Short-term Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution on Lung Function among Female Non-smokers in China.
ABSTRACT: Short-term exposures to outdoor air pollutants have been associated with lower lung function, but the results are inconsistence. The effects of different pollutant levels on lung function changes are still unclear. We quantified the effects of outdoor air pollution exposure (NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5) on lung function among 1,694 female non-smokers from the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort in China by using linear mixed model. We further investigated the associations in the two cities with different air quality levels separately to quantify the effects of different pollutant level exposure on lung function. We found the moving averages of NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly associated with reduced FVC. In city at high pollutant level, the moving average of NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5 exposures were significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 reductions. In the low-level air pollution city, PM10 (Lag03-Lag05) and O3 concentrations (Lag01-Lag03) were significantly associated with reduced FVC, while PM10 (Lag03-Lag05), O3 (Lag0-Lag03), and PM2.5 (Lag04-Lag06) exposure were significantly associated with reduced FEV1. Our results suggest that outdoor air pollution is associated with short-term adverse effects on lung function among female non-smokers. The adverse effects may persist for longer durations within 7 days at higher air pollutant levels.
Project description:Previous studies have reported adverse effects of either regional or near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) on lung function. However, there has been little study of the joint effects of these exposures.To assess the joint effects of NRAP and regional pollutants on childhood lung function in the Children's Health Study.Lung function was measured on 1811 children from eight Southern Californian communities. NRAP exposure was assessed based on (1) residential distance to the nearest freeway or major road and (2) estimated near-roadway contributions to residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and total nitrogen oxides (NOx). Exposure to regional ozone (O3), NO2, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10?µm (PM10) and 2.5?µm (PM2.5) was measured continuously at community monitors.An increase in near-roadway NOx of 17.9?ppb (2 SD) was associated with deficits of 1.6% in forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.005) and 1.1% in forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) (p=0.048). Effects were observed in all communities and were similar for NO2 and NO. Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with a reduction in FVC. Lung function deficits of 2-3% were associated with regional PM10 and PM2.5 (FVC and FEV1) and with O3 (FEV1), but not NO2 across the range of exposure between communities. Associations with regional pollution and NRAP were independent in models adjusted for each. The effects of NRAP were not modified by regional pollutant concentrations.The results indicate that NRAP and regional air pollution have independent adverse effects on childhood lung function.
Project description:There is limited knowledge about the extent to which estimates of air pollution effects on health are affected by the choice for a specific exposure model.We aimed to evaluate the correlation between long-term air pollution exposure estimates using two commonly used exposure modeling techniques [dispersion and land use regression (LUR) models] and, in addition, to compare the estimates of the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function in children using these exposure modeling techniques.We used data of 1,058 participants of a Dutch birth cohort study with measured forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements at 8 years of age. For each child, annual average outdoor air pollution exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mass concentration of particulate matter with diameters ? 2.5 and ? 10 ?m (PM2.5, PM10), and PM2.5 soot] was estimated for the current addresses of the participants by a dispersion and a LUR model. Associations between exposures to air pollution and lung function parameters were estimated using linear regression analysis with confounder adjustment.Correlations between LUR- and dispersion-modeled pollution concentrations were high for NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 soot (R = 0.86-0.90) but low for PM10 (R = 0.57). Associations with lung function were similar for air pollutant exposures estimated using LUR and dispersion modeling, except for associations of PM2.5 with FEV1 and FVC, which were stronger but less precise for exposures based on LUR compared with dispersion model.Predictions from LUR and dispersion models correlated very well for PM2.5, NO2, and PM2.5 soot but not for PM10. Health effect estimates did not depend on the type of model used to estimate exposure in a population of Dutch children.
Project description:Air pollution exposure is associated with acute exacerbation, disease progression, and mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of this study was to describe the impact of air pollution exposures on disease severity, as well as changes in lung function, in patients with IPF.Using home spirometers and symptom diaries, 25 patients with IPF prospectively recorded FVC weekly for up to 40 weeks. Residential addresses were geocoded to estimate weekly mean air pollution exposures for ground-level ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter < 2.5 or 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). The dependence of weekly clinical measurements on preceding levels of each pollutant was assessed with the use of linear mixed models, yielding beta-coefficients with 95% CIs, using varying lag times.Lower mean FVC % predicted was consistently associated with increased mean exposures to PM10 in the 2 to 5 weeks preceding clinical measurements (range, -0.46 to -0.39 [95% CI, -0.73 to -0.13]; P < .005). Lower mean FVC % predicted over the study period was inversely related to mean levels of NO2 (-0.45 [95% CI, -0.85 to -0.05]; P = .03), PM2.5 (-0.45 [95% CI, -0.84 to -0.07]; P = .02), and PM10 (-0.57 [95% CI, -0.92 to -0.21]; P = .003), averaged over the study. Weekly changes in FVC and changes over 40 weeks were independent of pollution exposures.Higher air pollution exposures were associated with lower lung function, but not changes in lung function, in patients with IPF. Further studies are needed to characterize the mechanisms underlying this relationship.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 ?m) has multiple adverse effects on human health, especially on the respiratory and circulatory system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of PM2.5 on the mortality risk of non-accidental and circulatory diseases, and to explore the potential effect modification by sex, education and death location. METHODS:We collected daily mortality counts of Changchun (China) residents, daily meteorology and air pollution data, from January 1, 2014, to January 1, 2017. We focused on the elderly (?65 years old) population who died from non-accidental causes and circulatory diseases, and stratified them by sex, education, and death location. A generalized additive Poisson regression model (GAM) was used to analyse the impact of air pollutants on mortality. We fit single pollutant models to examine PM2.5 effects with different lag structures of single-day (distributed lag:lag0-lag3) and multi-day (moving average lag: lag01-lag03). To test the sensitivity of the model, a multi-pollutant model was established when the PM2.5 effect was strongest. RESULTS:In the single pollutant models, an increment of PM2.5 by 10 ?g/m3 at lag0-3 was associated with a 0.385% (95% CI: 0.069% to 0.702%) increase in daily non-accidental mortality and a 0.442% (95% CI: 0.038% to 0.848%) increase in daily circulatory disease mortality. NO2 (lag1) and O3 (lag0, lag1, lag2, lag01,lag02, lag03) were associated with daily non-accidental death and NO2 (lag1, lag3, lag03) and O3 (lag0, lag1, lag01,lag02, lag03) were associated with daily circulatory disease mortality. In the co-pollutant models, the risk estimates for PM2.5 changed slightly. The excess mortality risk of non-accidental and circulatory diseases was higher for women, people with low education, and died outside hospital. CONCLUSIONS:We found that short-term exposure to PM2.5 increased the mortality risk of non-accidental and circulatory diseases among the elderly in Changchun. Women, people with low education and died outside hospital are more susceptible to PM2.5. NO2 and O3 were also associated with an increase in mortality from non-accidental and circulatory diseases and the O3 is a high effect.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have investigated the associations between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for respiratory diseases (RDs) in general population. METHODS:We collected daily outpatient data of primary RDs from five hospitals in Jinan during January 2012 and December 2016, as well as daily measurements of air pollutants from the Jinan Environmental Monitoring Center and daily meteorological variables from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. A generalized additive model (GAM) with quasi-Poisson regression was constructed to estimate the associations between daily average concentrations of outdoor air pollutants (PM2.5,PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) and daily outpatient visits of RDs after adjusting for long-time trends, seasonality, the "day of the week" effect, and weather conditions. Subgroup analysis stratified by gender, age group and the type of RDs was conducted. RESULTS:A total of 1,373,658 outpatient visits for RDs were identified. Increases of 10??g/m3 in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO and O3 were associated with0.168% (95% CI, 0.072-0.265%), 0.149% (95% CI, 0.082-0.215%), 0.527% (95% CI, 0.211-0.843%), 0.013% (95% CI, 0.003-0.023%), and 0.189% (95% CI, 0.032-0.347%) increases in daily outpatient visits for RDs, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 showed instant and continuous effects, while NO2, CO and O3 showed delayed effects on outpatient visits for RDs. In stratification analysis, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with acute RDs only. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to outdoor air pollutants including PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO and O3 associated with increased risk of outpatient visits for RDs.
Project description:Exposure to air pollutants has been related to preterm birth, but little evidence can be available for PM2.5, O3 and CO in China. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of exposure to air pollutants on risk preterm birth during 2014-2016 in Ningbo, China.We conducted a time-series study to evaluate the associations between daily preterm birth and major air pollutants (including PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO) in Ningbo during 2014-2016. A General Additive Model extend Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between preterm birth and air pollution with adjustment for time-trend, meteorological factors and day of the week (DOW). We also conducted a subgroup analysis by season and age.In this study, a total of 37,389 birth occurred between 2014 and 2016 from the Electronic Medical Records System of Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital, of which 5428 were verified as preterm birth. The single pollutant model suggested that lag effect of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 reached a peak at day 3 before delivery and day 6 for SO2, and no relationships were observed for O3 and preterm birth. Excess risks (95% confidence intervals) for an increase of IQR of air pollutant concentrations were 4.84 (95% CI: 1.77, 8.00) for PM2.5, 3.56 (95% CI: 0.07, 7.17) for PM10, 3.65 (95% CI: 0.86, 6.51) for SO2, 6.49 (95% CI: 1.86, 11.34) for NO2, -?0.90 (95% CI: -4.76, 3.11) for O3, and 3.36 (95% CI: 0.50, 6.30) for CO. Sensitivity analyses by exclusion of maternal age?<?18 or?>?35 years did not materially alter our results.This study indicates that short-term exposure to air pollutants (including PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2) are positively associated with risk of preterm birth in Ningbo, China.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. DESIGN:Health impact assessment. SETTING:City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300?000 residents). DATA SOURCES:Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999-2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999-2008. RESULTS:Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as 'target' concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5?years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI -2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI -1 to 8). Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. CONCLUSIONS:Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control.
Project description:The purpose of this data, was to evaluate the air quality index of Kerman city in different season of 2015. The data showed that the PM10 and O3 were highest in the winter season and PM2.5, CO, SO2 and NO2 in the spring season as the air quality indexes. The highest number of unhealthy days was observed in spring in relation to PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants. The data showed that 33 and 9 days of the spring season had unfavorable conditions in relation PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants respectively. Therefore, the pollutant responsible for air pollution in Kerman was PM2.5. By comparing the air quality index in different seasons of 2015 in terms of different pollutants, it was found that in most of the seasons, Kerman has a desirable air quality index.
Project description:We investigated temporal variations of ambient air pollutants and the influences of meteorological parameters on their concentrations using a robust method; convergent cross mapping; in Tehran (2012-2017). Tehran citizens were consistently exposed to annual PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 approximately 3.0-4.5, 3.5-4.5 and 1.5-2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization air quality guideline levels during the period. Except for O3, all air pollutants demonstrated the lowest and highest concentrations in summertime and wintertime, respectively. The highest O3 concentrations were found on weekend (weekend effect), whereas other ambient air pollutants had statistically significant (P?<?0.05) daily variations in which higher concentrations were observed on weekdays compared to weekend (holiday effect). Hourly O3 concentration reached its peak at 3.00 p.m., though other air pollutants displayed two peaks; morning and late night. Approximately 45% to 65% of AQI values were in the subcategory of unhealthy for sensitive groups and PM2.5 was the responsible air pollutant in Tehran. Amongst meteorological factors, temperature was the key influencing factor for PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, while nebulosity and solar radiation exerted major influences on ambient SO2 and O3 concentrations. Additionally, there is a moderate coupling between wind speed and NO2 and CO concentrations.
Project description:The associations between ambient air pollutants and tuberculosis seasonality are unclear. We assessed the temporal cross-correlations between ambient air pollutants and tuberculosis seasonality. Monthly tuberculosis incidence data and ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2)) and air quality index (AQI) from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai were included. A cross-correlogram and generalized additive model were used. A 4-month delayed effect of PM2.5 (0.55), PM10 (0.52), SO2 (0.47), NO2 (0.40), CO (0.39), and AQI (0.45), and a 6-month delayed effect of O3 (-0.38) on the incidence of tuberculosis were found. The number of tuberculosis cases increased by 8%, 4%, 18%, and 14% for a 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2; 4% for a 10 unit increment in AQI; 8% for a 0.1 mg/m3 increment in CO; and decreased by 4% for a 10 μg/m3 increment in O3. PM2.5 concentrations above 50 μg/m3, 70 μg/m3 for PM10, 16 μg/m3 for SO2, 47 μg/m3 for NO2, 0.85 mg/m3 for CO, and 85 for AQI, and O3 concentrations lower than 95 μg/m3 were positively associated with the incidence of tuberculosis. Ambient air pollutants were correlated with tuberculosis seasonality. However, this sort of study cannot prove causality.