Elucidation of the biosynthesis of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast.
ABSTRACT: Rosemary extracts containing the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and its derivative carnosol are approved food additives used in an increasingly wide range of products to enhance shelf-life, thanks to their high anti-oxidant activity. We describe here the elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast cells. Cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYP76AH22-24) from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia fruticosa already characterized as ferruginol synthases are also able to produce 11-hydroxyferruginol. Modelling-based mutagenesis of three amino acids in the related ferruginol synthase (CYP76AH1) from S. miltiorrhiza is sufficient to convert it to a 11-hydroxyferruginol synthase (HFS). The three sequential C20 oxidations for the conversion of 11-hydroxyferruginol to carnosic acid are catalysed by the related CYP76AK6-8. The availability of the genes for the biosynthesis of carnosic acid opens opportunities for the metabolic engineering of phenolic diterpenes, a class of compounds with potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities.
Project description:Septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important medical problem worldwide, but current treatments are limited. During sepsis, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates various signaling pathways involved in multiorgan failure. Carnosic acid is a natural phenolic diterpene and has multiple bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. However, the effect of carnosic acid on septic AKI has not been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether carnosic acid has a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced kidney injury. Administration of carnosic acid after LPS injection ameliorated histological abnormalities and renal dysfunction. Cytokine production, immune cell infiltration, and nuclear factor-κB activation after LPS injection were also alleviated by carnosic acid. The compound suppressed oxidative stress with the modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes. Tubular cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were also inhibited by carnosic acid. These data suggest that carnosic acid ameliorates LPS-induced AKI via inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and could serve as a useful treatment agent for septic AKI.
Project description:Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salvia diterpenes have been found to have health promoting properties. Among them, carnosic acid and carnosol, tanshinones and sclareol are well known for their cardiovascular, antitumor, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, many of these compounds are not available at a constant supply and developing biotechnological methods for their production could provide a sustainable alternative. The transcriptome of S.pomifera glandular trichomes was analysed aiming to identify genes that could be used in the engineering of synthetic microbial systems. RESULTS:In the present study, a thorough metabolite analysis of S. pomifera leaves led to the isolation and structure elucidation of carnosic acid-family metabolites including one new natural product. These labdane diterpenes seem to be synthesized through miltiradiene and ferruginol. Transcriptomic analysis of the glandular trichomes from the S. pomifera leaves revealed two genes likely involved in miltiradiene synthesis. Their products were identified and the corresponding enzymes were characterized as copalyl diphosphate synthase (SpCDS) and miltiradiene synthase (SpMilS). In addition, several CYP-encoding transcripts were identified providing a valuable resource for the identification of the biosynthetic mechanism responsible for the production of carnosic acid-family metabolites in S. pomifera. CONCLUSIONS:Our work has uncovered the key enzymes involved in miltiradiene biosynthesis in S. pomifera leaf glandular trichomes. The transcriptomic dataset obtained provides a valuable tool for the identification of the CYPs involved in the synthesis of carnosic acid-family metabolites.
Project description:Miltiradiene (1) is the precursor of phenolic diterpenoids such as ferruginol (2), requiring aromatization and hydroxylation. While this has been attributed to a single cytochrome P450 (CYP76AH1), characterization of the rosemary ortholog CYP76AH4 led to the discovery that these CYPs simply hydroxylate the facilely oxidized aromatic intermediate abietatriene (3).
Project description:Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene from rosmarinus officinalis, and has multiple functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined whether carnosic acid could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that carnosic acid markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-HEP-1), and human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells, but not normal cells (TMCK-1 and HSF). Carnosic acid induced down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression at the post-translational levels, and the over-expression of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 markedly blocked carnosic acid-induced TRAIL sensitization. Furthermore, carnosic acid induced death receptor (DR)5, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression at the transcriptional levels via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). Down-regulation of CHOP expression by siRNA inhibited DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression, and attenuated carnosic acid plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that carnosic acid enhances sensitization against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through the down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of ER stress-mediated DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression at the transcriptional levels.
Project description:Synthetic biology approaches achieving the reconstruction of specific plant natural product biosynthetic pathways in dedicated microbial "chassis" have provided access to important industrial compounds (e.g., artemisinin, resveratrol, vanillin). However, the potential of such production systems to facilitate elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways has been underexplored. Here we report on the application of a modular terpene production platform in the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the potent antioxidant carnosic acid and related diterpenes in Salvia pomifera and Rosmarinus officinalis.Four cytochrome P450 enzymes are identified (CYP76AH24, CYP71BE52, CYP76AK6, and CYP76AK8), the combined activities of which account for all of the oxidation events leading to the biosynthesis of the major diterpenes produced in these plants. This approach develops yeast as an efficient tool to harness the biotechnological potential of the numerous sequencing datasets that are increasingly becoming available through transcriptomic or genomic studies.
Project description:We investigated the gene expression profiles of U373MG human astrocytoma cells treated with vehicle (DMSO) or edaravone or carnosic acid) or both edaravone and carnosic acid. Edaravone is a free radical scavenger sold as radicut. Carnosic acid is a phytochemical found in rosemary and sage. Overall design: U373MG cells cultured in DMEM-3% FBS were administrated with 1 mM edaravone or 50 microM carnosic acid for 24 h, then the cells were harvested for RNA preparation.
Project description:Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate cytoprotective genes which may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to better understand the structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis L., we isolated carnosic acid, carnosol, epirosmanol, rosmanol, 12-methoxy-carnosic acid, sageone, and carnosaldehyde using polyamide column, centrifugal partition chromatography, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Isolated compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to active the Nrf2 and general cellular toxicity using mouse primary cortical cultures. All compounds except 12-methoxy-carnosic acid were able to activate the antioxidant response element. Furthermore both carnosol and carnoasldehyde were able to induce Nrf2-dependent gene expression as well as protect mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures from H(2)O(2) induced cell death.
Project description:Phenolic diterpenes present in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis have anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects. We investigated the in vitro effects of carnosol (CL), carnosic acid (CA), carnosic acid-12-methylether (CAME), 20-deoxocarnosol and abieta-8,11,13-triene-11,12,20-triol (ABTT) in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and human chondrocytes. The substances concentration-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E? (PGE?) production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (i.e., acute inflammation). They significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1?, IL-6) and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10. The substances modulated the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and in primary human chondrocytes that were stimulated by IL-1? (i.e., chronic inflammation In SW1353, catabolic genes like MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 that contribute to cartilage erosion were down-regulated, while expression of anabolic genes including Col2A1 and aggrecan were shifted towards pre-pathophysiological homeostasis. CL had the strongest overall effect on inflammatory mediators, as well as on macrophage and chondrocyte gene expression. Conversely, CAME mainly affected catabolic gene expression, whereas ABTT had a more selectively altered interleukin and chemokine gene exprssion. CL inhibited the IL-1? induced nuclear translocation of NF-?Bp65, suggesting that it primarily regulated via the NF-?B signalling pathway. Collectively, CL had the strongest effects on inflammatory mediators and chondrocyte gene expression. The data show that the phenolic diterpenes altered activity pattern of genes that regulate acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Since the substances affected catabolic and anabolic gene expression in cartilage cells in vitro, they may beneficially act on the aetiology of osteoarthritis.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play major roles in generating highly functionalized terpenoids, but identifying the exact biotransformation step(s) catalyzed by plant CYP in terpenoid biosynthesis is extremely challenging. Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid naphthoquinones that are the main lipophilic bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Whereas the diterpene synthases responsible for the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate into the abietane miltiradiene, a potential precursor to tanshinones, have been recently described, molecular characterization of further transformation of miltiradiene remains unavailable. Here we report stable-isotope labeling results that demonstrate the intermediacy of miltiradiene in tanshinone biosynthesis. We further use a next-generation sequencing approach to identify six candidate CYP genes being coregulated with the diterpene synthase genes in both the rhizome and danshen hairy roots, and demonstrate that one of these, CYP76AH1, catalyzes a unique four-electron oxidation cascade on miltiradiene to produce ferruginol both in vitro and in vivo. We then build upon the previous establishment of miltiradiene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with incorporation of CYP76AH1 and phyto-CYP reductase genes leading to heterologous production of ferruginol at 10.5 mg/L. As ferruginol has been found in many plants including danshen, the results and the approaches that were described here provide a solid foundation to further elucidate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and related diterpenoids. Moreover, these results should facilitate the construction of microbial cell factories for the production of phytoterpenoids.