Pyoderma gangrenosum preceding the onset of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: A case report.
ABSTRACT: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis that may be associated with systemic diseases. The association of PG with lymphoid malignancies has rarely been reported. Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a rare but aggressive entity with a poor prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient who had idiopathic PG refractory to systemic steroids and subsequently developed ENKTL.A 70-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of intermittent fever and multifocal painful papules, plaques, and ulcerations on his extremities. The histological and culture results of the lesions were consistent with those of PG. A thorough work-up was performed and did not demonstrate any underlying systemic diseases including malignancy. The PG lesions were refractory to systemic steroid therapy. An enlarging nodule was observed over his right infraorbital area 4 months after the onset of the skin eruptions. The nodule was later biopsied and diagnosed as ENKTL by using histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed multiple intense fludeoxyglucose-avid masses in the bones and lungs, suggesting multiorgan metastases. The patient rejected chemotherapy and died 4 weeks after the diagnosis.The present case indicates that in any patient with idiopathic PG refractory to conventional therapy, the presence of any underlying disease or malignancy must be thoroughly evaluated. The present case serves as a reminder that when assessing patients with PG, clinicians should increase their awareness regarding the delayed association with malignancy, even in the absence of a concomitant systemic disease at presentation. Furthermore, the prompt evaluation of any suspicious lesions in the context of PG for the possibility of a malignant nature can improve the prognosis, particularly in cases of aggressive malignancy. Understanding the cutaneous spectrum of ENKTL is crucial because of its variable clinical appearance and aggressive nature. Our case demonstrates that PG can be a presenting sign of ENKTL.
Project description:Viral infection induces potent cellular immunity and activated intracellular signaling, which may dictate the driver events involved in immune escape and clonal selection of virus-associated cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphomas. Here, we thoroughly interrogated PD-L1/PD-L2-involving somatic aberrations in 384 samples from various lymphoma subtypes using high-throughput sequencing, particularly focusing on virus-associated lymphomas. A high frequency of PD-L1/PD-L2-involving genetic aberrations was observed in EBV-positive lymphomas [33 (22%) of 148 cases], including extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL, 23%), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (57%), systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (17%) as well as EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, 19%) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified (15%). Predominantly causing a truncation of the 3'-untranslated region, these alterations represented the most prevalent somatic lesions in ENKTL. By contrast, the frequency was much lower in EBV-negative lymphomas regardless of histology type [12 (5%) of 236 cases]. Besides PD-L1/PD-L2 alterations, EBV-positive DLBCL exhibited a genetic profile distinct from EBV-negative one, characterized by frequent TET2 and DNMT3A mutations and the paucity of CD79B, MYD88, CDKN2A, and FAS alterations. Our findings illustrate unique genetic features of EBV-associated lymphomas, also suggesting a potential role of detecting PD-L1/PD-L2-involving lesions for these lymphomas to be effectively targeted by immune checkpoint blockade.
Project description:Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system; however, there is no reliable blood biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis and even for aggressive and nonaggressive thyroid cancers as well as benign nodule discrimination. The present study is aimed at evaluating whether circulating microRNA (miRNA) can differentiate aggressive and nonaggressive thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules. In this study, we performed a multiphase, case-control study to screen serum miRNA expression profile in 100 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 15 patients with aggressive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 91 patients with benign nodules, and 89 healthy controls using TaqMan low-density array followed by extensive reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR validation. The results showed that the serum levels of miR-222-3p, miR-17-5p, and miR-451a were markedly increased, while miR-146a-5p, miR-132-3p, and miR-183-3p were significantly decreased in the PTC and benign nodule groups compared with the control group. There was no difference in the miRNA expression profile between the PTC group and the benign nodule group. Nevertheless, the serum levels of miR-222-3p and miR-17-5p were significantly increased in the MTC group than the benign nodule and control group. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that the 2 miRNAs and their panel can accurately discriminate MTC from the benign nodule group and healthy controls. These findings indicated that the altered circulating miRNAs may discriminate PTC and benign thyroid nodules from controls, and serum miR-222-3p and miR-17-5p have the potential to serve as auxiliary tools for diagnosing more aggressive thyroid carcinomas, such as MTC.
Project description:This case report originated from a case of neonatal multisystemic juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). The patient presented with blue muffin rush, cervical mass, bone destruction, lung nodule, hepatosplenomegaly, and coagulopathy and was successfully treated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based chemotherapy treatment. Similar cases in literature were reviewed and it seems that JXG, a relatively benign entity, when presented in its systemic form with liver involvement, could have an aggressive course and portend quite poor prognosis. Challenges and special consideration of the diagnosis, treatment, and future case observation are discussed.
Project description:Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare and recurrent ulcerating, non-infectious, inflammatory dermatosis, with occasional concomitant extracutaneous manifestations. The pathogenesis and aetiology of PG are unknown. Moreover, early diagnosis is challenging because there are several visceral manifestations that may occur prior to the skin findings, such that misdiagnosis of PG as an infection is common. Here, we present a case of PG in which pulmonary and spleen lesions preceded the cutaneous manifestations. The correct diagnosis was made 6 months after multiple nodules were detected in the lung and spleen, based on the development of skin wound ulcers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PG in which pulmonary and splenic involvement preceded the appearance of skin lesions, without systemic disease. The patient was followed up for 5 years, during which time complete clinical and radiographic resolution was confirmed. This case demonstrates the challenges in the diagnosis of PG and the importance of using multiple diagnostic methods to determine the cause of unexplained clinical manifestations.
Project description:Objective: Extranodal natural killer /T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an aggressive and unusual subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that it is related with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). CSF is considered as an ideal source of high-concenrtation disease-related proteins. We aimed at identifying the proteomic markers changes of CSF in ENKTL patients and used such changes to diagnose ENKTL. Materials and methods: In this study, CSF samples were acquired from hospitalization patients from the Cancer Center of West China Hospital, Chengdu, China. Comparative proteomic profiling are commonly used to do label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). And in this study the same method was used to characterize the variety of proteins in ENKTL patients and none-ENKTL people. Results: In the aggregate, 421 non-excrescent and functional proteins were identified among the samples. Of these proteins, 45 proteins quantified match the involved criteria. HRG, TIMP-1, SERPINA3, FGA, FGG, TF, FGB, APP, and AGT were significantly up-regulated. Discussion: We discovered that some proteins were significantly up-regulated. Also, these proteins themselves or with others proteins may be potential markers to diagnose ENKTL. The changes of proteomics may be a potential method to precisely identify the pathogenesis of the ENKTL.
Project description:Background: The management of indeterminate thyroid lesions is controversial. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines suggest a conservative approach for low risk indeterminate thyroid lesions (TIR3A). Case Report: We report a clinical case of a young girl who had TIR3A in a thyroid nodule located in the isthmus. After considering clinical and ultrasound (US) risk factors, we assessed literature data and guidelines to plan the extension of surgery. We found several studies supporting that the isthmus malignant lesions were associated with a higher rate of multifocality, capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, and central lymph node (LN) metastases. These data could predict a more aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis of the isthmus thyroid cancer compared to differentiated thyroid cancer, originating in the thyroid lobes. On the basis of these literature data and considering the familial risk for thyroid cancer of our patient, we decided to perform a total thyroidectomy. The histological examination revealed a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma located in the isthmus with capsular invasion. Conclusion: The isthmus location could be an additional risk factor to consider for a correct surgical approach in indeterminate thyroid lesions and thyroid cancer at fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We suggest that a careful ultrasonography should be carried out in patients with isthmus nodules. Total thyroidectomy should be performed in aggressive nodular disease. Prospective studies are needed to establish the best treatment for these lesions.
Project description:Malignant cylindroma is a rare and poorly understood cutaneous malignancy. There is a paucity of literature on these lesions, with only a select number of case reports and limited guidelines on management. We present a case of a 60-year old patient with a malignant cylindroma of the scalp treated surgically with staged perimeter excision and summarize our review of the literature with a focus on management of this potentially aggressive disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis, requiring risk stratification. However, the prognosis of ENKTL is not fully defined and needs supplementation. We hypothesised that fasting blood glucose (FBG) may be a new prognostic factor for ENKTL. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 130 patients newly diagnosed with ENKTL. RESULTS: Both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis revealed that FBG >100 mg dl(-1) was associated with a poor outcome. Patients with FBG >100 mg dl(-1) at diagnosis had more adverse clinical features, achieved lower complete remission rates (P=0.003) and had worse overall survival (P<0.001) and progression-free survival (P<0.001) compared with low-FBG patients. Measurement of FBG was helpful in differentiating between low-risk patients using the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Prognosis Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PIT) scoring and patients in a different category using the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) scores with different survival outcomes (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that measuring FBG levels at diagnosis is a novel, independent predictor of prognosis in ENKTL and helps to distinguish low-risk patients with poor survival, and this holds true in patients considered low-risk by IPI, PIT and KPI.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus positive T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-TNKLPD) comprise a spectrum of neoplasms ranging from cutaneous lymphoid proliferations to aggressive lymphomas. The spectrum includes extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia, and a group of EBV-TNKLPDs affecting children which are poorly characterized in terms of their molecular biology. Gene and miRNA expression profiling has elucidated RNA abnormalities which impact on disease biology, classification, and treatment of EBV-TNKLPD. Pathways promoting proliferation, such as Janus associated kinase/ Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) and nuclear factor kB, are upregulated in ENKTL while upregulation of survivin and deregulation of p53 inhibit apoptosis in both ENKTL and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). Importantly, immune evasion via the programmed cell death-1 and its ligand, PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint pathway, has been demonstrated to play an important role in ENKTL. Other pathogenic mechanisms involve EBV genes, microRNA deregulation, and a variety of other oncogenic signaling pathways. The identification of EBV-positive Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) as a tumor with a distinct molecular signature and clinical characteristics highlights the important contribution of the knowledge derived from gene and miRNA expression profiling in disease classification. Novel therapeutic targets identified through the study of RNA abnormalities provide hope for patients with EBV-TNKLPD, which often has a poor prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibition and JAK inhibition in particular have shown promise and are being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the key transcriptomic aberrancies in EBV-TNKLPD and discuss their translational potential.
Project description:Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a distinct subtype of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mainly involving the nasal area. Since the entity was first recognized, treatment strategies have been evolving from anthracycline-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy to L-asparaginase containing regimens and recently immune checkpoint inhibitors. With the currently used combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy, more than 70% of patients with localized disease can be cured. L-asparaginase containing regimens have significantly improved treatment outcomes among patients with advanced disease. However, the treatment outcomes of patients with disease refractory to L-asparaginase containing regimens or who experience recurrence remain poor. In this article, we cover the current treatments for ENKTL and emerging treatment approaches.