175-a. The two other cultivars, 'Gopoong' and 'Cheongsun', can be identified by their specific combinations of five marker alleles. This marker set was successfully utilized to identify the cultivars among 70 ginseng individuals and to select true F1 hybrid plants between two cultivars. We further analyzed the homogeneity of each cultivar and phylogenetic relationships among cultivars using these markers. This marker system will be useful to the seed industry and for breeding of ginseng.
Project description:Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia. Its pharmacological activity comes from ginsenosides, and its roots are produced commercially for traditional and Oriental medicine. Though 17 Panax species are available around the world, there was a need to develop cultivars adapted to different climatic conditions and resistant to various diseases while still producing high-quality, high-yield roots. Thus, 12 and 9 commercial P. ginseng cultivars have been registered in South Korea and China, respectively. Those varieties show superiority to local landraces. For example, Chunpoong is more highly resistant to rusty rot disease than the local Jakyungjong landrace and has a good root shape; it is highly cultivated to produce red ginseng. The Chinese cultivar Jilin Huangguo Renshen has higher ginsenoside content than its local landraces. This review provides information about P. ginseng cultivars and offers directions for future research, such as intra- and interspecific hybridization.
Project description:In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens.
Project description:Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects.
Project description:We report complete sequences of chloroplast (cp) genome and 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA (45S nrDNA) for 11 Panax ginseng cultivars. We have obtained complete sequences of cp and 45S nrDNA, the representative barcoding target sequences for cytoplasm and nuclear genome, respectively, based on low coverage NGS sequence of each cultivar. The cp genomes sizes ranged from 156,241 to 156,425 bp and the major size variation was derived from differences in copy number of tandem repeats in the ycf1 gene and in the intergenic regions of rps16-trnUUG and rpl32-trnUAG. The complete 45S nrDNA unit sequences were 11,091 bp, representing a consensus single transcriptional unit with an intergenic spacer region. Comparative analysis of these sequences as well as those previously reported for three Chinese accessions identified very rare but unique polymorphism in the cp genome within P. ginseng cultivars. There were 12 intra-species polymorphisms (six SNPs and six InDels) among 14 cultivars. We also identified five SNPs from 45S nrDNA of 11 Korean ginseng cultivars. From the 17 unique informative polymorphic sites, we developed six reliable markers for analysis of ginseng diversity and cultivar authentication.
Project description:Background:The mixed-cultivation of different Panax ginseng cultivars can cause adverse effects on stability of yield and quality. K-1 is a superior cultivar with good root shape and stronger disease resistance. DNA markers mined from functional genes are clearly desirable for K-1, as they may associate with major traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection to maintain the high quality of Korean ginseng. Methods:Five genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of P. ginseng were amplified and compared for polymorphism mining. Primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of PR5 protein were analyzed by ExPASy-ProtParam, PSSpred, and I-TASSER methods, respectively. A coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based specific primer was designed for K-1 by introducing a destabilizing mismatch within the 3' end. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time allele-specific PCR assays were conducted for molecular discrimination of K-1 from other cultivars and landraces. Results:A coding SNP leading to the modification of amino acid residue from aspartic acid to asparagine was exploited in PR5 gene of K-1 cultivar. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the modification of amino acid residue changed the secondary and tertiary structures of the PR5 protein. Primer KSR was designed for specific discrimination of K-1 from other ginseng cultivars and landraces. The developed real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled easier automation and accurate genotyping of K-1 from a large number of ginseng samples. Conclusion:The SNP marker and the developed real-time allele-specific PCR assay will be useful not only for marker-assisted selection of K-1 cultivar but also for quality control in breeding and seed programs of P. ginseng.
Project description:Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a traditional medicinal herb that produces bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. Here, we investigated the diversity of ginsenosides and related genes among five genetically fixed inbred ginseng cultivars (Chunpoong [CP], Cheongsun [CS], Gopoong [GO], Sunhyang [SH], and Sunun [SU]). To focus on the genetic diversity related to ginsenoside biosynthesis, we utilized in vitro cultured adventitious roots from the five cultivars grown under controlled environmental conditions. PCA loading plots based on secondary metabolite composition classified the five cultivars into three groups. We selected three cultivars (CS, SH, and SU) to represent the three groups and conducted further transcriptome and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses to identify genes and intermediates corresponding to the variation in ginsenosides among cultivars. We quantified ginsenoside contents from the three cultivars. SH had more than 12 times the total ginsenoside content of CS, with especially large differences in the levels of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides. The expression levels of genes encoding squalene epoxidase (SQE) and dammarenediol synthase (DDS) were also significantly lower in CS than SH and SU, which is consistent with the low levels of ginsenoside produced in this cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment increased the levels of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides up to 4-, 13-, and 31-fold in SH, SU, and CS, respectively. MeJA treatment also greatly increased the quantity of major intermediates and the expression of the underlying genes in the ginsenoside biosynthesis pathway; these intermediates included squalene, 2,3-oxidosqualene, and dammarenediol II, especially in CS, which had the lowest ginsenoside content under normal culture conditions. We conclude that SQE and DDS are the most important genetic factors for ginsenoside biosynthesis with diversity among ginseng cultivars.
Project description:In order to develop a novel system for the discrimination of five ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng Meyer), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays with real-time polymerase chain reaction were conducted. Nucleotide substitution in gDNA library clones of P. ginseng cv. Yunpoong was targeted for the SNP genotyping assay. From these SNP sites, a set of modified SNP specific fluorescence probes (PGP74, PGP110, and PGP130) and novel primer sets have been developed to distinguish among five ginseng cultivars. The combination of the SNP type of the five cultivars, Chungpoong, Yunpoong, Gopoong, Kumpoong, and Sunpoong, was identified as 'ATA', 'GCC', 'GTA', 'GCA', and 'ACC', respectively. This study represents the first report of the identification of ginseng cultivars by fluorescence probes. An SNP genotyping assay using fluorescence probes could prove useful for the identification of ginseng cultivars and ginseng seed management systems and guarantee the purity of ginseng seed.