Test-Retest Variability of Functional and Structural Parameters in Patients with Stargardt Disease Participating in the SAR422459 Gene Therapy Trial.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The goal of this analysis was to determine the test-retest variability of functional and structural measures from a cohort of patients with advanced forms of Stargardt Disease (STGD) participating in the SAR422459 (NCT01367444) gene therapy clinical trial. METHODS:Twenty-two participants, aged 24 to 66, diagnosed with advanced forms of STGD, with at least one pathogenic ABCA4 mutation on each chromosome participating in the SAR422459 (NCT01367444) gene therapy clinical trial, were screened over three visits within 3 weeks or less. Functional visual evaluations included: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letter score, semiautomated kinetic perimetry (SKP) using isopters I4e, III4e, and V4e, hill of vision (HOV) calculated from static visual fields (SVF) by using a 184n point centrally condensed grid with the stimulus size V test target. Retinal structural changes such as central macular thickness and macular volume were assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Repeatability coefficients (RC) and 95% confidential intervals (CI) were calculated for each parameter using a hierarchical mixed-effects model and bootstrapping. RESULTS:Criteria for statistically significant changes for various parameters were found to be the following: BCVA letter score (8 letters), SKP isopters I4e, III4e, and V4e (3478.85; 2488.02 and 2622.46 deg2, respectively), SVF full volume HOV (VTOT, 14.62 dB-sr), central macular thickness, and macular volume (4.27 ?m and 0.15 mm3, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:This analysis provides important information necessary to determine if significant changes are occurring in structural and functional assessments commonly used to measure disease progression in this cohort of patients with STGD. Moreover, this information is useful for future trials assessing safety and efficacy of treatments in STGD. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE:Determination of variability of functional and structural measures in participants with advanced stages of the STGD is necessary to assess efficacy and safety in treatment trials involving STGD patients.
Project description:The aim of the study is to evaluate the progression of visual field (VF) defects over 16 years of observation and to assess abnormalities in vessels and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with optic disc drusen (ODD). Both static automated perimetry (SAP) and semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) were performed in 16 eyes of 8 patients (mean age 54 years) with ODD among 26 eyes of 13 patients examined 16 years before. The area of I2e, I4e, III4e, and V4e isopters was measured in deg2. The MD and PSD parameters were estimated using SAP. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) was additionally performed in 16 ODD eyes and 16 eyes of 8 healthy subjects to estimate the RNFL thickness and vessel density of the optic nerve disc and the macula. The differences in all isopter areas of SKP and SAP parameters after 16 years were not significant. The analysis of OCT-A showed a significant reduction of the vessel density and RNFL of the peripapillary area in each segment in patients with ODD, compared with the control group. The highest reduction of RNFL was observed in the superior segment of the optic disc area (92.56?m vs 126.63?m) also the macular thickness was decreased in ODD patients, compared with the control group. In the macula, there was a significant vascular defect in the whole superficial layer and in the parafoveal deep layer. A strong significant correlation of the parafoveal deep plexus with MD and PSD parameters was detected. In conclusion, VF loss due to ODD after 16 years of the follow-up was not significant both in SKP and SAP. ODD caused a reduced vessel density and RNFL, as well as macular thickness in OCT-A. SAP parameters were influenced by parafoveal deep plexus.
Project description:To evaluate the disease extent on ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence (UWF-FAF) in patients with ABCA4 Stargardt disease (STGD) and correlate these data with functional outcome measures.Retrospective cross-sectional study.Setting: Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan.Sixty-five patients with clinical diagnosis and proven pathogenic variants in the ABCA4 gene. Observational Procedures: The UWF-FAF images were obtained using Optos (200 degrees) and classified into 3 types. Functional testing included kinetic widefield perimetry, full-field electroretinogram (ffERG), and visual acuity (VA). All results were evaluated with respect to UWF-FAF classification.Classification of UWF-FAF; area comprising the I4e, III4e, and IV4e isopters; ffERG patterns; and VA.For UWF-FAF, 27 subjects (41.5%) were classified as type I, 17 (26.2%) as type II, and 21 (32.4%) as type III. The area of each isopter correlated inversely with the extent of the disease and all isopters were able to detect differences among UWF-FAF types (IV4e, P = .0013; III4e, P = .0003; I4e, P < .0001 = 3.93e-8). ffERG patterns and VA were also different among the 3 UWF-FAF types (P < .001 = 6.61e-6 and P < .001 = 7.3e-5, respectively).Patients with widespread disease presented with more constriction of peripheral visual fields and had more dysfunction on ffERG and worse VA compared to patients with disease confined to the macula. UWF-FAF images may provide information for estimating peripheral and central visual function in STGD.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings. METHODS:Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900) using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF) filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants. The visual acuity, pupil diameter, isopter area, and kinetic sensitivity of each meridian were analyzed for each WOF density. RESULTS:Visual acuity deteriorated with increasing WOF densities (p < 0.01). With a visual acuity of 0.1 LogMAR units, the isopter areas for III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e decreased by -32.7 degree2 (-0.2%), -255.7 degree2 (-2.6%), -381.2 degree2 (-6.2%), -314.8 degree2 (-12.8%), and -59.2 degree2 (-15.2%), respectively; kinetic sensitivity for those stimuli decreased by -0.1 degree (-0.1%), -0.8 degree (-1.4%), -1.6 degree (-3.7%), -2.7 degree (-9.7%), and -1.7 degree (-16.2%), respectively. The pupil diameter with each WOF density was not significantly different. CONCLUSION:Kinetic perimetry measurements with a high-intensity stimulus (i.e., III4e) were unaffected by intraocular stray light. In contrast, measurements with the I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e stimuli, especially I2e and I1e, were affected. Changes in the shape of the isopter resulting from opacity must be monitored, especially in cases of smaller and lower-intensity stimuli.
Project description:PURPOSE:A small-scale randomized controlled trial conducted by our group found that four of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) subjects who received six weekly Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation (TES) sessions developed significant improvements in visual acuity (VA), quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF), and/or Goldmann visual fields (GVF). We longitudinally monitored three of these participants for declining visual function due to natural RP progression to determine the duration of their responses and administered retreatments. METHODS:Over a period of 29-35 months, repeated ETDRS VA, qCSF and/or GVF tests and three to six TES treatment courses consisting of six weekly sessions were administered in each eye of three RP participants every four to 16 months in an unmasked, prospective case series study. RESULTS:For two participants, there were significant VA improvements of 44-52 letters (0.88-1.04 logMAR) and 15-23 letters (0.3-0.46 logMAR) in the worse eye at baseline after each of three or four treatment courses of TES compared to initial baseline. They had no significant decreases from baseline for VA or qCSF over 29 to 35 months, The third participant had a significant mean improvement in VA in the eye with better baseline vision (p =?0.004) and binocularly (p <?0.001) following six treatment courses over the 29-month period. For the first two participants, mean annual rates of GVF change for each eye ranged from -5% to 0% with the V4e stimulus, and -26% to +33% the III4e stimulus. The third participant's mean annual GVF changes were +14 to +35%, with a statistically significant improvement across 29 months for both the V4e and III4e stimuli in the right eye (p =?0.045; p =?0.015) and the V4e stimulus in the left eye (p =?0.047). CONCLUSION:Following encouraging visual improvements after TES that lasted for several months, it appears it may be possible to restore and prevent slowly diminishing vision over time with retreatments, which requires confirmation in a large-scale randomized controlled trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To identify different choroidal patterns in Stargardt disease (STGD) and to assess their clinical correlates. METHODS:100 STGD eyes (29 males; mean age 42.6 ± 16.5 years) and 100 control eyes (29 males; mean age 43.2 ± 8.5 years) were included. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) images were obtained. Four different choroidal patterns, quantitative OCT and OCTA parameters were assessed and statistically analyzed. The main outcome was the correlation between each choroidal pattern and anatomical and functional retinal status. Furthermore, we assessed structural and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) changes of each STGD subgroup after one-year. RESULTS:Mean BCVA was 0.63 ± 0.44 LogMAR for STGD patients and 0.0 ± 0.0 LogMAR for controls (p < 0.01). All quantitative parameters appeared deteriorated in STGD compared to controls (p < 0.01). Choroidal patterns were distributed as follows: Pattern 1 (normal appearing choroid) (15%), Pattern 2 (reduced Sattler or Haller layer) (29%), Pattern 3 (reduced Sattler and Haller layers) (26%), Pattern 4 (Pattern 3 + choroidal caverns) (30%). More advanced patterns significantly correlated with a more severe loss of retinal structural integrity. Furthermore, only Pattern 3 and Pattern 4 showed remarkable signs of progression after one year. CONCLUSIONS:Choroidal patterns were related with retinal structural status and BCVA loss, and with different disease progression.
Project description:Macular degeneration is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by photoreceptor degeneration and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the central retina. An autosomal dominant form of Stargardt macular degeneration (STGD) is caused by mutations in ELOVL4, which is predicted to encode an enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids. We generated transgenic mice expressing a mutant form of human ELOVL4 that causes STGD. In these mice, we show that accumulation by the RPE of undigested phagosomes and lipofuscin, including the fluorophore, 2-[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetraenyl]-1-(2-hyydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6,-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium (A2E) is followed by RPE atrophy. Subsequently, photoreceptor degeneration occurs in the central retina in a pattern closely resembling that of human STGD and age-related macular degeneration. The ELOVL4 transgenic mice thus provide a good model for both STGD and dry age-related macular degeneration, and represent a valuable tool for studies on therapeutic intervention in these forms of blindness.
Project description:Stargardt Disease (STGD) is the commonest genetic form of juvenile or early adult onset macular degeneration, which is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Molecular diagnosis of STGD remains a challenge in a significant proportion of cases. To address this, seven patients from five putative STGD families were recruited. We performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) of the probands and searched for potentially disease-causing genetic variants in previously identified retinal or macular dystrophy genes. Seven disease-causing mutations in ABCA4 and two in PROM1 were identified by CNGS, which provides a confident genetic diagnosis in these five families. We also provided a genetic basis to explain the differences among putative STGD due to various mutations in different genes. Meanwhile, we show for the first time that compound heterozygous mutations in PROM1 gene could cause cone-rod dystrophy. Our findings support the enormous potential of CNGS in putative STGD molecular diagnosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Stargardt disease (STGD) is the most common form of juvenile macular dystrophy associated with progressive central vision loss, and is agenetically and clinically heterogeneous disease. Molecular diagnosis is of great significance in aiding the clinical diagnosis, helping to determine the phenotypic severity and visual prognosis. In the present study, we determined the clinical and genetic features of seven childhood-onset and three adult-onset Chinese STGD families. We performed capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the probands and searched for potentially disease-causing genetic variants in previously identified retinal or macular dystrophy genes.<h4>Methods</h4>In all, ten unrelated Chinese families were enrolled. Panel-based NGS was performed to identify potentially disease-causing genetic variants in previously identified retinal or macular dystrophy genes, including the five known STGD genes (ABCA4, PROM1, PRPH2, VMD2, and ELOVL4). Variant analysis, Sanger validation, and segregation tests were utilized to validate the disease-causing mutations in these families.<h4>Results</h4>Using systematic data analysis with an established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, 17 pathogenic mutations in ABCA4 were identified in the 10 STGD families. Four of these mutations were novel: c.371delG, c.681T > G, c.5509C > T, and EX37del. Childhood-onset STGD was associated with severe visual loss, generalized retinal dysfunction and was due to more severe variants in ABCA4 than those found in adult-onset disease.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We expand the existing spectrum of STGD and reveal the genotype-phenotype relationships of the ABCA4 mutations in Chinese patients. Childhood-onset STGD lies at the severe end of the spectrum of ABCA4-associated retinal phenotypes.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients with childhood-onset Stargardt disease (STGD). DESIGN:Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS:Forty-two patients who were diagnosed with STGD in childhood at a single institution between January 2001 and January 2012. METHODS:A detailed history and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination were undertaken, including color fundus photography, autofluorescence imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and pattern and full-field electroretinograms. The entire coding region and splice sites of ABCA4 were screened using a next-generation, sequencing-based strategy. The molecular genetic findings of childhood-onset STGD patients were compared with those of adult-onset patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Clinical, imaging, electrophysiologic, and molecular genetic findings. RESULTS:The median ages of onset and the median age at baseline examination were 8.5 (range, 3-16) and 12.0 years (range, 7-16), respectively. The median baseline logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was 0.74. At baseline, 26 of 39 patients (67%) with available photographs had macular atrophy with macular/peripheral flecks; 11 (28%) had macular atrophy without flecks; 1 (2.5%) had numerous flecks without macular atrophy; and 1 (2.5%) had a normal fundus appearance. Flecks were not identified at baseline in 12 patients (31%). SD-OCT detected foveal outer retinal disruption in all 21 patients with available images. Electrophysiologic assessment demonstrated retinal dysfunction confined to the macula in 9 patients (36%), macular and generalized cone dysfunction in 1 subject (4%), and macular and generalized cone and rod dysfunction in 15 individuals (60%). At least 1 disease-causing ABCA4 variant was identified in 38 patients (90%), including 13 novel variants; ?2 variants were identified in 34 patients (81%). Patients with childhood-onset STGD more frequently harbored 2 deleterious variants (18% vs 5%) compared with patients with adult-onset STGD. CONCLUSIONS:Childhood-onset STGD is associated with severe visual loss, early morphologic changes, and often generalized retinal dysfunction, despite often having less severe fundus abnormalities on examination. One third of children do not have flecks at presentation. The relatively high proportion of deleterious ABCA4 variants supports the hypothesis that earlier onset disease is often owing to more severe variants in ABCA4 than those found in adult-onset disease.
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the precision of visual fields (VFs) from semiautomated kinetic perimetry (SKP) on Octopus 900 perimeters, for children and adults with inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs). Goldmann manual kinetic perimetry has long been used in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients, but SKP is becoming increasingly common. Octopus VFs (OVFs) and Goldmann VFs (GVFs) were both mapped on two occasions. Methods:Nineteen females and 10 males with IRDs were tested on OVFs and GVFs, with two targets per test (V4e and one smaller target). Tests were performed in the same (randomized) order at two visits about 1 week apart. The VFs were digitized to derive isopter solid angles. Comparisons, within and between visits, were performed with paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Results:Median age was 20 years (range, 7-70; 10 participants aged ?17 years old). There were no significant differences in solid angles between OVFs and GVFs (P ? 0.06) or between the two visits' solid angles on either perimeter (P ? 0.30). Between-visit test-retest variability for GVFs and OVFs was similar (P ? 0.73), with median values of approximately 9% to 13%. Overall variability was lower for children than adults (medians of 7.5% and 12.8%, respectively). Conclusions:Octopus SKP and Goldmann perimetry produced VFs of similar size and variability. Translational Relevance:Our study indicates that SKP provides a viable alternative to traditional Goldmann perimetry in clinical trials or care involving both children and adults with IRDs.