Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review.
ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male.We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with combined azithromycin and minocycline therapy of 2 weeks duration, despite delayed treatment because the Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded no visible organisms. The diagnosis required 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the cultured isolate from CSF. Literature review of M. hominis CNS infections yielded 19 cases (13 instances of brain abscess, 3 of meningitis, 1 spinal cord abscess and 1 subdural empyema each). Delay in diagnosis and initial treatment failure was evident in all cases. With appropriate microbiological testing, antibiotic therapy (ranging from 5 days to 12 weeks) and often, multiple surgical interventions, almost all the patients improved immediately.Both our patient findings and the literature review, highlighted the pathogenic potential of M. hominis together with the challenges prompted by rare infectious diseases in particular for developing countries laboratories with limited diagnostic resources.
Project description:Infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are caused by a wide range of microorganisms resulting in distinct clinical syndromes including meningitis, encephalitis, and pyogenic infections, such as empyema and brain abscess. Bacterial and viral infections in the CNS can be rapidly fatal and can result in severe disability in survivors. Appropriate identification and acute management of these infections often occurs in a critical care setting and is vital to improving outcomes in this group of patients. This review of diagnosis and management of acute bacterial and viral infections in the CNS provides a general approach to patients with a suspected CNS infection and also provides a more detailed review of the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, brain abscess, and subdural empyema.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Premature infants are at risk for severe sepsis and meningitis, both infections associated with high mortality and morbidity. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) culture is the gold standard method for meningitis diagnosis, but interpretation of biochemical parameters of CSF is essential at the moment of the analysis in order to start the appropriate treatment. The main objective of this study was to determine whether levels of CSF beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were elevated in preterm infants with CNS infections or other inflammatory processes, and to establish if there were differences in B2M concentrations amongst various inflammatory settings (sepsis, meningitis, and progressive post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD)). METHODS:This is a retrospective study of all very preterm and extremely preterm infants (< 32 weeks of gestation) admitted to our NICU between 2012 and 2017. All those who underwent a lumbar puncture during their stay as part of a sepsis work-up or PHVD were considered for inclusion. CSF biochemical parameters and B2M were tested in all of the patients. RESULTS:Fifty-nine patients were included in the study. In patients with CNS infections, the median value of B2M was 8.69 mg/L (3.92-18.5). B2M levels above 3.92 mg/L showed greater sensitivity and specificity than leukocyte levels in discriminating between patients with CNS infections or other inflammatory processes and those without CNS inflammation. CONCLUSIONS:In this population, CSF B2M proved to be an effective biomarker to discriminate between patients with CNS infections and other inflammatory processes and those without CNS inflammation.
Project description:Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens in patients with CNS disease in endemic countries. Laos is representative of vast economically poor rural areas in Asia with little medical information to guide public health policy. We assessed whether these pathogens are important causes of CNS infections in Laos.Between Jan 10, 2003, and Nov 25, 2011, we enrolled 1112 consecutive patients of all ages admitted with CNS symptoms or signs requiring a lumbar puncture at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. Microbiological examinations (culture, PCR, and serology) targeted so-called conventional bacterial infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups.1051 (95%) of 1112 patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; p<0·0001) by use of conservative diagnostic definitions. CNS infections had a high mortality (236/876 [27%]), with 18% (13/71) for R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp combined, and 33% (13/39) for conventional bacterial infections (p=0·076).Our data suggest that R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp infections are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention.Wellcome Trust UK.
Project description:Objectives: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to discover protein biomarkers that could rapidly and accurately identify the likely cause of the infections, essential for clinical management and improving outcome. Methods: We applied liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry on 45 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a cohort of adults with/without CNS infections to discover potential diagnostic biomarkers. We then validated the diagnostic performance of a selected biomarker candidate in an independent cohort of 364 consecutively treated adults with CNS infections admitted to a referral hospital in Vietnam. Results: In the discovery cohort, we identified lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as a potential biomarker of bacterial meningitis (BM) other than tuberculous meningitis. The analysis of the validation cohort showed that LCN2 could discriminate BM from other CNS infections (including tuberculous meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis and viral/antibody-mediated encephalitis), with the sensitivity: 0.88 (95% confident interval (CI): 0.77-0.94), the specificity: 0.91 (95%CI: 0.88-0.94) and the diagnostic odd ratio: 73.8 (95%CI: 31.8-171.4)). LCN2 outperformed other CSF markers (leukocytes, glucose, protein and lactate) commonly used in routine care worldwide. The combination of LCN2, CSF leukocytes, glucose, protein and lactate resulted in the highest diagnostic performance for BM (area under receiver-operating-characteristic-curve 0.96; 95%CI: 0.93-0.99). Conclusions: Our results suggest that LCN2 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for discriminating BM from a broad spectrum of other CNS infections. A prospective study is needed to assess the diagnostic utility of LCN2 in the diagnosis and management of CNS infections..
Project description:Neutrophils are crucial mediators of host defense that are recruited to the central nervous system (CNS) in large numbers during acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) during infections to trap and kill bacteria. Intact NETs are fibrous structures composed of decondensed DNA and neutrophil-derived antimicrobial proteins. Here we show NETs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis, and their absence in other forms of meningitis with neutrophil influx into the CSF caused by viruses, Borrelia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In a rat model of meningitis, a clinical strain of pneumococci induced NET formation in the CSF. Disrupting NETs using DNase I significantly reduces bacterial load, demonstrating that NETs contribute to pneumococcal meningitis pathogenesis in vivo. We conclude that NETs in the CNS reduce bacterial clearance and degrading NETs using DNase I may have significant therapeutic implications.
Project description:Background:Varicella zoster virus (VZV) may cause encephalitis, both with and without rash. Here we investigate whether viruses recovered from the central nervous system (CNS; encephalitis or meningitis) differ genetically from those recovered from non-CNS samples. Methods:Enrichment-based deep sequencing of 45 VZV genomes from cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and vesicles was carried out with samples collected from 34 patients with and without VZV infection of the CNS. Results:Viral sequences from multiple sites in the same patient were identical at the consensus level. Virus from vesicle fluid and CSF in cases of meningitis showed low-level diversity. By contrast, plasma, BAL, and encephalitis had higher numbers of variant alleles. Two CSF-encephalitis samples had high genetic diversity, with variant frequency patterns typical of mixed infections with different clades. Conclusions:Low viral genetic diversity in vesicle fluid is compatible with previous observations that VZV skin lesions arise from single or low numbers of virions. A similar result was observed in VZV from cases of VZV meningitis, a generally self-limiting infection. CSF from cases of encephalitis had higher diversity with evidence for mixed clade infections in 2 cases. We hypothesize that reactivation from multiple neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of VZV encephalitis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma hominis is mostly known for causing urogenital infections. However, it has rarely been described as an agent of brain abscess. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of M. hominis brain abscess in a 41-year-old Caucasian woman following uterus curettage. The diagnosis was obtained by 16S rDNA amplification, cloning and sequencing from the abscess pus, and confirmed by a specifically designed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our patient's case suggest that M. hominis should be considered as a potential agent of brain abscess, especially following uterine manipulation.
Project description:Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the outcome of central nervous system (CNS) infections. In this study, we developed a multiplex PCR-Luminex assay for the simultaneous detection of five major pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, which frequently cause CNS infections. Through the hybridization reaction between multiplex PCR-amplified targets and oligonucleotide "anti-TAG" sequences, we found that the PCR-Luminex assay could detect as low as 10¹-10² copies of synthetic pathogen DNAs. Furthermore, 163 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections were used to evaluate the efficiency of this multiplex PCR-Luminex method. Compared with Ziehl-Neelsen stain, this assay showed a high diagnostic accuracy for tuberculosis meningitis (sensitivity, 90.7% and specificity, 99.1%). For cryptococcal meningitis, the sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 97.1%, respectively, compared with the May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) stain. For herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 encephalitis, the sensitivities were 80.8% and 100%, and the specificities were 94.2% and 99%, respectively, compared with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) assays. Taken together, this multiplex PCR-Luminex assay showed potential efficiency for the simultaneous detection of five pathogens and may be a promising supplement to conventional methods for diagnosing CNS infections.
Project description:A universal PCR assay for bacteria and fungi detected meningitis pathogens in 65% of 20 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections compared to a 35% detection rate by culture and/or microscopy methods. Thus, the PCR assay can improve the diagnosis rate of infective meningitis when standard methods provide a negative result.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The host response to intruders in the central nervous system (CNS) may be beneficial but could also be harmful and responsible for neurologic symptoms and sequelae in CNS infections. This immune response induces the activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) with the production of neuroactive metabolites. Herein, we explored cytokine and KP responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in patients with encephalitis, aseptic, and bacterial meningitis. METHODS:Cytokines were measured in CSF and serum by multiplex assay in adult patients with encephalitis of infectious, autoimmune or unknown etiology (n?=?10), aseptic meningitis (ASM, n?=?25), acute bacterial meningitis (ABM, n?=?6), and disease control patients with similar symptoms but without pleocytosis in CSF (n?=?42). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) was used to measure KP metabolites in CSF and serum. RESULTS:A characteristic pattern of increasing cytokine levels and KP metabolites was found in CSF from encephalitis to ASM, with the highest levels in ABM. In ASM and ABM, most inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), showed markedly elevated levels in CSF compared with serum, indicating production within the CNS. In contrast to most mediators, the highest level of IP-10 was found in the ASM group, suggesting a potential role for IP-10 in aseptic/viral meningitis. Neopterin and IP-10 were associated with marked changes in KP metabolites in CSF with increasing kynurenine/tryptophan ratio reflecting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Neopterin, a marker of IFN-? activity, was associated with an unfavorable balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic tryptophan metabolites. CONCLUSION:We show that parenchymal and meningeal inflammations in CNS share a characteristic cytokine profile with a general immune response in the CSF with limited influence from the systemic circulation. IFN-? activity, assessed by neopterin and IP-10 levels, may play a role in the activation of the KP pathway in these patients, potentially mediating neurotoxic effects.