Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised.
ABSTRACT: The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised is one of the most widely used measures of individual differences for the emotion of disgust. It consists of 2 subscales: disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the revised Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale. Japanese participants (N = 1067) completed the scale as well as the Padua Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule. The participants were divided into 3 samples: Sample 1 (n = 481, mean age = 23.05, 186 males and 295 females); Sample 2 (n = 492, mean age = 20.27, 243 males and 249 females); and Sample 3 (n = 94, mean age = 22.68, 35 males and 58 females). We combined Samples 1 and 2 (n = 973, mean age = 21.66, 429 males and 544 females), and then created 2 subsamples to ensure the mutual independence of the samples used for two different factor analyses: subsample 1 (n = 486, mean age = 21.86, 199 male and 287 female) for exploratory factor analysis and subsample 2 (n = 487, mean age = 21.40, 230 male and 257 female) for confirmatory factor analysis. We examined test-retest reliability using Sample 3, and construct validity using Samples 1, 2, and the combined sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the item-factor structure of the Japanese Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised was identical to the English version. Moreover, the scale showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity for empirical support as provided by correlational analyses. Results revealed adequate psychometric properties of the scale. This study provided the first examples of empirical support for the DPSS-R-J.
Project description:The present study examined the internal and external validity of the French version of the 12-item Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-12) in a nonclinical sample from the general population. Two hundred and eighty-two participants completed the DPSSf-12 questionnaire as well as the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Anxiety Trait (STAI B), Obsessional Belief Questionnaire 44 items (OBQ 44), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported a 2-factor structure after two sensitivity items were removed. The 10-item scale showed good internal consistency, construct validity and test-retest reliability. These adequate psychometric properties make the DPSSf-10 appropriate for use by researchers and practitioners.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Disgust sensitivity is defined as a predisposition to experiencing disgust, which can be measured on the basis of the Disgust Scale and its German version, the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Disgust Sensitivity (QADS). In various studies, different factor structures were reported for either instrument. The differences may most likely be due to the selected factor analysis estimation methods and the small non-representative samples. Consequently, the aims of this study were to explore and confirm a theory-driven and statistically coherent QADS factor structure in a large representative sample and to present its standard values. METHODS: The QADS was answered by N = 2473 healthy subjects. The respective households and participants were selected using the random-route sampling method. Afterwards, the collected sample was compared to the information from the Federal Statistical Office to ensure that it was representative for the German residential population. With these data, an exploratory Promax-rotated Principal Axis Factor Analysis as well as comparative confirmatory factor analyses with robust Maximum Likelihood estimations were computed. Any possible socio-demographic influences were quantified as effect sizes. RESULTS: The data-driven and theoretically sound solution with the three highly interrelated factors Animal Reminder Disgust, Core Disgust, and Contamination Disgust led to a moderate model fit. All QADS scales had very good reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) from .90 to .95. There were no age-differences found among the participants, however, the female participants showed remarkably higher disgust ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the representative sample, the QADS factor structure was revised. Gender-specific standard percentages permit a population-based assessment of individual disgust sensitivity. The differences of the original QADS, the new solution, and the Disgust Scale - Revised will be discussed.
Project description:African Americans report greater contamination aversion than European Americans. Few studies have attempted to identify potential causes for this elevated contamination aversion, though existing research and theory suggests this may be partly due to concomitant heightened disgust sensitivity. The present study examined the relations between race, disgust sensitivity, and contamination aversion among African and European Americans. A convenience sample of fourhundred and twenty-nine participants completed the Disgust Scale - Revised (DS-R) and the Padua Inventory - Revised (PI-R). African Americans endorsed greater disgust sensitivity (DS-R total) - particularly on the core and contamination subscales of the DS-R - and scored higher on the contamination subscale of the PI-R (but not on other subscales) than European Americans. Mediational analyses revealed a significant total effect of race on contamination aversion and a significant indirect effect of race on contamination aversion through disgust sensitivity; the direct effect of race on contamination aversion remained significant even after controlling for race. These findings suggest that elevated contamination aversions among African Americans may be partly due to elevated disgust sensitivity. If confirmed with larger and clinical samples, and more robust experimental methods, this relationship may prove to have implications for the treatment of contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among African Americans.
Project description:This paper continues our previous study in which we examined the respondents' reaction to two morphologically different snake stimuli categories - one evoking exclusively fear and another evoking exclusively disgust. Here we acquired Likert-type scale scores of fear and disgust evoked by the same snake stimuli by a total of 330 respondents. Moreover, we collected data about the respondents' age, gender, education, snake fear [Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ)], and disgust propensity [Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R)], and we analyzed the effect of these variables on the emotional scores (with special focus on snake-fearful respondents). In addition, we collected the SNAQ and DS-R scores from the respondents tested in the previous study using the rank-ordering method to directly compare the results of these two approaches. The results showed that non-fearful respondents give high scores of fear to the fear-eliciting snakes and high scores of disgust to the disgust-eliciting snakes, but they give low scores of the other emotional dimension (disgust/fear) to each. In contrast, snake-fearful respondents not only give higher fear and disgust scores to the respective snake stimuli, but they also give high scores of fear to the disgust-eliciting snakes and high scores of disgust to the fear-eliciting snakes. Both Likert-scale scores and rank-ordering data show that the clear border dividing both snake stimuli categories dissolves when evaluated by the snake-fearful respondents.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Emergency physicians encounter scenarios daily that many would consider "disgusting," including exposure to blood, pus, and stool. Physicians in procedural specialties such as surgery and emergency medicine (EM) have lower disgust sensitivity overall, but the role this plays in clinical practice is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether emergency physicians with higher disgust sensitivity see fewer "disgusting" cases during training. METHODS:All EM residents at a midsize urban EM program were eligible to complete the Disgust Scale Revised (DS-R). We preidentified cases as "disgust elicitors" based on diagnoses likely to induce disgust due to physician exposure to bodily fluids, anogenital anatomy, or gross deformity. The "disgust elicitor" case percent was determined by "disgust elicitor" cases seen as the primary resident divided by the number of cases seen thus far in residency. We calculated Pearson's r, t-tests and descriptive statistics on resident and population DS-R scores and "disgust elicitor" cases per month. RESULTS:Mean DS-R for EM residents (n = 40) was 1.20 (standard deviation [SD] 1.24), significantly less than the population mean of 1.67 (SD 0.61, p<0.05). There was no correlation (r = -0.04) between "disgust elicitor" case (n = 2191) percent and DS-R scores. There was no significant difference between DS-R scores for junior residents (31.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.8-35.4) and for senior residents (29.0, 95%CI, 23.4-34.6). CONCLUSION:Higher disgust sensitivity does not appear to be correlated with a lower percentage of "disgust elicitor" cases seen during EM residency.
Project description:Consistent with the view that disgust might be involved in persistent body dissatisfaction, there is preliminary evidence showing a positive correlation between measures of negative body image and indices of both trait disgust and self-directed disgust. In two correlational studies among undergraduates (N = 577 and N = 346, respectively) we aimed at replicating and extending these findings by testing a series of critical relationships, which follow from our hypotheses that 1) trait disgust propensity would increase the risk of developing a negative body image by increasing the likelihood of feeling self-disgust, and 2) trait disgust sensitivity would heighten the impact of self-disgust on the development of persistent negative body appraisals. Replicating previous research, both studies showed that negative body image was positively related to self-disgust, disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. Mediation analyses showed that, in line with our model, self-disgust partly accounted for the association between disgust propensity and negative body image. Although disgust sensitivity showed an independent relationship with body image, disgust sensitivity did not moderate the association between self-disgust and negative body image. All in all, findings are consistent with the view that self-disgust-induced avoidance may contribute to persistent negative body appraisals.
Project description:Previous research has shown inconsistent findings regarding the relations between the functional Val158Met polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and individual differences in personality traits. This study attempts to overcome some of the weaknesses of previous research, namely, small sample sizes, clinical samples, ethnic stratification, wide age ranges, neglecting sex differences, and single measures of personality traits. A large sample (n = 556, 250 male, 306 female) of healthy Chinese college students (mean age = 20.5 ± 1 years) was given a battery of personality scales, including the temperament and character inventory-revised, the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system scale, the Beck depression inventory, and the Beck anxiety inventory. Factor analysis of the affect-related personality traits revealed two factors that corresponded to positive (PEM) and negative emotionality (NEM). We found a consistent COMT-by-sex interaction effect on affect-related personality traits. Compared with males with Met/Met alleles, males with Val/Val alleles showed significantly higher scores on NEM, but lower scores on PEM. Females, however, showed an opposite but nonsignificant pattern. Our results supported the role of the COMT gene in personality traits for males and contributed to the growing literature on sex differences in gene-behavior connections.
Project description:Importance:National longitudinal studies that examine the linkages between early family experiences and sex-specific development of depression across the life course are lacking despite the urgent need for interventions in family settings to prevent adult depression. Objective:To examine whether positive adolescent family relationships are associated with reduced depressive symptoms among women and men as they enter midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, which used a multistage, stratified school-based design to select a prospective cohort of 20?745 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 from January 3, 1994, to December 26, 1995 (wave 1). Respondents were followed up during 4 additional waves from April 14 to September 9, 1996 (wave 2); April 2, 2001, to May 9, 2002 (wave 3); April 3, 2007, to February 1, 2009 (wave 4); and March 3, 2016, to May 8, 2017 (sample 1, wave 5), when the cohort was aged 32 to 42 years. The study sample of 8952 male adolescents and 9233 female adolescents that were analyzed was a US national representation of all population subgroups by sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography. Exposures:Adolescent family cohesion and low parent-child conflict. Main Outcomes and Measures:Levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) from ages 12 to 42 years were used to estimate propensity score-weighted growth curve models to assess sex differences in trajectories of depression by levels of positive adolescent family relationships. Results:A total of 18 185 individuals (mean [SD] age at wave 1, 15.42 [0.12] years; 9233 [50.8%] female) participated in the study. Females and males who experienced positive adolescent family relationships had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms from early adolescence to midlife than did those who experienced less positive adolescent family relationships. For example, depressive symptoms were lower among those with high levels of family cohesion compared with those with low cohesion between 12 (1.26 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 1.10-1.42) and 40 (0.78 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 0.50-1.06) years of age among females and between 12 (0.72 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86) and 37 (0.21 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 0.00-0.41) years of age among males. The reduction in depressive symptoms associated with positive adolescent family relationships was greater for females than males during the adolescent and early adulthood years (ie, early 20s) (eg, low-high cohesion difference in mean CES-D score, -1.26 [95% CI, -1.42 to -1.10] for females and -0.72 [95% CI, -0.86 to -0.57] for males at 12 years of age; low-high cohesion difference in mean CES-D score, -0.61 [95% CI, -0.69 to -0.53] for females and -0.40 [95% CI, -0.48 to -0.31] for males at 20 years of age), after which females and males benefited equally from positive adolescent relationships throughout young adulthood to midlife. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings suggest that positive adolescent family relationships are associated with better mental health among females and males from early adolescence to midlife. Interventions in early family life to foster healthy mental development throughout the life course appear to be important.
Project description:The role of emotional disgust and disgust sensitivity in moral judgment and decision-making has been debated intensively for over 20 years. Until very recently, there were two main evolutionary narratives for this rather puzzling association. One of the models suggest that it was developed through some form of group selection mechanism, where the internal norms of the groups were acting as pathogen safety mechanisms. Another model suggested that these mechanisms were developed through hygiene norms, which were piggybacking on pathogen disgust mechanisms. In this study we present another alternative, namely that this mechanism might have evolved through sexual disgust sensitivity. We note that though the role of disgust in moral judgment has been questioned recently, few studies have taken disgust sensitivity to account. We present data from a large sample (N?=?1300) where we analyzed the associations between The Three Domain Disgust Scale and the most commonly used 12 moral dilemmas measuring utilitarian/deontological preferences with Structural Equation Modeling. Our results indicate that of the three domains of disgust, only sexual disgust is associated with more deontological moral preferences. We also found that pathogen disgust was associated with more utilitarian preferences. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Project description:Background:Females with autism spectrum disorder have been reported to exhibit fewer and less severe restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests compared to males. This difference might indicate sex-specific alterations of brain networks involved in autism symptom domains, especially within cortico-striatal and sensory integration networks. This study used a well-controlled twin design to examine sex differences in brain anatomy in relation to repetitive behaviors. Methods:In 75 twin pairs (n = 150, 62 females, 88 males) enriched for autism spectrum disorder (n = 32), and other neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 32), we explored the association of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests-operationalized by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (C domain) and the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior subscale)-with cortical volume, surface area and thickness of neocortical, sub-cortical, and cerebellar networks. Results:Co-twin control analyses revealed within-pair associations between RRBI symptoms and increased thickness of the right intraparietal sulcus and reduced volume of the right orbital gyrus in females only, even though the mean number of RRBIs did not differ between the sexes. In a sub-sample of ASD-discordant pairs, increased thickness in association with RRBIs was found exclusively in females in the orbitofrontal regions, superior frontal gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, while in males RRBIs tended to be associated with increased volume of the bilateral pallidum. Limitations:However, due to a small sample size and the small difference in RRBI symptoms within pairs, the results of this exploratory study need to be interpreted with caution. Conclusions:Our findings suggest that structural alterations of fronto-parietal networks in association with RRBIs are found mostly in females, while striatal networks are more affected in males. These results endorse the importance of investigating sex differences in the neurobiology of autism symptoms, and indicate different etiological pathways underlying restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests in females and males.