Raman gas self-organizing into deep nano-trap lattice.
ABSTRACT: Trapping or cooling molecules has rallied a long-standing effort for its impact in exploring new frontiers in physics and in finding new phase of matter for quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate a system for light-trapping molecules and stimulated Raman scattering based on optically self-nanostructured molecular hydrogen in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. A lattice is formed by a periodic and ultra-deep potential caused by a spatially modulated Raman saturation, where Raman-active molecules are strongly localized in a one-dimensional array of nanometre-wide sections. Only these trapped molecules participate in stimulated Raman scattering, generating high-power forward and backward Stokes continuous-wave laser radiation in the Lamb-Dicke regime with sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth as low as ?14?kHz, more than five orders of magnitude narrower than conventional-Raman pressure-broadened linewidth, and sidebands comprising Mollow triplet, motional sidebands and four-wave mixing.
Project description:Raman sensing and microscopy are among the most specific optical technologies to identify the chemical compounds of unknown samples, and to enable label-free biomedical imaging. Here we present a method for stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and imaging with a time-encoded (TICO) Raman concept. We use continuous wave, rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and combine them with a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser. Hence, we achieve high stimulated Raman gain signal levels, while still benefitting from the narrow linewidth and low noise of continuous wave operation. Our all-fibre TICO-Raman setup uses a Fourier domain mode-locked laser source to achieve a unique combination of high speed, broad spectral coverage (750-3,150?cm(-1)) and high resolution (0.5?cm(-1)). The Raman information is directly encoded and acquired in time. We demonstrate quantitative chemical analysis of a solvent mixture and hyperspectral Raman microscopy with molecular contrast of plant cells.
Project description:Optical manipulation and label-free characterization of nanoscale structures open up new possibilities for assembly and control of nanodevices and biomolecules. Optical tweezers integrated with Raman spectroscopy allows analyzing a single trapped particle, but is generally less effective for individual nanoparticles. The main challenge is the weak gradient force on nanoparticles that is insufficient to overcome the destabilizing effect of scattering force and Brownian motion. Here, we present standing-wave Raman tweezers for stable trapping and sensitive characterization of single isolated nanostructures with a low laser power by combining a standing-wave optical trap with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This scheme has stronger intensity gradients and balanced scattering forces, and thus can be used to analyze many nanoparticles that cannot be measured with single-beam Raman tweezers, including individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), graphene flakes, biological particles, SERS-active metal nanoparticles, and high-refractive semiconductor nanoparticles. This would enable sorting and characterization of specific SWCNTs and other nanoparticles based on their increased Raman fingerprints.
Project description:We investigate the possibility of tailoring coherent Raman generated spectra via adaptive wavefront optimization. Our technique combines a spatial light modulator and a spectrometer providing a feedback loop. The algorithm is capable of controlling the Raman generation, producing broader spectra and an improved overall efficiency, and increasing the intensity of high-order sidebands. Moreover, by wavefront optimization we can extend the generated spectra towards the blue spectral region and increase the total power of generated sidebands. Mutual coherence and equal frequency separation of the multiple Raman sidebands are of interest for the synthesis of ultrashort light pulses with the total spectral bandwidth extending over ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths.
Project description:Quantum weak measurements, wavepacket shifts and optical vortices are universal wave phenomena, which originate from fine interference of multiple plane waves. These effects have attracted considerable attention in both classical and quantum wave systems. Here we report on a phenomenon that brings together all the above topics in a simple one-dimensional scalar wave system. We consider inelastic scattering of Gaussian wave packets with parameters close to a zero of the complex scattering coefficient. We demonstrate that the scattered wave packets experience anomalously large time and frequency shifts in such near-zero scattering. These shifts reveal close analogies with the Goos-Hänchen beam shifts and quantum weak measurements of the momentum in a vortex wavefunction. We verify our general theory by an optical experiment using the near-zero transmission (near-critical coupling) of Gaussian pulses propagating through a nano-fibre with a side-coupled toroidal micro-resonator. Measurements demonstrate the amplification of the time delays from the typical inverse-resonator-linewidth scale to the pulse-duration scale.
Project description:Strategies for in-liquid molecular detection via Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) are currently based on chemically-driven aggregation or optical trapping of metal nanoparticles in presence of the target molecules. Such strategies allow the formation of SERS-active clusters that efficiently embed the molecule at the "hot spots" of the nanoparticles and enhance its Raman scattering by orders of magnitude. Here we report on a novel scheme that exploits the radiation pressure to locally push gold nanorods and induce their aggregation in buffered solutions of biomolecules, achieving biomolecular SERS detection at almost neutral pH. The sensor is applied to detect non-resonant amino acids and proteins, namely Phenylalanine (Phe), Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Lysozyme (Lys), reaching detection limits in the μg/mL range. Being a chemical free and contactless technique, our methodology is easy to implement, fast to operate, needs small sample volumes and has potential for integration in microfluidic circuits for biomarkers detection.
Project description:Hybrid quantum systems integrating semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and atomic vapours become important building blocks for scalable quantum networks due to the complementary strengths of individual parts. QDs provide on-demand single-photon emission with near-unity indistinguishability comprising unprecedented brightness-while atomic vapour systems provide ultra-precise frequency standards and promise long coherence times for the storage of qubits. Spectral filtering is one of the key components for the successful link between QD photons and atoms. Here we present a tailored Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter based on the caesium-D1 transition for interfacing it with a resonantly pumped QD. The presented Faraday filter enables a narrow-bandwidth (??=2? × 1?GHz) simultaneous filtering of both Mollow triplet sidebands. This result opens the way to use QDs as sources of single as well as cascaded photons in photonic quantum networks aligned to the primary frequency standard of the caesium clock transition.
Project description:Quantum sensors-qubits sensitive to external fields-have become powerful detectors for various small acoustic and electromagnetic fields. A major key to their success have been dynamical decoupling protocols which enhance sensitivity to weak oscillating (AC) signals. Currently, those methods are limited to signal frequencies below a few MHz. Here we harness a quantum-optical effect, the Mollow triplet splitting of a strongly driven two-level system, to overcome this limitation. We microscopically understand this effect as a pulsed dynamical decoupling protocol and find that it enables sensitive detection of fields close to the driven transition. Employing a nitrogen-vacancy center, we detect GHz microwave fields with a signal strength (Rabi frequency) below the current detection limit, which is set by the center's spectral linewidth [Formula: see text]. Pushing detection sensitivity to the much lower 1/T 2 limit, this scheme could enable various applications, most prominently coherent coupling to single phonons and microwave photons.Dynamical decoupling protocols can enhance the sensitivity of quantum sensors but this is limited to signal frequencies below a few MHz. Here, Joas et al. use the Mollow triplet splitting in a nitrogen-vacancy centre to overcome this limitation, enabling sensitive detection of signals in the GHz range.
Project description:We demonstrate that optical trapping of multiple silver nanoparticles is strongly influenced by plasmonic coupling of the nanoparticles. Employing dark-field Rayleigh scattering imaging and spectroscopy on multiple silver nanoparticles optically trapped in three dimensions, we experimentally investigate the time-evolution of the coupled plasmon resonance and its influence on the trapping stability. With time the coupling strengthens, which is observed as a gradual red shift of the coupled plasmon scattering. When the coupled plasmon becomes resonant with the trapping laser wavelength, the trap is destabilized and nanoparticles are released from the trap. Modeling of the trapping potential and its comparison to the plasmonic heating efficiency at various nanoparticle separation distances suggests a thermal mechanism of the trap destabilization. Our findings provide insight into the specificity of three-dimensional optical manipulation of plasmonic nanostructures suitable for field enhancement, for example for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Project description:5d pyrochlore oxides with all-in-all-out magnetic order are prime candidates for realizing strongly correlated, topological phases of matter. Despite significant effort, a full understanding of all-in-all-out magnetism remains elusive as the associated magnetic excitations have proven difficult to access with conventional techniques. Here we report a Raman spectroscopy study of spin dynamics in the all-in-all-out magnetic state of the 5d pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7. Through a comparison between the two-magnon scattering and spin-wave theory, we confirm the large single ion anisotropy in this material and show that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya and exchange interactions play a significant role in the spin-wave dispersions. The Raman data also reveal complex spin-charge-lattice coupling and indicate that the metal-insulator transition in Cd2Os2O7 is Lifshitz-type. Our work establishes Raman scattering as a simple and powerful method for exploring the spin dynamics in 5d pyrochlore magnets.Pyrochlore 5d transition metal oxides are expected to have interesting forms of magnetic order but are hard to study with conventional probes. Here the authors show that Raman scattering can be used to measure magnetic excitations in Cd2Os2O7 and that it exhibits complex spin-charge-lattice coupling.
Project description:Spin-wave (magnon) scattering, when clearly observed by Raman spectroscopy, can be simple and powerful for studying magnetic phase transitions. In this paper, we present how to observe magnon scattering clearly by Raman spectroscopy, then apply the Raman method to study spin-ordering and spin-reorientation transitions of hexagonal manganite single crystal and thin films and compare directly with the results of magnetization measurements. Our results show that by choosing strong resonance condition and appropriate polarization configuration, magnon scattering can be clearly observed, and the temperature dependence of magnon scattering can be simple and powerful quantity for investigating spin-ordering as well as spin-reorientation transitions. Especially, the Raman method would be very helpful for investigating the weak spin-reorientation transitions by selectively probing the magnons in the Mn(3+) sublattices, while leaving out the strong effects of paramagnetic moments of the rare earth ions.