Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells participate in prostate carcinogenesis and promote growth of prostate cancer by cell fusion in vivo.
ABSTRACT: The tumor microenvironment is comprised of diverse stromal cells that contribute towards tumor progression. As a result, there has been a growing interest in the role of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) in cancer progression. However, the role of BMDCs in prostate cancer (PCa) progression still remains unclear. In this study, we established GFP bone marrow transplanted TRAMP and MUN-induced prostate cancer models, in order to investigate the role of BMDCs in prostate cancer progression. By tracing GFP positive cells, we observed that BMDCS were recruited into mouse prostate tissues during tumorigenesis. GFP+/Sca-1+/CD45- BMDCs were significantly increased in the MNU-induced PCa group, as compared to the citrated-treated control group (2.67 ± 0.25% vs 0.67 ± 0.31%, p = 0.006). However, there were no significant differences found in GFP+/Sca-1+/CD45+ cell populations between the two groups (0.27 ± 0.15% vs 0.10 ± 0.10%, p = 0.334). Moreover, co-grafting of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and RM1 cells were found to promote RM1 tumor growth in vivo, and cell fusion was observed in RM-1+BMMSCs xenografts. Therefore, the data suggests that BMDCs can be recruited to the prostate during carcinogenesis, and that BMMSCs may promote the growth of PCa.
Project description:Endometrial stem/progenitor cells play a role in postpartum uterine tissue regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. While circulating bone marrow (BM)-derived cells (BMDCs) contribute to nonhematopoietic endometrial cells, the contribution of BMDCs to postpartum uterus remodeling is unknown. We investigated the contribution of BMDCs to the postpartum uterus using 5-fluorouracil-based nongonadotoxic BM transplant from green fluorescent protein (GFP) donors into wild-type C57BL/6J female mice. Flow cytometry showed an influx of GFP+ cells to the uterus immediately postpartum accounting for 28.7% of total uterine cells, followed by a rapid decrease to prepregnancy levels. The majority of uterine GFP+ cells were CD45+ leukocytes, and the proportion of nonhematopoietic CD45-GFP+ cells peaked on postpartum day (PPD) 1 (17.5%). Immunofluorescence colocalization of GFP with CD45 pan-leukocyte and F4/80 macrophage markers corroborated these findings. GFP+ cells were found mostly in subepithelial stromal location. Importantly, GFP+ cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells were found within the luminal epithelium exclusively on PPD1, demonstrating direct contribution to postpartum re-epithelialization. A subset (3.2%) of GFP+ cells were CD31+CD45- endothelial cells, and found integrated within blood vessel endothelium. Notably, BM-derived GFP+ cells demonstrated preferential proliferation (PCNA+) and apoptosis (TUNEL+) on PPD1 vs resident GFP- cells, suggesting an active role for BMDCs in rapid tissue turnover. Moreover, GFP+ cells gradually acquired cell senescence together with decreased proliferation throughout the postpartum. In conclusion, BM-derived progenitors were found to have a novel nonhematopoietic cellular contribution to postpartum uterus remodeling. This contribution may have an important functional role in physiological as well as pathological postpartum endometrial regeneration.
Project description:Prostate cancer recurrence involves increased growth of cancer epithelial cells, as androgen dependent prostate cancer progresses to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) following initial therapy. Understanding CRPC prostate regrowth will provide opportunities for new cancer therapies to treat advanced disease.Elevated chemokine expression in the prostate stroma of a castrate resistant mouse model, Tgfbr2(fspKO), prompted us to look at the involvement of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) in prostate regrowth. We identified bone marrow cells recruited to the prostate in GFP-chimeric mice. A dramatic increase in BMDC recruitment for prostate regrowth occurred three days after exogenous testosterone implantation. Recruitment led to incorporation of BMDCs within the prostate epithelia. Immunofluorescence staining suggested BMDCs in the prostate coexpressed androgen receptor; p63, a basal epithelial marker; and cytokeratin 8, a luminal epithelial marker. A subset of the BMDC population, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), were specifically found to be incorporated in the prostate at its greatest time of remodeling. Rosa26 expressing MSCs injected into GFP mice supported MSC fusion with resident prostate epithelial cells through co-localization of β-galactosidase and GFP during regrowth. In a human C4-2B xenograft model of CRPC, MSCs were specifically recruited. Injection of GFP-labeled MSCs supported C4-2B tumor progression by potentiating canonical Wnt signaling. The use of MSCs as a targeted delivery vector for the exogenously expressed Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein-2 (SFRP2), reduced tumor growth, increased apoptosis and potentiated tumor necrosis.Mesenchymal stem cells fuse with prostate epithelia during the process of prostate regrowth. MSCs recruited to the regrowing prostate can be used as a vehicle for transporting genetic information with potential therapeutic effects on castrate resistant prostate cancer, for instance by antagonizing Wnt signaling through SFRP2.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>It has been reported that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) can be original cells of mouse gastric cancers induced by Helicobacter felis (H. felis) infection. However, it is unknown whether BMDCs are also the original cells of mouse gastrointestinal cancers induced by gastric carcinogens N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) and H. felis infection.<h4>Methods</h4>C57BL/6 recipient mice were initially irradiated with 10Gy X-ray, reconstituted with bone marrow cells from the C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) donor mice to label BMDCs with green fluorescence protein (GFP). After 4 weeks of recovery, the bone marrow-transplanted mice were given NMU in drinking water (240 ppm) and subsequently infected with H. felis by gavage. Eighty weeks later, all mice were euthanized for pathological examination. The BMDCs expressing GFP were detected in tissues using direct GFP fluorescence confocal microscopy analysis and immunohistochemistry staining (IHC) assays.<h4>Results</h4>Neoplastic lesions were induced by NMU treatment and/or H. felis infection at the antrum of the glandular stomach and small intestine. In the direct GFP fluorescence confocal assay, GFP(+) epithelial cell cluster or glands were not observed in these gastrointestinal tumors, however, most GFP(+) BMDCs sporadically located in the tumor stromal tissues. Some of these GFP(+) stromal BMDCs co-expressed the hematopoietic marker CD45 or myofibroblasts markers ?SMA and SRF. In the indirect GFP IHC assay, similar results were observed among 11 gastric intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and 2 small intestine tumors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results demonstrated that BMDCs might not be the source of gastrointestinal tumor cells induced by NMU and/or H. felis infection.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression within bone remain a topic of intense investigation. With the availability of transgenic mouse strains, a model of PCa for use in immune competent/transgenic mice would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to explore the utility of RM1 mouse PCa cells in investigations of tumor:bone interactions. The efficacies of several implantation techniques were examined for reliably producing intra-bone RM1 tumor growth and bone lesion formation in immune competent mice. Longitudinal monitoring of bone remodeling and lesion phenotypes was conducted by microcomputed tomography (muCT) and histological analyses. Our results indicate that direct intrabone injections of RM1 cells are necessary for tumor growth within bone and direct implantation promotes the rapid development of osteolytic bone lesions with periosteal bone deposition post-cortical breach. In vitro, RM1 cells promote the proliferation of osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) and osteoclast (Raw264.7) progenitors in a dose dependent manner. Conditioned culture media from RM1 cells appears to promote earlier expression of genes/proteins associated with osteoblastic differentiation. While clearly stimulating osteoclast function in vivo, RM1 cells had little effect on differentiation and tartate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression by Raw264.7 cells. These data, coupled with in vivo muCT images, indicate the ability of RM1 cells to induce mixed, yet predominentally osteolytic, responses in bone and illustrate the potential of RM1 cells as a model of investigating prostate tumor:stroma interactions in immune competent/transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells (BMDCs) contribute to endometrial regeneration. Our objective was to develop a nongonadotoxic mouse BM transplant (BMT) model using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for investigating BMDCs trafficking in reproduction. Female C57BL/6J mice received either single (CTX-1) or paired (CTX-2) 5-FU (150 mg/kg) dose, or single (CTX-1+SCF) or paired-dose (CTX-3+SCF) 5-FU with stem cell factor (SCF). Control mice received BMT only or saline. BM cells (20 × 106) from transgenic green-fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were injected iv. For fertility experiment, mice were mated on day 28 after BMT. Alternatively, mice were killed 1 month after BMT and BMDCs recruitment to the uterus was determined. Mice receiving 5-FU ± SCF showed intact ovarian function and fertility. CTX-3+SCF resulted in greatest BM donor chimerism at 1 month (?45%). Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that 6.6% of total uterine cells in CTX-3+SCF mice were GFP+ BMDCs. Remarkably, this was about 40- and 80-fold greater than BMDCs in uterus of CTX-1 or BMT only mice (6.6% vs 0.16% vs 0.08%, respectively, P < .001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BMDCs in the uterus were mostly localized to the endometrial stroma (71.8%). The majority of endometrial BMDCs colocalized with the pan-leuokocyte CD45 marker (58.5%), but 41.5% were CD45-negative. Cytokeratin and CD31 staining showed that the GFP+CD45- cells were not epithelial or endothelial, confirming their stromal identity. We demonstrate that paired-dose 5-FU regimen results in efficient BM donor chimerism while maintaining ovarian function and fertility. This model could be used for studying BMDCs trafficking to the uterus in various reproductive physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that can be down-regulated in diabetes. Its importance for mature endothelium has been described, but its role in proangiogenic progenitors is not well known. We investigated the effect of HO-1 on the angiogenic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and on blood flow recovery in ischemic muscle of diabetic mice.Lack of HO-1 decreased the number of endothelial progenitor cells (Lin(-)CD45(-)cKit(-)Sca-1(+)VEGFR-2(+)) in murine bone marrow, and inhibited the angiogenic potential of cultured BMDCs, affecting their survival under oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, formation of capillaries, and paracrine proangiogenic potential. Transcriptome analysis of HO-1(-/-) BMDCs revealed the attenuated up-regulation of proangiogenic genes in response to hypoxia. Heterozygous HO-1(+/-) diabetic mice subjected to hind limb ischemia exhibited reduced local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and CXCR-4. This was accompanied by impaired revascularization of ischemic muscle, despite a strong mobilization of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitors (Sca-1(+)CXCR-4(+)) into peripheral blood. Blood flow recovery could be rescued by local injections of conditioned media harvested from BMDCs, but not by an injection of cultured BMDCs.This is the first report showing that HO-1 haploinsufficiency impairs tissue revascularization in diabetes and that proangiogenic in situ response, not progenitor cell mobilization, is important for blood flow recovery.HO-1 is necessary for a proper proangiogenic function of BMDCs. A low level of HO-1 in hyperglycemic mice decreases restoration of perfusion in ischemic muscle, which can be rescued by a local injection of conditioned media from cultured BMDCs.
Project description:We investigated the role of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in an angiogenic focus, induced by VEGF stimulation.BM from GFP donor mice was isolated and transplanted into lethally irradiated recipients. Four weeks after transplantation, groups of mice received adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-VEGF or AAV-lacZ gene (control) injection and were euthanized at 1 to 24 weeks. BMDCs were characterized by double-labeled immunostaining. The function of BMDCs was further examined through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activity. We found that capillary density increased after 2 weeks, peaked at 4 weeks (P<0.01), and sustained up to 24 weeks after gene transfer. GFP-positive BMDCs infiltration in the angiogenic focus began at 1 week, peaked at 2 weeks, and decreased thereafter. The GFP-positive BMDCs were colocalized with CD45 (94%), CD68 (71%), 5% Vimentin (5%), CD31/von Willebrand factor (vWF) (1%), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha -SMA, 0.5%). Infiltrated BMDCs expressed MMP-9. MMP-9 KO mice confirmed the dependence of the angiogenic response on MMP-9 availability.Nearly all BMDCs in the angiogenic focus showed expression for leukocytes/macrophages, indicating that BMDCs minimally incorporated into the neovasculature. Colocalization of MMPs with GFP suggests that BMDCs play a critical role in VEGF-induced angiogenic response through up-regulation of MMPs.
Project description:Radiolabeled bombesin (BBN) analogs that bind to the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) represent a topic of active investigation for the development of molecular probes for PET or SPECT of prostate cancer (PCa). RM1 and AMBA have been identified as the 2 most promising BBN peptides for GRPR-targeted cancer imaging and therapy. In this study, to develop a clinically translatable BBN-based PET probe, we synthesized and evaluated (18)F-AlF- (aluminum-fluoride) and (64)Cu-radiolabeled RM1 and AMBA analogs for their potential application in PET imaging of PCa.1,4,7-triazacyclononane, 1-glutaric acid-4,7 acetic acid (NODAGA)-conjugated RM1 and AMBA were synthesized and tested for their GRPR-binding affinities. The NODAGA-RM1 and NODAGA-AMBA probes were further radiolabeled with (64)Cu or (18)F-AlF and then evaluated in a subcutaneous PCa xenograft model (PC3) by small-animal PET imaging and biodistribution studies.NODAGA-RM1 and NODAGA-AMBA can be successfully synthesized and radiolabeled with (64)Cu and (18)F-AlF. (64)Cu- and (18)F-AlF-labeled NODAGA-RM1 demonstrated excellent serum stability and tumor-imaging properties in the in vitro stability assays and in vivo imaging studies. (64)Cu-NODAGA-RM1 exhibited tumor uptake values of 3.3 ± 0.38, 3.0 ± 0.76, and 3.5 ± 1.0 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) at 0.5, 1.5, and 4 h after injection, respectively. (18)F-AlF-NODAGA-RM1 exhibited tumor uptake values of 4.6 ± 1.5, 4.0 ± 0.87, and 3.9 ± 0.48 %ID/g at 0.5, 1, and 2 h, respectively.The high-stability, efficient tumor uptake and optimal pharmacokinetic properties highlight (18)F-AlF-NODAGA-RM1 as a probe with great potential and clinical application for the PET imaging of prostate cancer.
Project description:Murine very small embryonic-like (VSEL) cells, defined by the Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-) phenotype and small size, were described as pluripotent cells and proposed to be the most primitive hematopoietic precursors in adult bone marrow. Although their isolation and potential application rely entirely on flow cytometry, the immunophenotype of VSELs has not been extensively characterized. Our aim was to analyze the possible heterogeneity of Lin(-)Sca(+)CD45(-) population and investigate the extent to which VSELs characteristics may overlap with that of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The study evidenced that murine Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-) population was heterogeneous in terms of c-Kit and KDR expression. Accordingly, the c-Kit(+)KDR(-), c-Kit(-)KDR(+), and c-Kit(-)KDR(-) subpopulations could be distinguished, while c-Kit(+)KDR(+) events were very rare. The c-Kit(+)KDR(-) subset contained almost solely small cells, meeting the size criterion of VSELs, in contrast to relatively bigger c-Kit(-)KDR(+) cells. The c-Kit(-)KDR(-)FSC(low) subset was highly enriched in Annexin V-positive, apoptotic cells, hence omitted from further analysis. Importantly, using qRT-PCR, we evidenced lack of Oct-4A and Oct-4B mRNA expression either in whole adult murine bone marrow or in the sorted of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)FSC(low) population, even by single-cell qRT-PCR. We also found that the Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)c-Kit(+) subset did not exhibit hematopoietic potential in a single cell-derived colony in vitro assay, although it comprised the Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)Lin(-) (SKL) CD34(-)CD45(-)CD105(+) cells, expressing particular HSC markers. Co-culture of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)FSC(low) with OP9 cells did not induce hematopoietic potential. Further investigation revealed that SKL CD45(-)CD105(+) subset consisted of early apoptotic cells with fragmented chromatin, and could be contaminated with nuclei expelled from erythroblasts. Concluding, murine bone marrow Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)FSC(low) cells are heterogeneous population, which do not express the pluripotency marker Oct-4A. Despite expression of some hematopoietic markers by a Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)c-Kit(+)KDR(-) subset of VSELs, they do not display hematopoietic potential in a clonogenic assay and are enriched in early apoptotic cells.
Project description:Isolation of prostate stem cells is crucial for understanding their biology during normal development and tumorigenesis. In this aim, we used a transgenic mouse model expressing GFP from the stem cell-specific s-SHIP promoter to mark putative stem cells during postnatal prostate development. We showed that cells identified by s-SHIP/GFP expression are present transiently during early prostate development and localize to the basal cell layer of the epithelium. These prostate s-SHIP/GFP-positive cells represent a subpopulation of the lineage-negative / CD24-positive / Sca-1-positive / CD49f-positive (LSC) cells and are capable of selfârenewal together with enhanced growth potential in sphereâforming assay in vitro, a phenotype consistent with that of a prostate stem cell population. Transplantation assays of these prostate GFP-positive cells demonstrate reconstitution of prostate ducts containing both basal and luminal cells in renal grafts. Altogether, these results demonstrate that s-SHIP promoter expression is a new marker for neonatal basal prostate cells exhibiting stem cell properties that enables prostate stem cells in situ identification and isolation via a single consistent parameter. Since the GFP-positive cell population is a small subset of basal LSC cells and is most responsible for stem-like activity, we performed transcriptional profiling of GFP-negative LSC and GFP-positive LSC cells to distinguish a basal cell profile from a tissue stem cell profile. Prostate tissue was collected from 6-day-old male mice, minced into small fragment, digested with 200 U/ml collagenase IAâS (Sigma; C5894) in Dulbeccoâs modified Eagles medium (DME, Gibco) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Hyclone) (DME-10% FBS) at 37Â°C for 60 min with gentle agitation. The digested cells were filtered through a 40-Î¼m cell strainer (BD Biosciences) washed, and resuspended in DME-10% FBS., filtered and labeled with antibodies against lineage (Ter119, CD31, CD45), CD49f and Sca-1 cell surface markers (Affymetrix ebiosciences). Labeled cells were analyzed and the GFP-negative LSC and GFP-positive-LSC populations were sorted by FACS. For each cell population, 3 independent samples were collected and analysed.