Altered expression of the mismatch repair genes in DF-1 cells infected with the avian leukosis virus subgroup A.
ABSTRACT: The absence or deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) activity results in microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer. The avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes neoplastic disease in chickens. In this study, the status of MMR, MSI, the cell cycle and apoptosis were detected in DF-1 cells after avian leukosis virus subgroup A infection. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that there was no significant difference in cell apoptosis between the control and infected groups. The percentage of cells in S and G2 phases were increased in the infected group. MSI and mutation of MSH2 and MLH1 gene exons were absent in DF-1 cells after infection. Levels of MSH2 and MLH1 mRNA were dramatically increased in DF-1 cells after infection. These results demonstrated that ALV RAV-1 infection may promote the expression of MSH2 and MLH1 genes rather than resulting in gene mutations. Mismatch repair functions were normal and may be have relationships with the arrest of S phase and G2 phase.
Project description:Colorectal cancers with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations characteristically display a high rate of replication errors in simple repetitive sequences detectable as microsatellite instability (MSI). Most are the result of somatic MMR dysfunction; however, a subset are caused by germline mutations. The availability of commercial antibodies for MSH2 and MLH1 [corrected] offers an alternative strategy to molecular methods for identifying MMR deficient cancers. To evaluate immunohistochemistry, MLH1 and MSH2 expression was studied using monoclonal antibodies in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded cancers. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of 23 cancers displaying MSI, including four cases with germline mutations, were compared with 23 microsatellite stable (MSS) cancers. All MSS cancers exhibited staining with both antibodies. Twenty two of the MSI cases showed absent MMR expression with either anti-MSH2 or anti-MLH1 [corrected]. The high sensitivity and predictive value of immunohistochemistry in detecting MMR deficiency offers a method of discriminating between MSI and MSS cancers caused by MSH2 and MLH1 [corrected] dysfunction. The application and suitability of immunohistochemistry for the detection of MSI and as a strategy for prioritising the mutational analysis of MMR genes in routine clinical practice is discussed.
Project description:Deficient mismatch repair (MMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI) contribute to ~15% of colorectal cancer (CRCs). We hypothesized MSI leads to mutations in DNA repair proteins including BRCA2 and cancer drivers including EGFR. We analyzed mutations among a discovery cohort of 26 MSI-High (MSI-H) and 558 non-MSI-H CRCs profiled at Caris Life Sciences. Caris-profiled MSI-H CRCs had high mutation rates (50% vs 14% in non-MSI-H, P < 0.0001) in BRCA2. Of 1104 profiled CRCs from a second cohort (COSMIC), MSH2/MLH1-mutant CRCs showed higher mutation rates in BRCA2 compared to non-MSH2/MLH1-mutant tumors (38% vs 6%, P < 0.0000001). BRCA2 mutations in MSH2/MLH1-mutant CRCs included 75 unique mutations not known to occur in breast or pancreatic cancer per COSMIC v73. Only 5 deleterious BRCA2 mutations in CRC were previously reported in the BIC database as germ-line mutations in breast cancer. Some BRCA2 mutations were predicted to disrupt interactions with partner proteins DSS1 and RAD51. Some CRCs harbored multiple BRCA2 mutations. EGFR was mutated in 45.5% of MSH2/MLH1-mutant and 6.5% of non-MSH2/MLH1-mutant tumors (P < 0.0000001). Approximately 15% of EGFR mutations found may be actionable through TKI therapy, including N700D, G719D, T725M, T790M, and E884K. NTRK gene mutations were identified in MSH2/MLH1-mutant CRC including NTRK1 I699V, NTRK2 P716S, and NTRK3 R745L. Our findings have clinical relevance regarding therapeutic targeting of BRCA2 vulnerabilities, EGFR mutations or other identified oncogenic drivers such as NTRK in MSH2/MLH1-mutant CRCs or other tumors with mismatch repair deficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complicated multistep process that involves an accumulation of mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. In the process of DNA replication, base mismatch often occurs due to various factors leading to abnormal expression of mismatch repair genes (MMR), among which MLH1 and MSH2 are the most important. Recently, numerous studies indicated that MLH1/MSH2 phenotype is associated with CRC. We wanted to elucidate the role of MLH1/MSH2 in the prediction and prognosis of CRC through long-term clinical observation. AIM:To evaluate the prognostic and predictive significance of MLH1/MSH2 in patients with stage II-III CRC using immunohistochemical analysis and GeneScan. METHODS:Specimens from 681 patients with CRC (395 stage II and 286 stage III, 387 males and 294 females) who underwent curative surgical resection from 2013 to 2016 were tested. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze MMR status and the microsatellite status of 133 patients was determined by GeneScan analysis. RESULTS:Five hundred and fifty (80.76%) patients were MLH1/MSH2 positive and 131 (19.24%) were negative by immunohistochemistry. MLH1/MSH2-positive tumors were significantly more frequent in the colon than in the rectum, and had poor differentiation and less mucin production (P < 0.05). Patients of different groups did not differ in terms of age, gender, tumor size, tumor stage, lymphocytic infiltration, or circumscribed margin. MLH1/MSH2-negative patients had a more favorable OS than MLH1/MSH2-positive patients (P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated MLH1/MSH2 expression as an independent prognostic and predictive factor for stage II/III CRC. MLH1/MSH2 expression was a strong prognostic factor in all patients [P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 4.064, 95%CI: 2.241-7.369]. Adjuvant chemotherapy had a greater correlation with survival advantage in MLH1/MSH2-negative patients with stage III disease (P < 0.001, HR = 7.660, 95%CI: 2.974-15.883). However, patients with stage II disease or MLH1/MSH2-positive patients with stage III disease did not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. GeneScan analysis demonstrated that among 133 patients, 105 (78.95%) were microsatellite stable, and 28 (21.05%) had microsatellite instability (MSI), including 18 (13.53%) with high MSI and 10 (7.52%) with low MSI. This is consistent with the immunohistochemical results. CONCLUSION:MLH1/MSH2 phenotype constitutes a pathologically and clinically distinct subtype of sporadic CRC. MLH1/MSH2 is an independent prognostic and predictive factor for outcome of stage II-III CRC.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is uncommon in individuals <50 years old. Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with early-onset CRC, but little is known about the proportion of young patients with apparently sporadic CRC who actually have Lynch syndrome. We examined patterns of microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR genes among patients <50 years old with non-familial CRC (patients with not more than 1 family member with CRC).Tissue specimens were collected from 75 CRC patients <50 years old (mean age, 34.5 years) and analyzed using immunohistochemical analyses of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. MSI and mutations in BRAF and KRAS were also analyzed.Most cancers (72%) arose in the distal colon. MSI was detected in 21% of the samples, and loss of 1 or more MMR proteins was observed in 21%. Interestingly, only 38% of the MMR-deficient CRCs lost either MLH1 or MSH2, whereas 63% of the MMR-deficient CRC samples lost either PMS2 or MSH6. All 11 CRC samples that had lost MSH2, MLH1, or PMS2 had MSI, but only 2 of the 5 tumors that lost only MSH6 had MSI. There were no BRAF mutations in any tumor.In young patients with apparently sporadic CRC, most tumors arise in the distal colon; only 21% have features of Lynch syndrome. Loss of MSH6 or PMS2 occurred in 13.3% of these tumors. Most tumors that lose MSH6 will not be detected in screens for MSI; CRC screening might be modified to identify more patients with Lynch syndrome.
Project description:Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR) system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.
Project description:Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is suggestive of a hereditary predisposition. Lynch syndrome is the most frequent CRC hereditary cause. The MUTYH gene has also been related to hereditary CRC. A systematic characterization of these two diseases has not been reported previously in this population.We studied a retrospectively collected series of 140 patients ≤50 years old diagnosed with nonpolyposis CRC. Demographic, clinical, and familial features were obtained. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis, and immunostaining for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 proteins. Germline MMR mutations were evaluated in all MMR-deficient cases. Tumor samples with loss of MLH1 or MSH2 protein expression were analyzed for somatic methylation. Germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated in all cases. BRAF V600E and KRAS somatic mutational status was also determined.Fifteen tumors (11.4%) were MSI, and 20 (14.3%) showed loss of protein expression (7 for MLH1/PMS2, 2 for isolated MLH1, 3 for MSH2/MSH6, 7 for isolated MSH6, and 1 for MSH6/PMS2). We identified 11 (7.8%) germline MMR mutations, 4 in MLH1, 1 in MSH2, and 6 in MSH6. Methylation analysis revealed one case with somatic MLH1 methylation. Biallelic MUTYH mutations were detected in four (2.8%) cases. KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations were present in 39 (27.9%) and 5 (3.6%) cases, respectively.Loss of MSH6 expression is the predominant cause of MMR deficiency in early-onset CRC. Our findings prompt the inclusion of MSH6 and MUTYH screening as part of the genetic counseling of these patients and their relatives.
Project description:Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) are predictive biomarkers for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Still, the relationship between the underlying cause(s) of MSI and TMB in tumors remains poorly defined. We investigated associations of TMB to mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression patterns by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MMR mutations in a diverse sample of tumors. Hypothesized differences were identified by the protein/gene affected/mutated and the tumor histology/primary site. Overall, 1057 MSI-H tumors were identified from the 32?932 tested. MSI was examined by NGS using 7000+ target microsatellite loci. TMB was calculated using only nonsynonymous missense mutations sequenced with a 592-gene panel; a subset of MSI-H tumors also had MMR IHC performed. Analyses examined TMB by MMR protein heterodimer impacted (loss of MLH1/PMS2 vs. MSH2/MSH6 expression) and gene-specific mutations. The sample was 54.6% female; mean age was 63.5?years. Among IHC tested tumors, loss of co-expression of MLH1/PMS2 was more common (n = 544/705, 77.2%) than loss of MSH2/MSH6 (n = 81/705, 11.5%; P <?.0001), and was associated with lower mean TMB (MLH1/PMS2: 25.03 mut/Mb vs MSH2/MSH6 46.83 mut/Mb; P <?.0001). TMB also varied by tumor histology: colorectal cancers demonstrating MLH1/PMS2 loss had higher TMBs (33.14 mut/Mb) than endometrial cancers (20.60 mut/Mb) and other tumors (25.59 mut/Mb; P <?.0001). MMR gene mutations were detected in 42.0% of tumors; among these, MSH6 mutations were most common (25.7%). MSH6 mutation patterns showed variability by tumor histology and TMB. TMB varies by underlying cause(s) of MSI and tumor histology; this heterogeneity may contribute to differences in response to ICI.
Project description:Patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) or those with multiple tumours associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) raise suspicion of the presence of germline DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations.To analyse the value of family history, microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis and MMR protein staining in the tumour to predict the presence of an MMR gene mutation in such patients.In 281 patients diagnosed with CRC before the age of 50 years or with CRC and at least one additional HNPCC-associated cancer, germline mutation analysis in MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 was carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. MSI analysis with five consensus markers and MMR protein staining for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 were carried out in the tumours.25 pathogenic mutations (8 in MLH1, 9 in MSH2 and 8 in MSH6) were found. MSI analysis missed three and immunohistochemistry (IHC) missed two mutation carriers. Sensitivities of family history, MSI analysis and IHC for the presence of a mutation were 76%, 82% and 88%, specificities were 64%, 70% and 84%, and positive predictive values were 19%, 23% and 38%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed the highest odds ratio for IHC (38.3, 95% confidence interval 9.0 to 184). Prevalence of pathogenic germline MMR gene mutations in patients with CRC before the age of 50 years was 6% and in those with > or =2 HNPCC-associated tumours was 22%. In the second group, no mutation carriers were found among the 29 patients who were diagnosed with their first tumour after the age of 60 years.Family history, MSI analysis and IHC are indicative parameters to select patients with CRC for MMR gene mutation analysis. The data show that IHC is the best single selection criterion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Germline defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes underlie Lynch Syndrome (LS). We aimed to gain comprehensive genetic and epigenetic profiles of LS families in Singapore, which will facilitate efficient molecular diagnosis of LS in Singapore and the region. METHODS: Fifty nine unrelated families were studied. Mutations in exons, splice-site junctions and promoters of five MMR genes were scanned by high resolution melting assay followed by DNA sequencing, large fragment deletions/duplications and promoter methylation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) was assessed with five mononucleotide markers and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was also performed. RESULTS: Pathogenic defects, all confined to MLH1 and MSH2, were identified in 17 out of 59 (28.8%) families. The mutational spectrum was highly heterogeneous and 28 novel variants were identified. One recurrent mutation in MLH1 (c.793C>T) was also observed. 92.9% sensitivity for indication of germline mutations conferred by IHC surpassed 64.3% sensitivity by MSI. Furthermore, 15.6% patients with MSS tumors harbored pathogenic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Among major ethnic groups in Singapore, all pathogenic germline defects were confined to MLH1 and MSH2. Caution should be applied when the Amsterdam criteria and consensus microsatellite marker panel recommended in the revised Bethesda guidelines are applied to the local context. We recommend a screening strategy for the local LS by starting with tumor IHC and the hotspot mutation testing at MLH1 c.793C>T followed by comprehensive mutation scanning in MLH1 and MSH2 prior to proceeding to other MMR genes.
Project description:Loss of mismatch repair (MMR) capacity may represent an important tumor initiating mechanism in ovarian cancer. We conducted a systematic review to analyze the frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI), immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for MMR proteins, and hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter region in ovarian cancers. Studies examining MSI, loss of MMR gene expression by IHC staining and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation in ovarian cancer were identified by a systematic literature search of the PubMed electronic database through August 31, 2009. Pertinent data was extracted from eligible studies and estimates for pooled proportions were computed using random effects models. The pooled proportion of MSI detection was 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06-0.14) among 1,234 cases in 22 studies. Dinonucleotide markers had a higher frequency of instability than mononucleotide markers. The pooled proportion of MLH1 or MSH2 staining loss was 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.17) among 474 cases in three studies, with a higher frequency of loss in MLH1. The pooled proportion of MLH1 methylation was 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06-0.15) among 672 cases in seven studies. Data reporting MSI and loss of MMR staining in the same cases was limited. Although MMR deficiency was found in all histologic subtypes, endometrioid cancers had the highest proportion. Approximately 10% of unselected ovarian cancers are related to MMR deficiency. While MMR deficiency is associated with improved survival in other MMR-deficiency related cancer sites, epidemiological and clinical factors related to the MMR-deficient phenotype have not been adequately studied in ovarian cancer to date.