Partial In Vitro Reconstitution of an Orphan Polyketide Synthase Associated with Clinical Cases of Nocardiosis.
ABSTRACT: Although a few well-characterized polyketide synthases (PKSs) have been functionally reconstituted in vitro from purified protein components, the use of this strategy to decode "orphan" assembly line PKSs has not been described. To begin investigating a PKS found only in Nocardia strains associated with clinical cases of nocardiosis, we reconstituted in vitro its five terminal catalytic modules. In the presence of octanoyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, NADPH, and S-adenosyl methionine, this pentamodular PKS system yielded unprecedented octaketide and heptaketide products whose structures were partially elucidated using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The PKS has several notable features, including a "split, stuttering" module and a terminal reductive release mechanism. Our findings pave the way for further analysis of this unusual biosynthetic gene cluster whose natural product may enhance the infectivity of its producer strains in human hosts.
Project description:The mechanistic details of many polyketide synthases (PKSs) remain elusive due to the instability of transient intermediates that are not accessible via conventional methods. Here we report an atom replacement strategy that enables the rapid preparation of polyketone surrogates by selective atom replacement, thereby providing key substrate mimetics for detailed mechanistic evaluations. Polyketone mimetics are positioned on the actinorhodin acyl carrier protein (actACP) to probe the underpinnings of substrate association upon nascent chain elongation and processivity. Protein NMR is used to visualize substrate interaction with the actACP, where a tetraketide substrate is shown not to bind within the protein, while heptaketide and octaketide substrates show strong association between helix II and IV. To examine the later cyclization stages, we extended this strategy to prepare stabilized cyclic intermediates and evaluate their binding by the actACP. Elongated monocyclic mimics show much longer residence time within actACP than shortened analogs. Taken together, these observations suggest ACP-substrate association occurs both before and after ketoreductase action upon the fully elongated polyketone, indicating a key role played by the ACP within PKS timing and processivity. These atom replacement mimetics offer new tools to study protein and substrate interactions and are applicable to a wide variety of PKSs.
Project description:Bacterial aromatic polyketides are important therapeutic compounds including front line antibiotics and anticancer drugs. It is one of the last remaining major classes of natural products of which the biosynthesis has not been reconstituted in the genetically superior host Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate the engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in E. coli by using a dissected and reassembled fungal polyketide synthase (PKS). The minimal PKS of the megasynthase PKS4 from Gibberella fujikuroi was extracted by using two approaches. The first approach yielded a stand-alone Ketosynthase (KS)_malonyl-CoA:ACP transferase (MAT) didomain and an acyl-carrier protein (ACP) domain, whereas the second approach yielded a compact PKS (PKS_WJ) that consists of KS, MAT, and ACP on a single polypeptide. Both minimal PKSs produced nonfungal polyketides cyclized via different regioselectivity, whereas the fungal-specific C2-C7 cyclization mode was not observed. The kinetic properties of the two minimal PKSs were characterized to confirm both PKSs can synthesize polyketides with similar efficiency as the parent PKS4 megasynthase. Both minimal PKSs interacted effectively with exogenous polyketide cyclases as demonstrated by the synthesis of predominantly PK8 3 or NonaSEK4 6 in the presence of a C9-C14 or a C7-C12 cyclase, respectively. When PKS_WJ and downstream tailoring enzymes were expressed in E. coli, the expected nonaketide anthraquinone SEK26 was recovered in good titer. High-cell density fermentation was performed to demonstrate the scale-up potential of the in vivo platform for the biosynthesis of bacterial polyketides. Using engineered fungal PKSs can therefore be a general approach toward the heterologous biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in E. coli.
Project description:Germicidin synthase (Gcs) from Streptomyces coelicolor is a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) with broad substrate flexibility for acyl groups linked through a thioester bond to either coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP). Germicidin synthesis was reconstituted in vitro by coupling Gcs with fatty acid biosynthesis. Since Gcs has broad substrate flexibility, we directly compared the kinetic properties of Gcs with both acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA. The catalytic efficiency of Gcs for acyl-ACP was 10-fold higher than for acyl-CoA, suggesting a strong preference toward carrier protein starter unit transfer. The 2.9 Å germicidin synthase crystal structure revealed canonical type III PKS architecture along with an unusual helical bundle of unknown function that appears to extend the dimerization interface. A pair of arginine residues adjacent to the active site affect catalytic activity but not ACP binding. This investigation provides new and surprising information about the interactions between type III PKSs and ACPs that will facilitate the construction of engineered systems for production of novel polyketides.
Project description:Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that most frequently affects the lungs. Evidence is limited regarding the risk factors for nocardiosis. The current study assessed clinical correlates of nocardiosis. A retrospective study was conducted based on medical records of consecutive adult patients (N?=?60) with nocardiosis hospitalized during 2007-2018 at a tertiary hospital in central Israel. A matched comparison group of 120 patients was randomly selected among hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were fitted. Immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy was positively associated with nocardiosis (matched odds ratio [OR] 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-8.62, p?<?0.001), particularly corticosteroid therapy (matched OR 4.69, 95% CI 2.45-8.99, p?<?0.001). Systemic corticosteroid therapy was strongly associated with pulmonary nocardiosis (matched OR 5.90, 95% CI 2.75-12.66, p?<?0.001). The positive association between solid organ transplantation and nocardiosis was attenuated following adjustment for systemic corticosteroids in a multivariable model. The association between corticosteroid therapy and nocardiosis appeared stronger in patients with chronic pulmonary disease (OR 5.74, 95% CI 2.75-12.66, p?<?0.001) than in the pooled analysis of all nocardiosis cases. In conclusion, corticosteroid therapy was strongly correlated with nocardiosis, particularly among individuals with chronic pulmonary disease and in pulmonary nocardiosis.
Project description:Biphenyl synthase and benzophenone synthase constitute an evolutionarily distinct clade of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that use benzoic acid-derived substrates to produce defense metabolites in plants. The use of benzoyl-CoA as an endogenous substrate is unusual for type III PKSs. Moreover, sequence analyses indicate that the residues responsible for the functional diversification of type III PKSs are mutated in benzoic acid-specific type III PKSs. In order to gain a better understanding of structure-function relationships within the type III PKS family, the crystal structures of biphenyl synthase from Malus × domestica and benzophenone synthase from Hypericum androsaemum were compared with the structure of an archetypal type III PKS: chalcone synthase from Malus × domestica. Both biphenyl synthase and benzophenone synthase contain mutations that reshape their active-site cavities to prevent the binding of 4-coumaroyl-CoA and to favor the binding of small hydrophobic substrates. The active-site cavities of biphenyl synthase and benzophenone synthase also contain a novel pocket associated with their chain-elongation and cyclization reactions. Collectively, these results illuminate structural determinants of benzoic acid-specific type III PKSs and expand the understanding of the evolution of specialized metabolic pathways in plants.
Project description:Product template (PT) domains from fungal nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are responsible for controlling the aldol cyclizations of poly-?-ketone intermediates assembled during the catalytic cycle. Our ability to understand the high regioselective control that PT domains exert is hindered by the inaccessibility of intrinsically unstable poly-?-ketones for in vitro studies. We describe here the crystallographic application of "atom replacement" mimetics in which isoxazole rings linked by thioethers mimic the alternating sites of carbonyls in the poly-?-ketone intermediates. We report the 1.8-Å cocrystal structure of the PksA PT domain from aflatoxin biosynthesis with a heptaketide mimetic tethered to a stably modified 4'-phosphopantetheine, which provides important empirical evidence for a previously proposed mechanism of PT-catalyzed cyclization. Key observations support the proposed deprotonation at C4 of the nascent polyketide by the catalytic His1345 and the role of a protein-coordinated water network to selectively activate the C9 carbonyl for nucleophilic addition. The importance of the 4'-phosphate at the distal end of the pantetheine arm is demonstrated to both facilitate delivery of the heptaketide mimetic deep into the PT active site and anchor one end of this linear array to precisely meter C4 into close proximity to the catalytic His1345. Additional structural features, docking simulations, and mutational experiments characterize protein-substrate mimic interactions, which likely play roles in orienting and stabilizing interactions during the native multistep catalytic cycle. These findings afford a view of a polyketide "atom-replaced" mimetic in a NR-PKS active site that could prove general for other PKS domains.
Project description:Hypothemycin is a macrolide protein kinase inhibitor from the fungus Hypomyces subiculosus. During biosynthesis, its carbon framework is assembled by two iterative polyketide synthases (PKSs), Hpm8 (highly reducing) and Hpm3 (nonreducing). These were heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, purified to near homogeneity, and reconstituted in vitro to produce (6'S,10'S)-trans-7',8'-dehydrozearalenol (1) from malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The structure of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. In the absence of functional Hpm3, the reducing PKS Hpm8 produces and offloads truncated pyrone products instead of the expected hexaketide. The nonreducing Hpm3 is able to accept an N-acetylcysteamine thioester of a correctly functionalized hexaketide to form 1, but it is unable to initiate polyketide formation from malonyl-CoA. We show that the starter-unit:ACP transacylase (SAT) of Hpm3 is critical for crosstalk between the two enzymes and that the rate of biosynthesis of 1 is determined by the rate of hexaketide formation by Hpm8.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) represent a powerful catalytic platform capable of effecting multiple carbon-carbon bond forming reactions and oxidation state adjustments. We explored the functionality of two terminal PKS modules that produce the 16-membered tylosin macrocycle, using them as biocatalysts in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of tylactone and its subsequent elaboration to complete the first total synthesis of the juvenimicin, M-4365, and rosamicin classes of macrolide antibiotics via late-stage diversification. Synthetic chemistry was employed to generate the tylactone hexaketide chain elongation intermediate that was accepted by the juvenimicin (Juv) ketosynthase of the penultimate JuvEIV PKS module. The hexaketide is processed through two complete modules (JuvEIV and JuvEV) in vitro, which catalyze elongation and functionalization of two ketide units followed by cyclization of the resulting octaketide into tylactone. After macrolactonization, a combination of in vivo glycosylation, selective in vitro cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation, and chemical oxidation was used to complete the scalable construction of a series of macrolide natural products in as few as 15 linear steps (21 total) with an overall yield of 4.6%.
Project description:Enediyne antibiotics are categorized according to the presence of either a 9- or 10-membered ring within their polyketide-derived core structures. Recent literature reports have favored the notion that biosynthetic divergence of the two structural families is determined by the enediyne polyketide synthases (PKSs) alone. We now disclose the simultaneous in vitro production of three octaketide polyenes by biosynthetic enzymes for the 10-membered enediyne calicheamicin gamma(1)(I), including the elusive beta-keto acid precursor to a previously described C15 methyl hexaenone. Alongside these two polyene products, we have additionally detected a hydrocarbon heptaene previously isolated only from 9-membered enediyne systems. The discovery of the heptaene in the calicheamicin system promotes a more convergent model for the early steps of enediyne biosynthesis. Furthermore, the synthesis of this set of octaketides by the enediyne PKS CalE8 and thioesterase CalE7 suggests, in contrast to recent biosynthetic proposals, that accessory enzymes may be necessary to initiate differentiation to 9- or 10-membered enediyne precursors, either by modulation of enediyne PKS activity or by interception and modification of polyketide chain-extension intermediates.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) use simple extender units to synthesize complex natural products. A fundamental question is how different extender units are site-specifically incorporated into the growing polyketide. Here we established phoslactomycin (Pn) PKS, which incorporates malonyl- and ethylmalonyl-CoA, as an in?vitro model to study substrate specificity. We combined up to six Pn PKS modules with different termination sites for the controlled release of tetra-, penta- and hexaketides, and challenged these systems with up to seven different extender units in competitive assays to test for the specificity of Pn modules. While malonyl-CoA modules of Pn PKS exclusively accept their natural substrate, the ethylmalonyl-CoA module PnC tolerates different ?-substituted derivatives, but discriminates against malonyl-CoA. We show that the ratio of extender transacylation to hydrolysis controls incorporation in PnC, thus explaining site-specific selectivity and promiscuity in the natural context of Pn PKS.