Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage.
ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1?mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87-96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage.
Project description:In Comamonas testosteroni TA441, testosterone is degraded via aromatization of the A ring, which is cleaved by the meta-cleavage enzyme TesB, and further degraded by TesD, the hydrolase for the product of TesB. TesEFG, encoded downstream of TesD, are probably hydratase, aldolase, and dehydrogenase for degradation of 2-oxohex-4-enoicacid, one of the products of TesD. Here we present a new and unique steroid degradation gene cluster in TA441, which consists of ORF18, ORF17, tesI, tesH, ORF11, ORF12, and tesDEFG. TesH and TesI are 3-ketosteroid-Delta(1)-dehydrogenase and 3-ketosteroid-Delta(4)(5alpha)-dehydrogenase, respectively, which work in the early steps of steroid degradation. ORF17 probably encodes the reductase component of 9alpha-hydroxylase for 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, which is the product of TesH in testosterone degradation. Gene disruption experiments showed that these genes are necessary for steroid degradation and do not have any isozymes in TA441. By Northern blot analysis, these genes were shown to be induced when TA441 was incubated with steroids (testosterone and cholic acid) but not with aromatic compounds [phenol, biphenyl, and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid], indicating that these genes function exclusively in steroid degradation.
Project description:Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades steroids such as testosterone via aromatization of the A ring, followed by meta-cleavage of the ring. In the DNA region upstream of the meta-cleavage enzyme gene tesB, two genes required during cholic acid degradation for the inversion of an alpha-oriented hydroxyl group on C-12 were identified. A dehydrogenase, SteA, converts 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione to 7 alpha-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,12,17-trione, and a hydrogenase, SteB, converts the latter to 7 alpha,12 beta-dihydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione. Both enzymes are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The transformation of 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione to 7 alpha,12 beta-dihydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione is carried out far more effectively when both SteA and SteB are involved together. These two enzymes are encoded by two adjacent genes and are presumed to be expressed together. Inversion of the hydroxyl group at C-12 is indispensable for the subsequent effective B-ring cleavage of the androstane compound. In addition to the compounds already mentioned, 12 alpha-hydroxyandrosta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione and 12 beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione were identified as minor intermediate compounds in cholic acid degradation by C. testosteroni TA441.
Project description:Steroid hormones, such as androgens, are common surface-water contaminants. However, literature on the ecophysiological relevance of steroid-degrading organisms in the environment, particularly in anoxic ecosystems, is extremely limited. We previously reported that Steroidobacter denitrificans anaerobically degrades androgens through the 2,3-seco pathway. In this study, the genome of Sdo. denitrificans was completely sequenced. Transcriptomic data revealed gene clusters that were distinctly expressed during anaerobic growth on testosterone. We isolated and characterized the bifunctional 1-testosterone hydratase/dehydrogenase, which is essential for anaerobic degradation of steroid A-ring. Because of apparent substrate preference of this molybdoenzyme, corresponding genes, along with the signature metabolites of the 2,3-seco pathway, were used as biomarkers to investigate androgen biodegradation in the largest sewage treatment plant in Taipei, Taiwan. Androgen metabolite analysis indicated that denitrifying bacteria in anoxic sewage use the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade androgens. Metagenomic analysis and PCR-based functional assays showed androgen degradation in anoxic sewage by Thauera spp. through the action of 1-testosterone hydratase/dehydrogenase. Our integrative 'omics' approach can be used for culture-independent investigations of the microbial degradation of structurally complex compounds where isotope-labeled substrates are not easily available.
Project description:Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238-3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway in such organisms is described. Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ18526 was shown to be capable of degrading testosterone in the absence of oxygen and was selected as the model organism in this study. In a previous investigation, we identified the initial intermediates involved in an anoxic testosterone catabolic pathway, most of which are identical to those of the oxic pathway demonstrated in Comamonas testosteroni. In this study, five additional intermediates of the anoxic pathway were identified. We demonstrated that subsequent steps of the anoxic pathway greatly differ from those of the established oxic pathway, which suggests that a novel pathway for testosterone catabolism is present. In the proposed anoxic pathway, a reduction reaction occurs at C-4 and C-5 of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, the last common intermediate of both the oxic and anoxic pathways. After that, a novel hydration reaction occurs and a hydroxyl group is thus introduced to the C-1? position of C(19)steroid substrates. To our knowledge, an enzymatic hydration reaction occurring at the A ring of steroid compounds has not been reported before.
Project description:C. testosteroni is a research topic that can degrade steroid hormones into water and carbon dioxide through a series of enzymes in the body. Short-chain dehydrogenase (SDR) are a class of NAD (P) H-dependent oxidoreductases in C. testosteroni. Its main function is catalyzing the redox of the hydroxyl/ketone group of the hormone. In this paper, a SDR gene(SDRx) is cloned from C. testosteroni ATCC11996 and expressed. The polyclonal antibody was prepared and the SDRx gene knocked out by homologous recombination. Wild type and mutant C. testosteroni induced by testosterone, estradiol, estrone and estriol. The growth curves of the bacteria were measured by spectrophotometer. ELISA established the expression of SDRx protein, and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) detected the contents of various hormones. The results show that the growth of wild type was faster than mutant type induced by testosterone. The concentration of SDRx is 0.318?mg/ml under testosterone induction. It has a great change in steroid hormones residue in culture medium measured by HPLC: Testosterone residue in the mutant type group was 42.4 % more than the wild type in culture medium. The same thing happens with induced by estrone. In summary, this SDRx gene involved in the degradation of testosterone and estradiol, and effects the growth of C. testosteroni.
Project description:In a previous study we isolated the meta-cleavage enzyme gene, tesB, that encodes an enzyme that carries out a meta-cleavage reaction in the breakdown of testosterone by Comamonas testeroni TA441 (M. Horinouchi et al., Microbiology 147:3367-3375, 2001). Here we report the isolation of a gene, tesD, that encodes a hydrolase which acts on the product of the meta-cleavage reaction. We isolated tesD by using a Tn5 mutant of TA441 that showed limited growth on testosterone. TesD exhibited ca. 40% identity in amino acid sequence with BphDs, known hydrolases of biphenyl degradation in Pseudomonas spp. The TesD-disrupted mutant showed limited growth on testosterone, and the culture shows an intense yellow color. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the culture of TesD-disrupted mutant incubated with testosterone detected five major intermediate compounds, one of which, showing yellow color under neutral conditions, was considered to be the product of the meta-cleavage reaction. The methylation product was analyzed and identified as methyl-4,5-9,10-diseco-3-methoxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oate, indicating that the substrate of TesD in testosterone degradation is 4,5-9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oic acid. 4,5-9,10-Diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oic acid was transformed by Escherichia coli-expressed TesD. Downstream of tesD, we identified tesE, F, and G, which encode for enzymes that degrade one of the products of 4,5-9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oic acid converted by TesD.
Project description:Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades steroids via aromatization of the A ring, followed by degradation of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid, mainly by ?-oxidation. In this study, we revealed that 7?,9?-dihydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostanoic acid-coenzyme A (CoA) ester is dehydrogenated by (3S)-3-hydroxylacyl CoA-dehydrogenase, encoded by scdE (ORF27), and then the resultant 9?-hydroxy-7,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid-CoA ester is converted by 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase, encoded by scdF (ORF23). With these results, the whole cycle of ?-oxidation on the side chain at C-8 of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid is clarified; 9-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid-CoA ester is dehydrogenated at C-6 by ScdC1C2, followed by hydration by ScdD. 7?,9?-Dihydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostanoic acid-CoA ester then is dehydrogenated by ScdE to be converted to 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,10,19-octanorandrostan-7-oic acid-CoA ester and acetyl-CoA by ScdF. ScdF is an ortholog of FadA6 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, which was reported as a 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase involved in C ring cleavage. We also obtained results suggesting that ScdF is also involved in C ring cleavage, but further investigation is required for confirmation. ORF25 and ORF26, located between scdF and scdE, encode enzymes belonging to the amidase superfamily. Disrupting either ORF25 or ORF26 did not affect steroid degradation. Among the bacteria having gene clusters similar to those of tesB to tesR, some have both ORF25- and ORF26-like proteins or only an ORF26-like protein, but others do not have either ORF25- or ORF26-like proteins. ORF25 and ORF26 are not crucial for steroid degradation, yet they might provide clues to elucidate the evolution of bacterial steroid degradation clusters.IMPORTANCE Studies on bacterial steroid degradation were initiated more than 50?years ago primarily to obtain materials for steroid drugs. Steroid-degrading bacteria are globally distributed, and the role of bacterial steroid degradation in the environment as well as in relation to human health is attracting attention. The overall aerobic degradation of the four basic steroidal rings has been proposed; however, there is still much to be revealed to understand the complete degradation pathway. This study aims to uncover the whole steroid degradation process in Comamonas testosteroni TA441 as a model of steroid-degrading bacteria. C. testosteroni is one of the most studied representative steroid-degrading bacteria and is suitable for exploring the degradation pathway, because the involvement of degradation-related genes can be determined by gene disruption. Here, we elucidated the entire ?-oxidation cycle of the cleaved B ring. This cycle is essential for the following C and D ring cleavage.
Project description:The aerobic degradation of steroids by bacteria has been studied in some detail. In contrast, only little is known about the anaerobic steroid catabolism. Steroidobacter denitrificans can utilize testosterone under both oxic and anoxic conditions. By conducting metabolomic investigations, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans adopts the 9,10-seco-pathway to degrade testosterone under oxic conditions. This pathway depends on the use of oxygenases for oxygenolytic ring fission. Conversely, the detected degradation intermediates under anoxic conditions suggest a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway, the 2,3-seco-pathway, which differs significantly from the aerobic route. In this anaerobic pathway, testosterone is first transformed to 1-dehydrotestosterone, which is then reduced to produce 1-testosterone followed by water addition to the C-1/C-2 double bond of 1-testosterone. Subsequently, the C-1 hydroxyl group is oxidized to produce 17-hydroxy-androstan-1,3-dione. The A-ring of this compound is cleaved by hydrolysis as evidenced by H2(18)O-incorporation experiments. Regardless of the growth conditions, testosterone is initially transformed to 1-dehydrotestosterone. This intermediate is a divergence point at which the downstream degradation pathway is governed by oxygen availability. Our results shed light into the previously unknown cleavage of the sterane ring structure without oxygen. We show that, under anoxic conditions, the microbial cleavage of steroidal core ring system begins at the A-ring.
Project description:Purpose: find testosterone/17 beta-estradiol degrading genes in strain Comamonas testosteroni JLU460ET Overall design: Strain Comamonas testosteroni JLU460ET was incabated with testosterone or 17 beta-estradiol. Samples were collected at different incubation time points for RNA sequencing.
Project description:We have identified a new steroid-inducible gene (designated teiR [testosterone-inducible regulator]) in Comamonas testosteroni that is required for testosterone degradation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of teiR predicts a 391-amino-acid protein which shows homology between residues 327 and 380 (C-terminal domain) to the LuxR helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain and between residues 192 and 227 to the PAS sensor domain. This domain distribution resembles that described for TraR, a specific transcriptional regulator involved in quorum sensing in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Analysis of the gene expression indicated that teiR is tightly controlled at the transcriptional level by the presence of testosterone in the culture medium. A teiR-disrupted mutant strain was completely unable to use testosterone as the sole carbon and energy source. In addition, the expression of several steroid-inducible genes was abolished in this mutant. Northern blot assays revealed that teiR is required for full expression of sip48-beta-HSD gene mRNA (encoding a steroid-inducible protein of 48 kDa and 3beta-17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and also of other steroid degradation genes, including those encoding 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Delta(5)-3-ketoisomerase, 3-oxo-steroid Delta(1)-dehydrogenase, and 3-oxo-steroid Delta(4)-(5alpha)-dehydrogenase enzymes. Moreover, when teiR was provided to the teiR-disrupted strain in trans, the transcription level of these genes was restored. These results indicate that TeiR positively regulates the transcription of genes involved in the initial enzymatic steps of steroid degradation in C. testosteroni.