Combinatorial nanocarrier based drug delivery approach for amalgamation of anti-tumor agents in bresat cancer cells: an improved nanomedicine strategies.
ABSTRACT: Combination therapy of multiple drugs through a single system is exhibiting high therapeutic effects. We investigate nanocarrier mediated inhibitory effects of topotecan (TPT) and quercetin (QT) on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (MDA-MB-231) and multi drug resistant (MDR) type breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with respect to cellular uptake efficiency and therapeutic mechanisms as in vitro and in vivo. The synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) pores used for loading TPT; the outer of the nanoparticles was decorated with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)-Chitosan (CS) as anionic inner-cationic outer layer respectively and conjugated with QT. Subsequently, grafting of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide on the surface of nanocarrier (CPMSN) thwarted the uptake by normal cells, but facilitated their uptake in cancer cells through integrin receptor mediated endocytosis and the dissociation of nanocarriers due to the ability to degrade of CS and PAA in acidic pH, which enhance the intracellular release of drugs. Subsequently, the released drugs induce remarkable molecular activation as well as structural changes in tumor cell endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and mitochondria that can trigger cell death. The valuable CPMSNs may open up new avenues in developing targeted therapeutic strategies to treat cancer through serving as an effective drug delivery podium.
Project description:The cargo-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with convenient surface modification can facilitate the development of the innovative nanodrug system. Herein, the present investigation described the electrostatically self-assembled MSNs as a nanosized drug carrier to realize potent synergistic chemotherapy based on the specificity in targeting cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells. In this context, the primarily constructed MSNs were subjected with anticancer drug topotecan (TPT) into its large pores. Then, the selective TAT peptide (a nuclear localization signal peptide) was anchored onto TPT-loaded MSNs (TPT-MSN). Subsequently, the positive surface of TPT-MSN-TAT was capped with negatively charged components, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-cRGD peptide and citraconic anhydride (CAH)-metformin (MT), and acted as a smart gatekeeper. Comparatively, PAA-cRGD attached onto MSNs serving as the targeted molecules could upsurge by invasion into cancer cells. Interestingly, the acidic pH of the lysosomal compartment in tumor cells triggers the conjugated CAH from the polymer decorated mesoporous silica (PMS) nanocomposite and could efficiently release MT into the cytoplasm. Consequently, the remaining TPT-MSN-TAT efficiently targets the nucleus and delivers the TPT to improve synergistic chemotherapeutic effects. The precisely released drugs were individually enhanced in the in vitro and in vivo cell killing efficiencies. Thus, the study provides a potential drug delivery podium through combined drugs to realize cancer cell targeting approach.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Topotecan (TPT) is a therapeutic option for women with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer. However, the dose-limiting toxicity of TPT is myelosuppression. This led us to seek a combination treatment to augment TPT anti-cancer activity in a cancer-targeted manner. Ovarian serous cancers, a major subtype, show dysregulated DNA repair pathway and often display a high level of CHEK1 (CHK1), a cell cycle regulator and DNA damage sensor. CHEK1 inhibitors are a novel approach to treatment, and have been used as single agents or in combination chemotherapy in many cancers. METHODS:We evaluated the cellular effects of TPT in a panel of high grade serous (HGS) and non-HGS ovarian cancer cells. We then determined IC50s of TPT in the absence and presence of CHEK1 inhibitor, PF477736. Synergism between TPT and PF477736 was calculated based on cellular viability assays. Cytotoxic effect of the combined treatment was compared with apoptotic activities by Caspase3/7 activity assay and Western blotting of cleaved-PARP1 and ?H2AX. RESULTS:Non-HGS ovarian cancer cells were generally more sensitive to TPT treatment compared to HGS ovarian cancer cells. When combined with CHEK1 inhibitor, TPT potently and synergistically inhibited the proliferation of HGS ovarian cancer cells. This dramatic synergism in cellular toxicity was consistent with increases in markers of apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that the addition of CHEK1 inhibitor increases the response of ovarian cancer cells to TPT. Furthermore, reduced dosages of both drugs achieved maximal cytotoxic effects by combining TPT with CHEK1 inhibitor. This strategy would potentially minimize side effects of the drugs for extended clinical benefit.
Project description:Rationale: Prostate cancer has become one of the most threatening malignant tumors in men, leading to an imperative need to develop effective and safe therapies. Because of the unique metabolism of tumor cells, the tumor microenvironment (TME) exhibits distinctive properties compared with normal tissues, among which the pH difference has been utilized as an ideal antitumor strategy. Herein, we introduce a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-controlled-release nanosystem with TME-responsiveness by applying hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) as carriers loaded with calcium peroxide (CaO2) and coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) to construct the functional material CaO2@HMSNs-PAA. The differences in pH values and exogenous ROS scavenging abilities between the tumor tissue and normal tissues and the dual pH-responsiveness from CaO2 and PAA lay a scientific foundation for the application of CaO2@HMSNs-PAA in the tumor-selective therapy for prostate cancer. Methods: The morphology and the structure of the nanosystem were characterized by the transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering measurement, low-angle X-ray diffraction patterns and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm. The CaO2 loading capacity and release profiles in different buffer solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The in vitro intracellular uptake of CaO2@HMSNs-PAA was explored on the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The CCK-8 cell proliferation assay was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CaO2@HMSNs-PAA against PC-3 cells. ROS produced by CaO2@HMSNs-PAA was observed by a fluorescence microscope. The flow cytometry was utilized to analyze the apoptosis of PC-3 cells induced by CaO2@HMSNs-PAA. The Western blot analysis was performed to detect expressions of critical mitochondria-mediated apoptosis markers in PC-3 cells after incubation with CaO2@HMSNs-PAA. The in vivo biosafety and antitumor efficacy were evaluated out on BALB/c mice and BALB/c nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with PC-3 cells, respectively. Results: Comprehensive characterizations indicated the successful synthesis of CaO2@HMSNs-PAA with significant TME-responsiveness. The experimental results demonstrated that the well-developed nanocarrier could efficiently deliver CaO2 to the tumor site and release ROS in response to the decreased pH value of TME, exerting ideal antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo by activating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Simultaneously, this nanoplatform caused no detectable damage to normal tissues. Conclusions: After loading into the above nanocomposite, the free CaO2 without a significant antitumor effect can exert excellent antitumor efficacy by responsively releasing ROS under the acidic TME to induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via remarkable oxidative stress and simultaneously minimize damages to normal tissues. The current study presents a new concept of "efficacy-shaping nanomedicine" for the tumor-selective treatment of prostate cancer.
Project description:In this study, we developed anionic polymer-coated liposome/siRNA complexes (lipoplexes) with chondroitin sulfate C (CS), poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) and poly-aspartic acid (PAA) for siRNA delivery by intravenous injection, and evaluated the biodistribution and gene silencing effect in mice. The sizes of CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes were about 200?nm and their ?-potentials were negative. CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes did not induce agglutination after mixing with erythrocytes. In terms of biodistribution, siRNAs after intravenous administration of cationic lipoplexes were largely observed in the lungs, but those of CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes were in both the liver and the kidneys, indicating that siRNA might be partially released from the anionic polymer-coated lipoplexes in the blood circulation and accumulate in the kidney, although the lipoplexes can prevent the agglutination with blood components. To increase the association between siRNA and cationic liposome, we used cholesterol-modified siRNA (siRNA-Chol) for preparation of the lipoplexes. When CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes of siRNA-Chol were injected into mice, siRNA-Chol was mainly observed in the liver, not in the kidneys. In terms of the suppression of gene expression in vivo, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) mRNA in the liver was significantly reduced 48?h after single intravenous injection of PGA-coated lipoplex of ApoB siRNA-Chol (2.5?mg?siRNA/kg), but not cationic, CS- and PAA-coated lipoplexes. In terms of toxicity after intravenous injection, CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes did not increase GOT and GPT concentrations in blood. From these findings, PGA coatings for cationic lipoplex of siRNA-Chol might produce a systemic vector of siRNA to the liver.
Project description:The incorporation of anionic excipients into polyplexes is a promising strategy for modulating siRNA binding versus release and integrating diagnostic capabilities; however, specific design criteria and structure-function relationships are needed to facilitate the development of nanocarrier-based theranostics. Herein, we incorporated poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and quantum dot (QD) excipients into photolabile siRNA polyplexes to increase gene silencing efficiencies by up to 100% and enable self-reporting of nanocarrier disassembly. Our systematic approach identified the functional relationships between gene silencing and key parameters such as excipient loading fractions and molecular weights that facilitated the establishment of design rules for optimization of nanocarrier efficacy. For example, we found that PAA molecular weights ?10-20× greater than that of the coencapsulated siRNA exhibited the most efficient release and silencing. Furthermore, siRNA release assays and RNAi modeling allowed us to generate a PAA "heat map" that predicted gene silencing a priori as a function of PAA molecular weight and loading fraction. QDs further promoted selective siRNA release and provided visual as well as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based monitoring of the dynamic changes in nanostructure in situ. Moreover, even with the addition of anionic components, our formulations exhibited substantially improved stability and shelf life relative to typical formulations, with complete stability after a week of storage and full activity in the presence of serum. Taken together, this study enabled synergistic improvements in siRNA release and diagnostic capabilities, along with the development of mechanistic insights that are critical for advancing the translation of nucleic acid theranostics into the clinic.
Project description:Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often faces drug resistance, limiting its applications in cancer therapy. In this study, we developed a simple multifunctional nanocarrier based on polyethylenimine (PEI) to codeliver doxorubicin (DOX) and BCL2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) and enhancing apoptosis in MCF-7/Adr cancer cells by combining chemotherapy and RNA interference (RNAi) therapy. The low-molecular-weight branch PEI was used to conjugate hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and folic acid (FA), forming the codelivery nanocarrier (FA-HP-?-CD-PEI) to encapsulate DOX with the cavity HP-?-CD and bind siRNA with the positive charge of PEI for tumor-targeting codelivering drugs. The drug-loaded nanocomplexes (FA-HP-?-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA) showed uniform size distribution, high cellular uptake, and significant gene suppression of BCL2, displaying the potential of overcoming MDR for enhancing the effect of anticancer drugs. Furthermore, the nanocomplexes achieved significant cell apoptosis through a mechanism of downregulating the antiapoptotic protein BCL2, resulted in improving therapeutic efficacy of the coadministered DOX by tumor targeting and RNA interference. Our study indicated that combined RNAi therapy and chemotherapy using our functional codelivery nanocarrier could overcome MDR and enhance apoptosis in MDR cancer cells for a potential application in treating MDR cancers.
Project description:Here we report the method of fabrication of supermacroporous monolith sorbents (cryogels) via covalent cross-linking of polyallylamine (PAA) with diglycidyl ether of 1,4-butandiol. Using comparative analysis of the permeability and sorption performance of the obtained PAA cryogels and earlier developed polyethyleneimine (PEI) cryogels, we have demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of these polymers as sorbents of heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II)) in fixed-bed applications and as supermacroporous matrices for the fabrication of composite cryogels containing copper ferrocyanide (CuFCN) for cesium ion sorption. Applying the rate constant distribution (RCD) model to the kinetic curves of Cu(II) ion sorption on PAA and PEI cryogels, we have elucidated the difference in sorption/desorption rates and affinity constants of these materials and showed that physical sorption contributed to the Cu(II) uptake by PAA, but not to that by PEI cryogels. It was shown that PAA cryogels had significantly higher selectivity for Cu(II) sorption in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions in comparison with that of PEI cryogels, while irreversible sorption of Co(II) ions by PEI can be used for the separation of Ni(II) and Co(II) ions. Using IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, we have demonstrated that strong complexation of Cu(II) ions with PEI significantly affects the in situ formation of Cu(II) ferrocyanide nanosorbents leading to their inefficiency for Cs+ ions selective uptake, whereas PAA cryogel was applicable for the fabrication of efficient monolith composites via the in situ formation of CuFCN or loading of ex situ formed CuFCN colloids.
Project description:Cancer patients may receive a high number of medications with the potential to prolong QT interval and subsequent TdP (torsades de pointes). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, their TdP risk, QT prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs), levels, predictors, and TdP risk of drugs involved in QT-DDIs.This multicenter study included cancer patients from three major tertiary care hospitals of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Micromedex DrugReax® was used for identification of QT-DDIs. TdP risks were identified by AZCERT (Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics) classification. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of QT-DDIs.Of 555 patients, 51% were females. Mean age was 46.9?±?15.7 years. Total 28 distinct QT prolonging drugs were identified in 92.6% of the patients. Overall 21.8% patients were presented with QT-DDIs. Of total 288 identified QT-DDIs, all were of major-severity and fair-documentation. According to AZCERT classification, 59.9% of the interacting drugs were included in list-1 (known risk of TdP), 4.7% in list-2 (possible risk of TdP) and 6.8% in list-3 (conditional risk of TdP). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed significant results for various predictors such as, 8-9 prescribed medications (p?<?0.001) and ?10 medications (p?<?0.001), 2 QT drugs (p?<?0.001) and ?3 QT drugs (p?<?0.001), breast cancer (p?=?0.03), gastrointestinal cancer (p?=?0.03), 4-5 supportive care drugs (p?<?0.001), 6-8 supportive care drugs (p?<?0.001) and >8 supportive care drugs (p?<?0.001).A high prevalence of QT prolonging drugs and QT-DDIs was reported in oncology. Appropriate precautions are needed to prevent harmful consequences of these interactions.
Project description:Polyelectrolyte hydrogel fibers can mimic the extracellular matrix and be used for tissue scaffolding. Mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte nanofibers are crucial in manipulating cell behavior, which metal ions have been found to enable tuning. While metal ions play an important role in manipulating the mechanical properties of the fibers, evaluating the mechanical properties of a single hydrated hydrogel fiber remains a challenging task and a more detailed understanding of how ions modulate the mechanical properties of individual polyelectrolyte polymers is still lacking. In this study, dark-field microscopy and persistence length analysis help directly evaluate fiber mechanics using electrospun fibers of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), chitosan (CS), and ferric ions as a model system. By comparing the persistence length and estimated Young's modulus of different nanofibers, we demonstrate that persistence length analysis is a viable approach to evaluate mechanical properties of hydrated fibers. Ferric ions were found to create shorter and stiffer nanofibers, with Young's modulus estimated at a few kilopascals. Ferric ions, at low concentration, reduce the Young's modulus of PAA and PAA/CS fibers through the interaction between ferric ions and carboxylate groups. Such interaction was further supported by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy studies of PAA and PAA/CS fibers with different concentrations of ferric ions.
Project description:The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) has become an increasingly serious problem in cancer therapy. The cell-membrane overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which can actively efflux various anticancer drugs from the cell, is a major mechanism of MDR. Nuclear-uptake nanodrug delivery systems, which enable intranuclear release of anticancer drugs, are expected to address this challenge by bypassing P-gp. However, before entering the nucleus, the nanocarrier must pass through the cell membrane, necessitating coordination between intracellular and intranuclear delivery. To accommodate this requirement, we have used DNA self-assembly to develop a nuclear-uptake nanodrug system carried by a cell-targeted near-infrared (NIR)-responsive nanotruck for drug-resistant cancer therapy. Via DNA hybridization, small drug-loaded gold nanoparticles (termed nanodrugs) can self-assemble onto the side face of a silver-gold nanorod (NR, termed nanotruck) whose end faces were modified with a cell type-specific internalizing aptamer. By using this size-photocontrollable nanodrug delivery system, anticancer drugs can be efficiently accumulated in the nuclei to effectively kill the cancer cells.