REG4 promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through GPR37.
ABSTRACT: Being the major reason of recurrence and death after surgery, peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer dooms the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer patients. Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (REG4) is believed to promote peritoneal metastasis, however, its mechanism is still a moot point at present. In the present study, we show that high expression of REG4 correlates with advanced stage and poor survival prognosis for gastric cancer patients. REG4 overexpression significantly enhances peritoneal metastasis by increasing adhesion ability. Moreover, SP1 is proved to be a transcription factor of REG4 and induce REG4 expression upon TGF-alpha stimulation. Also, G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is identified to be in the same complex of REG4, which mediates REG4's signal transduction and promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer cell. Interestingly, we also discover a positive feedback loop triggered by REG4, amplifying itself through EGFR transactivation, consisting of GPR37, ADAM17, TGF-alpha, EGFR, SP1 and REG4. In conclusion, REG4 promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through GPR37 and triggers a positive feedback loop.
Project description:The mechanisms of pain induction by inflammation have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms of pain resolution are not fully understood. Here, we report that GPR37, expressed by macrophages (M?s) but not microglia, contributes to the resolution of inflammatory pain. Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) and prosaptide TX14 increase intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels in GPR37-transfected HEK293 cells. NPD1 and TX14 also bind to GPR37 and cause GPR37-dependent iCa2+ increases in peritoneal M?s. Activation of GPR37 by NPD1 and TX14 triggers M? phagocytosis of zymosan particles via calcium signaling. Hind paw injection of pH-sensitive zymosan particles not only induces inflammatory pain and infiltration of neutrophils and M?s, but also causes GPR37 upregulation in M?s, phagocytosis of zymosan particles and neutrophils by M?s in inflamed paws, and resolution of inflammatory pain in WT mice. Mice lacking Gpr37 display deficits in M? phagocytic activity and delayed resolution of inflammatory pain. Gpr37-deficient M?s also show dysregulations of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. M? depletion delays the resolution of inflammatory pain. Adoptive transfer of WT but not Gpr37-deficient M?s promotes the resolution of inflammatory pain. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of GPR37 in regulating M? phagocytosis and inflammatory pain resolution.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that overexpression of regenerating gene family member 4 (REG4) is associated with the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In our study, we explored the role of REG4 in the invasion of pancreatic cancer. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine REG4 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines. An MTT assay was carried out to test the effect of REG4 on the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The involvement of REG4 in cancer cell invasion was examined by Transwell invasion assay. Two MMPs, MMP-7 and MMP-9, were identified from a pool of candidate genes as being related to REG4-induced cell invasion by PCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the correlation between REG4 and the two MMPs. High expression of REG4 was found in BXPC-3 cells and its culture media. But in PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cell lines, REG4 expression levels were very low, and no detectable protein was found in the culture medium. The MTT and Transwell invasion assays showed that recombinant REG4 protein and BXPC-3 conditioned media significantly promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. It was also shown that MMP-7 and MMP-9 are upregulated by REG4 induction using real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemical study further verified this result. In conclusion, REG4 promotes not only growth but also in vitro invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the world's three most common cancers and its incidence is rising. To identify patients who benefit from adjuvant therapy requires novel biomarkers. The regenerating islet-derived gene (REG) 4 belongs to a group of small secretory proteins involved in cell proliferation and regeneration. Its up-regulated expression occurs in inflammatory bowel diseases also in gastrointestinal cancers. Reports on the association of REG4 expression with CRC prognosis have been mixed. Our aim was to investigate tumor REG4 expression in CRC patients and its coexpression with other intestinal markers.<h4>Methods</h4>Tumor expression of REG4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 840 consecutive surgically treated CRC patients at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, synapthophysin, and chromogranin was evaluated in a subgroup of 220 consecutively operated CRC patients. REG4 expression with clinicopathological parameters, other intestinal markers, and the impact of REG4 expression on survival were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>REG4 expression associated with favorable clinicopathological parameters and with higher overall survival from non-mucinous CRC (p?=?0.019). For such patients under 65, its expression was an independent marker of lower risk of death within 5 years that cancer; univariable hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.34-0.94); multivariable HR?=?0.55; 95% CI (0.33-0.92). In non-mucinous CRC, REG4 associated with positive MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC expression.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that REG4 IHC expression to be an independent marker of favorable prognosis in non-mucinous CRC. Our results contradict those from studies based on quantification of REG4 mRNA levels, a discrepancy warranting further studies.
Project description:GATA6 is a zinc finger transcription factor that is required for the proliferation, development and specific gene regulation in the gastrointestinal tract. We have recently reported that GATA6-mediated induction of the intestinal stem cell marker LGR5 is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. However, knockdown of LGR5, unlike GATA6, does not affect the proliferation of these cells under adherent conditions. Here we show that REG4, a member of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) family, is a target of GATA6. We further demonstrate that REG4 is downregulated by overexpression of miR-363, which suppresses GATA6 expression. Moreover, we show that GATA6-mediated activation of REG4 causes an acceleration of the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions. These results suggest that GATA6 simultaneously activates the transcription of genes required for growth (REG4) and clonogenicity (LGR5), and the miR-363-GATA6-REG4/LGR5 pathway is critical for colorectal tumorigenesis. HT29 cells were transfected with a siRNA targeting REG4.
Project description:The transcription factor GATA6 is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and development in the gastrointestinal tract. We have recently reported that GATA6 induces the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker LGR5 and enhances the clonogenicity and tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells, but not the growth of these cells cultured under adherent conditions. Here we show that REG4, a member of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) family, is also a target of GATA6. We further demonstrate that REG4 is downregulated by overexpression of miR-363, which suppresses GATA6 expression. Moreover, we show that GATA6-mediated activation of REG4 enhances the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions and is required for their tumorigenicity. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GATA6 simultaneously induces the expression of genes essential for the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions (REG4) and genes required for their clonogenicity (LGR5), and that the miR-363-GATA6-REG4/LGR5 signaling cascade promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells.
Project description:Upregulation of regenerating gene 4 (Reg4) is observed in many human gastrointestinal malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported a Reg4-mediated induction of epidermal growth factor receptor-Akt-AP1 signaling regulating CRC cell apoptosis. However, the role of Reg4 in the regulation of CRC cell division is poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that Reg4 induces Akt-GSK3?-?-Catenin-TCF-4 signaling to regulate CRC cell division. In vitro models of human CRC were used to determine the role of Reg4 in regulation of CRC cell division. Cell cycle studies demonstrated that Reg4 treatment significantly decreased CRC cell number in G1 phase and increased in G2 phase. Subsequently Reg4 significantly increased the mitotic index of CRC cells. As assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, Reg4 significantly increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes Cyclin D1 and D3, and associated Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6). Reg4-mediated increase in these genes involved a pathway that included an induced Akt activity by increasing phosphorylation of Thr308 and Ser473, a reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) activity by increasing phosphorylation of Ser9, an induced nuclear translocation of ?-Catenin by decreasing phosphorylation of Ser33/37/Thr41, and an increased TCF-4 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, antagonism of Reg4-signaling using Reg4-specific mAbs (2H6 and 3E5) and Akt inhibitor significantly decreased, whereas agonism using GSK-3? antagonist (SB216763) significantly increased mitotic index and proliferation of CRC cells. These results identify Reg4 as a key regulator of the CRC cell division and proliferation, hence a potential target of human CRC treatment.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>?-Synuclein has been studied as a potential biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD) with no concluding results. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to find out reliable specific biomarkers for PD. GPR37 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that toxically accumulates in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Here, we investigated whether GPR37 is upregulated in sporadic PD, and thus a suitable potential biomarker for PD.<h4>Methods</h4>GPR37 protein density and mRNA expression in postmortem substantia nigra (SN) from PD patients were analysed by immunoblot and RT-qPCR, respectively. The presence of peptides from the N-terminus-cleaved domain of GPR37 (i.e. ecto-GPR37) in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. An engineered in-house nanoluciferase-based immunoassay was used to quantify ecto-GPR37 in CSF samples from neurological control (NC) subjects, PD patients and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.<h4>Results</h4>GPR37 protein density and mRNA expression were significantly augmented in sporadic PD. Increased amounts of ecto-GPR37 peptides in the CSF samples from PD patients were identified by mass spectrometry and quantified by the in-house ELISA method. However, the CSF total ?-synuclein level in PD patients did not differ from that in NC subjects. Similarly, the cortical GPR37 mRNA expression and CSF ecto-GPR37 levels in AD patients were also unaltered.<h4>Conclusion</h4>GPR37 expression is increased in SN of sporadic PD patients. The ecto-GPR37 peptides are significantly increased in the CSF of PD patients, but not in AD patients. These results open perspectives and encourage further clinical studies to confirm the validity and utility of ecto-GPR37 as a potential PD biomarker.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignancies, and radiochemotherapy (RCT) followed by surgery is the recommended approach for CRC treatment. However, some cases do not respond to first-line conventional chemotherapy or even progress further after treatment. Moreover, there is a risk of severe side effects, such as radiodermatitis. Therefore, identifying predictors for RCT sensitivity is an essential step toward predicting and eventually overcoming resistance.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We used integrative bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation to show that regenerating family member 4 (<i>REG4</i>) may be a potential biomarker for RCT sensitivity in CRC.<h4>Results</h4><i>REG4</i>, whose expression is upregulated in some CRC tissues and downregulated in RCT-sensitive CRC cells, was identified as a potential genetic marker for RCT sensitivity in CRC. Immunohistochemistry-based tissue microarray of human CRC was used to experimentally validate <i>REG4</i> data obtained from the bioinformatics analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Collectively, these results indicate that <i>REG4</i> may be a potential biomarker for RCT sensitivity in CRC.
Project description:The regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (Reg4) in the gastrointestinal tract is up-regulated during intestinal inflammation. However, the physiological function of Reg4 in the inflammation is largely unknown. In the current study, the functional roles and involved mechanisms of intestinal epithelial Reg4 in intestinal inflammation were studied in healthy and inflamed states using human intestinal specimens, an intestinal conditional Reg4 knockout mouse (Reg4<sup>?IEC</sup>) model and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. We showed that the elevated serum Reg4 in pediatric intestinal failure (IF) patients were positively correlated with the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In inflamed intestine of IF patients, the crypt base Reg4 protein was increased and highly expressed towards the luminal face. The Reg4 was indicated as a novel target of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) that enhanced Reg4 expression during the intestinal inflammation. In vivo, the DSS-induced colitis was significantly ameliorated in Reg4<sup>?IEC</sup> mice. Reg4<sup>?IEC</sup> mice altered the colonic bacterial composition and reduced the bacteria adhere to the colonic epithelium. In vitro, Reg4 was showed to promote the growth of colonic organoids, and that this occurs through a mechanism involving activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In conclusion, our findings demonstrated intestinal-epithelial Reg4 deficiency protects against experimental colitis and mucosal injury via a mechanism involving alteration of bacterial homeostasis and STAT3 activation.
Project description:Despite the progress in deorphanization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), ?100 GPCRs are still classified as orphan receptors without identified endogenous ligands and with unknown physiological functions. The lack of endogenous ligands triggering GPCR signaling has hampered the study of orphan GPCR functions. Using GPR37 as an example, we provide here the first demonstration of the channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-GPCR approach to bypass the endogenous ligand and selectively activate the orphan GPCR signal by optogenetics. Inspired by the opto-XR approach, we designed the ChR2-GPR37 chimera, in which the corresponding parts of GPR37 replaced the intracellular portions of ChR2. We showed that optogenetic activation of ChR2/opto-GPR37 elicited specific GPR37 signaling, as evidenced by reduced cAMP level, enhanced ERK phosphorylation and increased motor activity, confirming the specificity of opto-GPR37 signaling. Besides, optogenetic activation of opto-GPR37 uncovered novel aspects of GPR37 signaling (such as IP-3 signaling) and anxiety-related behavior. Optogenetic activation of opto-GPR37 permits the causal analysis of GPR37 activity in the defined cells and behavioral responses of freely moving animals. Importantly, given the evolutionarily conserved seven-helix transmembrane structures of ChR2 and orphan GPCRs, we propose that opto-GPR37 approach can be readily applied to other orphan GPCRs for their deorphanization in freely moving animals.