Evaluation of [18F]-FDG-Based Hybrid Imaging Combinations for Assessment of Bone Marrow Involvement in Lymphoma at Initial Staging.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to determine the value of different hybrid imaging combinations for the detection of focal and diffuse bone marrow infiltration in lymphoma. Patients with histologically proven lymphoma, who underwent both [18F]-FDG-PET/CT and whole-body MRI (including T1- and diffusion-weighted [DWI] sequences) within seven days, and a subsequent bone marrow biopsy, were retrospectively included. Three hybrid imaging combinations were evaluated: (1) [18F]-FDG-PET/CT; (2) [18F]-FDG-PET/T1; and (3) [18F]-FDG-PET/DWI. The presence of focal or diffuse bone marrow infiltration was assessed by two rater teams. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of overall, focal, and diffuse bone marrow involvement were compared between the three hybrid imaging combinations. Overall, lymphomatous bone marrow involvement was found in 16/60 patients (focal, 8; diffuse, 8). Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.3%, 95.5%, and 91.7% for [18F]-FDG-PET/CT; 81.3%, 97.7%, and 93.3% for [18F]-FDG-PET/T1; and 81.3%, 95.5%, and 91.7% for [18F]-FDG-PET/DWI. No statistically significant differences between the three imaging combinations were observed, based on overall bone marrow involvement, focal involvement, or diffuse involvement. The sensitivity of all three imaging combinations for detecting diffuse bone marrow involvement was only moderate (62.5% for all three combinations). Although the combination of [18F]-FDG-PET and T1-weighted MRI generally showed the best diagnostic performance for the detection of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma, it was not significantly superior to the two other hybrid imaging combinations. Since the sensitivity of all imaging combinations for the detection of diffuse bone marrow involvement was only moderate, bone marrow biopsy cannot be replaced by imaging as yet.
Project description:The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the significant upgrading in recent years of the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in multiple myeloma (MM) diagnostics, there is a still unmet need for myeloma-specific radiotracers. 3'-Deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) is the most studied cellular proliferation PET agent, considered a potentially new myeloma functional imaging tracer. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate 18F-FLT PET/CT in imaging of MM patients, in the context of its combined use with 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS:Eight patients, four suffering from symptomatic MM and four suffering from smoldering MM (SMM), were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and 18F-FLT PET/CT imaging by means of static (whole body) and dynamic PET/CT of the lower abdomen and pelvis (dPET/CT) in two consecutive days. The evaluation of PET/CT studies was based on qualitative evaluation, semi-quantitative (SUV) calculation, and quantitative analysis based on two-tissue compartment modeling. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated focal, 18F-FDG avid, MM-indicative bone marrow lesions in five patients. In contrary, 18F-FLT PET/CT showed focal, 18F-FLT avid, myeloma-indicative lesions in only two patients. In total, 48 18F-FDG avid, focal, MM-indicative lesions were detected with 18F-FDG PET/CT, while 17 18F-FLT avid, focal, MM-indicative lesions were detected with 18F-FLT PET/CT. The number of myeloma-indicative lesions was significantly higher for 18F-FDG PET/CT than for 18F-FLT PET/CT. A common finding was a mismatch of focally increased 18F-FDG uptake and reduced 18F-FLT uptake (lower than the surrounding bone marrow). Moreover, 18F-FLT PET/CT was characterized by high background activity in the bone marrow compartment, further complicating the evaluation of bone marrow lesions. Semi-quantitative evaluation revealed that both SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher for 18F-FLT than for 18F-FDG in both MM lesions and reference tissue. SUV values were higher in MM lesions than in reference bone marrow for both tracers. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the limited number of patients analyzed in this pilot study, the first results of the trial indicate that 18F-FLT does not seem suitable as a single tracer in MM diagnostics. Further studies with a larger patient population are warranted to generalize the herein presented results.
Project description:18F-FDG PET / CT is used clinically for the detection of extramedullary lesions in patients with relapsed acute leukemia (AL). However, the visual analysis of 18F-FDG diffuse bone marrow uptake in detecting bone marrow involvement (BMI) in routine clinical practice is still challenging. This study aims to improve the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting BMI for patients with suspected relapsed AL. Methods: Forty-one patients (35 in training group and 6 in independent validation group) with suspected relapsed AL were retrospectively included in this study. All patients underwent both bone marrow biopsy (BMB) and 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The BMB results were used as the gold standard or real "truth" for BMI. The bone marrow 18F-FDG uptake was visually diagnosed as positive and negative by three nuclear medicine physicians. The skeletal volumes of interest were manually drawn on PET/CT images. A total of 781 PET and 1045 CT radiomic features were automatically extracted to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the embedded pattern. To select the most important and predictive features, an unsupervised consensus clustering method was first performed to analyze the feature correlations and then used to guide a random forest supervised machine learning model for feature importance analysis. Cross-validation and independent validation were conducted to justify the performance of our model. Results: The training group involved 16 BMB positive and 19 BMB negative patients. Based on the visual analysis of 18F-FDG PET, 3 patients had focal uptake, 8 patients had normal uptake, and 24 patients had diffuse uptake. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of visual analysis for BMI diagnosis were 62.5%, 73.7%, and 68.6%, respectively. With the cross-validation on the training group, the machine learning model correctly predicted 31 patients in BMI. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the machine learning model in BMI detection were 87.5%, 89.5%, and 88.6%, respectively, significantly higher than the ones in visual analysis (P < 0.05). The evaluation on the independent validation group showed that the machine learning model could achieve 83.3% accuracy. Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET/CT radiomic analysis with machine learning model provided a quantitative, objective and efficient mechanism for identifying BMI in the patients with suspected relapsed AL. It is suggested in particular for the diagnosis of BMI in the patients with 18F-FDG diffuse uptake patterns.
Project description:PET/CT has been identified as one of the routine methods for the assessment of multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow infiltration. In the routine method of performing PET/CT, the 18F-Fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in this disease is often used in the assessment of this condition, however CT diagnosis is not currently commonly used. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of CT in PET/CT for assessing diffuse infiltration (DI) of bone marrow in MM. MRI was used as a control in the present study, which is the gold standard for assessing DI of bone marrow and is divided into 3 levels: Mild, moderate and severe DI. Subsequently, a total of four combinations of PET and CT results were listed using the enumeration method for the evaluation of DI in the bone marrow. These combinations were respectively compared with the three levels of MR imaging to screen the most consistent method. The concordances of the new method and routine 18F-FDG PET/CT for the assessment of DI with MR imaging were compared using the McNemar test, respectively. The results of the DI assessment from the two methods were verified by performing Durie-Salmon (D-S) PLUS staging. Compared with MR imaging, the results were as follows: PET and CT exhibited negative results, suggesting mild DI; one of them was positive, suggesting moderate DI; and two were positive, suggesting severe DI. The results of concordance between two methods (new and routine) and MR imaging are indicated as follows: For the new method, McNemar test, P=0.513 and Kappa=0.745; for the routine 18F-FDG PET/CT method, McNemar test, P=0.03 and Kappa=0.547. Re-performance of D-S PLUS staging presented the following results: New method, McNemar test, P=0.317 and Kappa=0.93; for the routine method, McNemar test, P=0.223 and Kappa=0.811. These findings indicated that the CT component of PET/CT could improve the concordance with MRI results in the assessment of DI, and the same results were obtained when D-S PLUS staging was performed. The CT in PET/CT can enhance diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of DI by reducing the false negatives when compared with the routine 18F-FDG method.
Project description:Biopsy is the standard for assessment of bone marrow involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We investigated whether [18F]FDG-PET radiomic texture features can improve prediction of bone marrow involvement in MCL, compared to standardized uptake values (SUV), and whether combination with laboratory data improves results. Ninety-seven MCL patients were retrospectively included. SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and 16 co-occurrence matrix texture features were extracted from pelvic bones on [18F]FDG-PET/CT. A multi-layer perceptron neural network was used to compare three combinations for prediction of bone marrow involvement-the SUVs, a radiomic signature based on SUVs and texture features, and the radiomic signature combined with laboratory parameters. This step was repeated using two cut-off values for relative bone marrow involvement: REL > 5% (>5% of red/cellular bone marrow); and REL > 10%. Biopsy demonstrated bone marrow involvement in 67/97 patients (69.1%). SUVs, the radiomic signature, and the radiomic signature with laboratory data showed AUCs of up to 0.66, 0.73, and 0.81 for involved vs. uninvolved bone marrow; 0.68, 0.84, and 0.84 for REL ? 5% vs. REL > 5%; and 0.69, 0.85, and 0.87 for REL ? 10% vs. REL > 10%. In conclusion, [18F]FDG-PET texture features improve SUV-based prediction of bone marrow involvement in MCL. The results may be further improved by combination with laboratory parameters.
Project description:<sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT has some limitations in the evaluation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (WM/LPL), an indolent B-cell lymphoma that primarily involves the bone marrow. Because there is a high level of chemokine receptor 4 expression in the B cells of WM/LPL patients, we performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate the performance of <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor, which targets chemokine receptor 4 in WM/LPL, and to compare it with the performance of <sup>18</sup>F-FDG. <b>Methods:</b> Seventeen patients with WM/LPL were recruited. All patients underwent both <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor PET/CT and <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT. A positive PET/CT result was defined as the presence of focal lesions with positive PET results or diffuse bone marrow patterns (uptake > liver). The rates of positive results for PET/CT scans of bone marrow, lymph nodes, and other extramedullary involvement were statistically compared. <b>Results:</b> <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor PET/CT had a higher rate of positive results than <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT (100% vs. 58.8%; <i>P</i> = 0.023) in the recruited WM/LPL patients. The sensitivities of <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor PET/CT and <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT for detecting bone marrow involvement were 94.1% and 58.8%, respectively (<i>P</i> = 0.077). In terms of detecting lymph node involvement, <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor PET/CT had a significantly higher rate of positive results than <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT (76.5% vs. 11.8%; <i>P</i> = 0.003). In addition, <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor detected more paramedullary and central nervous system involvement than <sup>18</sup>F-FDG. <b>Conclusion:</b> <sup>68</sup>Ga-pentixafor might be a promising imaging agent for the assessment of WM/LPL.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the correlation between imaging patterns and clinical features in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) who simultaneously underwent 18F-FDG, 11C-Methionine, and 68Ga-Pentixafor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We retrieved and analyzed clinical characteristics and PET imaging data of 10 patients with SMM. We found a significant correlation between bone marrow (BM) plasma cell (PC) infiltration and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 on 11C-Methionine PET/CT scans (r = 0.676, p = 0.031) and 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT scans (r = 0.839, p = 0.002). However, there was no significant correlation between BM involvement and SUVmean of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 on 18F-FDG PET/CT scans (r = 0.558, p = 0.093). Similarly, mean target-to-background ratios (TBRmean) of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 also correlated with bone marrow plasma cell (BMPC) infiltration in 11C-Methionine PET/CT (r = 0.789, p = 0.007) and 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT (r = 0.724, p = 0.018) PET/CT. In contrast, we did not observe a significant correlation between BMPC infiltration rate and TBRmean in 18F-FDG PET/CT (r = 0.355, p = 0.313). Additionally, on 11C-Methionine PET/CT scans, we found a significant correlation between BMPC infiltration and TBRmax of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 (r = 0.642, p = 0.045). In conclusion, 11C-Methionine and 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT demonstrate higher sensitivity than 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting BM involvement in SMM.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has become the standard staging modality in various tumor entities. Cancer patients frequently receive cardio-toxic therapies. However, routine cardiovascular assessment in oncologic patients is not performed in current clinical practice. Accordingly, this study sought to assess whether myocardial 18F-FDG uptake patterns of patients undergoing oncologic PET/CT can be used for cardiovascular risk stratification. METHODS:Myocardial 18F-FDG uptake pattern was assessed in 302 patients undergoing both oncologic whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT and myocardial perfusion imaging by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-MPI) within a six-month period. Primary outcomes were myocardial 18F-FDG uptake pattern, impaired myocardial perfusion, ongoing ischemia, myocardial scar, and left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS:Among all patients, 109 (36.1%) displayed no myocardial 18F-FDG uptake, 77 (25.5%) showed diffuse myocardial 18F-FDG uptake, 24 (7.9%) showed focal 18F-FDG uptake, and 92 (30.5%) had a focal on diffuse myocardial 18F-FDG uptake pattern. In contrast to the other uptake patterns, focal myocardial 18F-FDG uptake was predominantly observed in patients with myocardial abnormalities (i.e., abnormal perfusion, impaired LVEF, myocardial ischemia, or scar). Accordingly, a multivariate logistic regression identified focal myocardial 18F-FDG uptake as a strong predictor of abnormal myocardial function/perfusion (odds ratio (OR) 5.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-16.34, p = 0.003). Similarly, focal myocardial 18F-FDG uptake was an independent predictor of ongoing ischemia and myocardial scar (OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.53-11.4, p = 0.005 and OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.47-9.69, p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Focal myocardial 18F-FDG uptake seen on oncologic PET/CT indicates a significantly increased risk for multiple myocardial abnormalities. Obtaining and taking this information into account will help to stratify patients according to risk and will reduce unnecessary cardiovascular complications in cancer patients.
Project description:Background:Bone marrow involvement (BMI) affects the lymphoma stage, survival, and treatment. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET/CT) are useful techniques to detect BMI. Both have advantages and disadvantages. We aimed to identify factors that could be used to predict BMI with positive and negative results on PET/CT compare them with BMB in newly diagnosed patients with lymphoma. Methods:We included 22 non-Hodgkin and 16 Hodgkin lymphoma patients in this single center study. All patients had PET/CT examination and BMB before treatment. BMI in BMB was reported as negative or positive. Bone marrow was classified into 3 types by FDG uptake on PT/CT; diffuse involvement, focal involvement, and normal bone marrow. Results:PET/CT and BMB results were concordant (7 positive, 15 negative) in 22 patients (57%). We evaluated concordant and discordant patient characteristics and risk-stratified patients for BMI. Our findings suggest that patients with diffuse FDG uptake on PET/CT, especially patients with advanced age and low platelet and white blood cell counts, are likely to have BMI and could potentially forego BMB. Patients with negative PET/CT findings and no significant laboratory abnormalities are very unlikely to have BMI. Conclusion:Our results suggest that BMI should not be decided solely based PET/CT or BMB findings. It is reasonable to use both diagnostic assays along with clinical and laboratory findings. PET/CT result, clinical and laboratory findings could be useful for predicting BMI in patient for whom BMB is contraindicated.
Project description:Although recent data from the literature suggest that PET imaging with -Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is a promising technique in multiple myeloma (MM), the development of other radiopharmaceuticals seems relevant. CD138 is currently used as a standard marker in many laboratories for the identification and purification of myeloma cells, and could be used in phenotype tumor imaging. In this study, we evaluated a 64Cu-labeled anti-CD138 murine antibody (64Cu-TE2A-9E7.4) and a metabolic tracer (64CuCl2) for PET imaging in a MM syngeneic mouse model.64Cu-TE2A-9E7.4 antibody and 64CuCl2 were evaluated via PET imaging and biodistribution studies in C57BL / KaLwRij mice bearing either 5T33-MM subcutaneous tumors or bone lesions. These results were compared to 18F-FDG-PET imaging. Autoradiography and histology of representative tumors were secondly conducted. In biodistribution and PET studies, 64Cu-TE2A-9E7.4 displayed good tumor uptake of subcutaneous and intra-medullary lesions, greater than that demonstrated with 18F-FDG-PET. In control experiments, only low-level, non-specific uptake of 64Cu-labeled isotype IgG was observed in tumors. Similarly, low activity concentrations of 64CuCl2 were accumulated in MM lesions. Histopathologic analysis of the immuno-PET-positive lesions revealed the presence of plasma cell infiltrates within the bone marrow.64Cu-labeled anti-CD138 antibody can detect subcutaneous MM tumors and bone marrow lesions with high sensitivity, outperforming 18F-FDG-PET and 64CuCl2 in this preclinical model. These data support 64Cu-anti-CD138 antibody as a specific and promising new imaging radiopharmaceutical agent in MM.