MATE1 regulates cellular uptake and sensitivity to imatinib in CML patients.
ABSTRACT: Although imatinib is highly effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 25-30% patients do not respond or relapse after initial response. Imatinib uptake into targeted cells is crucial for its molecular response and clinical effectiveness. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) has been proposed to be responsible for this process, but its relevance has been discussed controversially in recent times. Here we found that the multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) transports imatinib with a manifold higher affinity. MATE1 mainly mediates the cellular uptake of imatinib into targeted cells and thereby controls the intracellular effectiveness of imatinib. Importantly, MATE1 but not OCT1 expression is reduced in total bone marrow cells of imatinib-non-responding CML patients compared with imatinib-responding patients, indicating that MATE1 but not OCT1 determines the therapeutic success of imatinib. We thus propose that imatinib non-responders could be identified early before starting therapy by measuring MATE1 expression levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The organic cation transporters 1 (OCT1) and 2 (OCT2) mediate drug uptake into hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells, respectively. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) is a major component of subsequent export into bile and urine. However, the functional interaction of OCTs and MATE1 for uptake and transcellular transport of the oral antidiabetic drug metformin or of the cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) has not fully been characterized. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as well as double-transfected MDCK-OCT1-MATE1 and -OCT2-MATE1 cells were used to study metformin and MPP(+) uptake into and transcellular transport across cell monolayers, along with their concentration and pH dependence. KEY RESULTS: Cellular accumulation of MPP(+) and metformin was significantly reduced by 31% and 46% in MDCK-MATE1 single-transfected cells compared with MDCK control cells (10 µM; P < 0.01). Over a wide concentration range (10-2500 µM) metformin transcellular transport from the basal into the apical compartment was significantly higher in the double-transfected cells compared with the MDCK control and MDCK-MATE1 monolayers. This process was not saturated up to metformin concentrations of 2500 µM. In MDCK-OCT2-MATE1 cells basal to apical MPP(+) and metformin transcellular translocation decreased with increasing pH from 6.0 to 7.5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data demonstrate functional interplay between OCT1/OCT2-mediated uptake and efflux by MATE1. Moreover, MATE1 function in human kidney might be modified by changes in luminal pH values.
Project description:In addition to mutated BCR-ABL1 kinase, the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, encoded by SLC22A1) has been considered to contribute to imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). As data are conflicting as to whether OCT1 transports imatinib and may serve as a clinical biomarker, we used a combination of different approaches including animal experiments to elucidate comprehensively the impact of OCT1 on cellular imatinib uptake.Transport of imatinib was studied using OCT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes, mammalian cell lines (HEK293, MDCK, V79) stably expressing OCT1, human leukemic cells, and Oct1-knockout mice. OCT1 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in leukemic cells from patients with imatinib-naïve CML as well as in cell lines.Transport and inhibition studies showed that overexpression of functional OCT1 protein in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cell lines did not lead to an increased cellular accumulation of imatinib. The CML cell lines (K562, Meg-01, LAMA84) and leukemic cells from patients expressed neither OCT1 mRNA nor protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy, yet they showed a considerable imatinib uptake. Oct1 deficiency in mice had no influence on plasma and hepatic imatinib concentrations.These data clearly demonstrate that cellular uptake of imatinib is independent of OCT1, and therefore OCT1 is apparently not a valid biomarker for imatinib resistance.
Project description:Creatinine is actively secreted across tubular epithelial cells via organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1). We previously showed that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib inhibits OCT2-mediated transport of creatinine. In the present work, we examined the inhibitory potency of TKIs, including crizotinib, on MATE1-mediated transport of creatinine. Then, we used the kinetic parameters estimated in this and the previous work to predict the potential impact of TKIs on serum creatinine level (SCr) via reversible inhibition of creatinine transport. Crizotinib inhibited [<sup>14</sup>C]creatinine uptake by MATE1-overexpressing cells, and the inhibitory effect increased with incubation time, being greater in the case of pre-incubation or combined pre-incubation/co-incubation (pre/co-incubation) than in the case of co-incubation alone. The inhibition was non-competitive, with K <sub>i</sub> values of 2.34??M, 0.455??M and 0.342??M under co-, pre- or pre/co-incubation conditions, respectively. Similar values were obtained for inhibition of [<sup>3</sup>H]MPP<sup>+</sup> uptake by MATE1-overexpressing cells. Gefitinib, imatinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and sunitinib also inhibited MATE1-mediated creatinine uptake. Further, all these TKIs except pazopanib inhibited [<sup>14</sup>C]creatinine uptake by OCT2-overexpressing cells. In rat kidney slices, the ratio of unbound tissue accumulation of TKIs to extracellular concentration ranged from 2.05 to 3.93. Prediction of the influence of TKIs on SCr based on the renal creatinine clearance and plasma maximum unbound concentrations of TKIs suggested that crizotinib and imatinib might increase SCr by more than 10% in the clinical context. Accordingly, it is necessary to be cautious in diagnosing TKI-induced renal failure only on the basis of an increase of SCr.
Project description:PURPOSE:Peficitinib is an oral pan-Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Co-administration of peficitinib with metformin, a type 2 diabetes therapy, can occur in clinical practice. Hepatic and renal uptake of metformin is mediated by organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) and OCT2, respectively, and its renal excretion by multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) and MATE2-K. This study investigated the effect of peficitinib on metformin pharmacokinetics in vitro and in healthy volunteers. METHODS:Inhibitory effects of peficitinib and its metabolite H2 on metformin uptake into human OCT1/2- and MATE1/2-K-expressing cells were assessed in vitro. In an open-label, drug-drug interaction study, 24 healthy volunteers received a single dose of metformin 750 mg on Days 1 and 10, and a single dose of peficitinib 150 mg on Days 3 and 5-11. Blood and urine samples were collected pre-dose on Days 1 and 10, and at intervals ??48 h post-dose. Metformin concentration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. RESULTS:Peficitinib, but not H2, inhibited metformin uptake into OCT1- and MATE1/2-K-expressing cells. Repeated-dose administration of peficitinib reduced metformin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf) by 17.4%, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) by 17.0%, and renal clearance (CLR) by 12.9%. Co-administration of peficitinib with metformin was generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION:Slight changes in AUCinf, Cmax and CLR of metformin were observed when co-administered with peficitinib; however, these changes were considered not clinically relevant.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is currently treated with inhibitors of the CML specific oncoprotein, bcr-abl. While this strategy is initially successful, drug resistance can become a problem. Therefore, new targets need to be identified to ensure the disease can be appropriately managed. The thioredoxin (Trx) system, comprised of Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH, is an antioxidant system previously identified as a target for therapies aimed at overcoming drug resistance in other cancers. We assessed the effectiveness of TrxR inhibitors on drug resistant CML cells and examined links between TrxR and the bcr-abl cell-signalling pathway. Two TrxR inhibitors, auranofin and [Au(d2pype)2]Cl, increased intracellular ROS levels and elicited apoptosis in both sensitive and imatinib resistant CML cells. Inhibition of TrxR activity by these pharmacological inhibitors, or by specific siRNA, also resulted in decreased bcr-abl mRNA and protein levels, and lower bcr-abl downstream signalling activity, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of TrxR inhibitors as CML therapies. In addition, imatinib resistant CML cell lines showed upregulated expression of the Trx system. Furthermore, analysis of datasets showed that CML patients who did not respond to imatinib had higher Trx mRNA levels than patients who responded to treatment. Our study demonstrates a link between the Trx system and the bcr-abl protein and highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting the Trx system to improve CML patients' outcomes.
Project description:The drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) as interacting drugs via transporter inhibition has not been fully assessed. Here, we estimated the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values for 8 small-molecule TKIs (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, lapatinib, and sorafenib) on [(14)C]metformin transport by human organic cation transporters (OCT), OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins, MATE1 and MATE2-K, using human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing these transporters. We then compared the estimated IC(50) values to the maximum clinical concentrations of unbound TKIs in plasma (unbound C(max,sys,p)). Results showed that imatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, and erlotinib exerted selectively potent inhibitory effects, with unbound C(max,sys,p)/IC(50) values ?0.1, on MATE1, OCT3, MATE2-K, and OCT1, respectively. In comparison to the common form of OCT1, the OCT1 polymorphism, M420del, was more sensitive to drug inhibition by erlotinib. Major metabolites of several TKIs showed IC(50) values similar to those for unchanged TKIs. Taken together, these findings suggest the potential of clinical transporter-mediated DDIs between specific TKIs and OCTs and MATEs, which may affect the disposition, efficacy, and toxicity of metformin and other drugs that are substrates of these transporters. The study provides the basis for further clinical DDI studies with TKIs.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is composed of 3% of pediatric leukemias, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment for adult CML by eliminating allogeneic stem cell transplantation for almost all patients in chronic phase. Shown effective in pediatric CML, imatinib and successive tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have provided more therapeutic options. Because stem cell transplantation has been better tolerated in children and adolescents, the decision to treat by either TKI or transplantation is controversial. We present a recent case of a 12-month-old boy diagnosed with BCR-ABL(+) CML to highlight the controversies in treatment recommendations. We review the pediatric stem cell transplantation outcomes as well as the pediatric experience with imatinib and other TKIs. Finally, we compare the side effects as well as costs associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation versus TKI therapy. We recommend that frontline therapy for pediatric CML in chronic phase is TKI therapy without transplantation. Patients in accelerated or blast crisis or who fail to reach landmarks on TKIs either because of intolerance or resistance should pursue stem cell transplantation. Although we recommend adopting adult clinical experience to guide therapeutic decision making, the issues of infant CML, drug formulation, pharmacokinetics, and adolescent compliance merit clinical investigation.
Project description:The cost of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a substantial economic burden. In Japan, imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib are now approved as first-line treatment of CML in chronic phase. Recent "stop TKI" trials have shown that TKIs can be safely discontinued in nearly one-half of patients with sustained deep molecular response (DMR). In this study, we analyzed the cost-effectiveness of a simulated 10 years of CML treatment including stop TKI in both the United States and Japan. We constructed Markov models to compare 4 strategies in which treatment was initiated with imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, or any of these TKIs at the physician's discretion. Treatment was switched to another TKI in the case of intolerance or resistance to the initial TKI, and TKIs were discontinued if DMR persisted for 2 years. "Imatinib first" offered 7.34 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at the cost of $1?022?148 in the United States (US dollars) and ¥32?526?785 in Japan (Japanese yen). In comparison with imatinib first, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per QALY of "dasatinib first" (7.68 QALY, $1?236?052, ¥51?506?254), "nilotinib first" (7.64 QALY, $1?245?667, ¥39?635?598), and "physician's choice" (7.55 QALY, $1?167?818, ¥41?187?740) was $641?324, $696?717, and $666?634 in the United States and ¥54?456?325, ¥23?154?465, and ¥39?635?615 in Japan, respectively. None of the 3 strategies met the willingness-to-pay threshold. The results were robust to univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Imatinib first was shown to be the most cost-effective approach even with the incorporation of stop TKI.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy has markedly improved patient prognosis after introduction of imatinib mesylate for clinical use. However, a subset of patients develops resistance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), mainly due to point mutations in the region encoding the kinase domain of the fused BCR-ABL oncogene. To identify potential therapeutic targets in imatinib?resistant CML cells, we derived imatinib-resistant CML-T1 human cell line clone (CML-T1/IR) by prolonged exposure to imatinib in growth media. Mutational analysis revealed that the Y235H mutation in BCR-ABL is probably the main cause of CML-T1/IR resistance to imatinib. To identify alternative therapeutic targets for selective elimination of imatinib-resistant cells, we compared the proteome profiles of CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells using 2-DE-MS. We identified eight differentially expressed proteins, with strongly upregulated Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) in the resistant cells, suggesting that this protein may influence cytosolic pH, Ca2+ concentration or signaling pathways such as Wnt in CML-T1/IR cells. We tested several compounds including drugs in clinical use that interfere with the aforementioned processes and tested their relative toxicity to CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells. Calcium channel blockers, calcium signaling antagonists and modulators of calcium homeostasis, namely thapsigargin, ionomycin, verapamil, carboxyamidotriazole and immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK-506) were selectively toxic to CML-T1/IR cells. The putative cellular targets of these compounds in CML-T1/IR cells are postulated in this study. We propose that Ca2+ homeostasis can be a potential therapeutic target in CML cells resistant to TKIs. We demonstrate that a proteomic approach may be used to characterize a TKI-resistant population of CML cells enabling future individualized treatment options for patients.
Project description:Resistance to imatinib in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) has emerged as a significant clinical issue. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has 325-fold greater in vitro activity against native BCR-ABL (breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus) compared with imatinib and can overcome primary (intrinsic) and secondary (acquired) imatinib resistance. Here, we review the clinical profile of dasatinib in imatinib-resistant and -intolerant patients and share clinical approaches for managing adverse events (AEs) to ensure maximum patient benefit. References were obtained through literature searches on PubMed as well as from the Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society of Hematology, and European Hematology Association. Phase II and III studies of dasatinib in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML in any phase or Ph+ ALL were selected for discussion. Dasatinib is currently indicated for the treatment of patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML or Ph+ ALL. AEs associated with dasatinib are typically mild to moderate, and are usually resolved with temporary treatment interruption and/or dose adjustments. A Phase III dose optimization study showed that in patients with chronic phase (CP) CML, 100 mg once-daily dasatinib improves the safety profile, particularly pleural effusion and thrombocytopenia, while maintaining efficacy compared with the previously recommended dose of 70 mg twice-daily. Dasatinib has a manageable safety profile. For patients with CP CML, a new recommended starting dose of 100 mg once daily has recently been approved. The recommended dose for patients with advanced CML or Ph+ ALL remains 70 mg twice daily.