Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: A Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction, and Learning Environment.
ABSTRACT: The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average. In addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction, and learning environment) which distinguish between retained and non-retained native and immigrant students. The second objective is to check, by comparing the retained and non-retained native and immigrant students and separating the two levels, in order to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. A sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin), who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10-11 years) and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12-13 years). The measurement scales, which undergo a psychometric analysis in the current work, have been developed in a previous research study (Lorenzo et al., 2009). The construct validity and reliability are reported (obtaining alpha indices between 0.705 and 0.787). Subsequently, and depending on the results of this analysis, inferential analyses are performed, using as independent variables the ethno-cultural origin and being retained or not, whereas, as dependent variables, the indices referring to students' perception of family support and control, as well as the assessment of the school and learning environment. Among other results, the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [F(1, 1315) = 4.67, p < 0.01] interaction should be pointed out, indicating that native non-retained subjects perceive more control than immigrants, as well as the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [F(1, 1200) = 5.49, p < 0.01] interaction, showing that native non-retained students perceive more family support. Given the results obtained, our intention is to provide solid evidence that would facilitate the design of family involvement programs, helping to improve students' educational performance.
Project description:A common approach for measuring the effectiveness of an education system or a school is the estimation of the impact that school interventions have on students' academic performance. However, the latest trends aim to extend the focus beyond students' acquisition of knowledge and skills, and to consider aspects such as well-being in the academic context. For this reason, the 2015 edition of the international assessment system Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) incorporated a new tool aimed at evaluating the socio-emotional variables related to the well-being of students. It is based on a definition focused on the five dimensions proposed in the PISA theoretical framework: cognitive, psychological, social, physical, and material. The main purpose of this study is to identify the well-being components that significantly affect student academic performance and to estimate the magnitude of school effects on the well-being of students in OECD countries, the school effect being understood as the ability of schools to increase subjective student well-being. To achieve this goal, we analyzed the responses of 248,620 students from 35 OECD countries to PISA 2015 questionnaires. Specifically, we considered non-cognitive variables in the questionnaires and student performance in science. The results indicated that the cognitive well-being dimension, composed of enjoyment of science, self-efficacy, and instrumental motivation, as well as test anxiety all had a consistent relationship with student performance across countries. In addition, the school effect, estimated through a two-level hierarchical linear model, in terms of student well-being was systematically low. While the school effect accounted for approximately 25% of the variance in the results for the cognitive dimension, only 5-9% of variance in well-being indicators was attributable to it. This suggests that the influence of school on student welfare is weak, and the effect is similar across countries. The present study contributes to the general discussion currently underway about the definition of well-being and the connection between well-being and achievement. The results highlighted two complementary concerns: there is a clear need to promote socio-emotional education in schools, and it is important to develop a rigorous framework for well-being assessment. The implications of the results and proposals for future studies are discussed.
Project description:Previous findings suggest immigrant patients have lower trust in their physicians, and perceive nonverbal communication differently compared to non-immigrant patients. We tested discrepancies in trust and the impact of non-verbal behavior between immigrants and non-immigrants in The Netherlands. Nonverbal communication of an oncologist was systematically varied in an experimental video vignettes design. Breast cancer patients (n?=?34) and healthy women (n?=?34) viewed one of eight video versions and evaluated trust and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. In a matched control design, women with immigrant and non-immigrant backgrounds were paired. Immigrant women reported stronger trust. Nonverbal communication by the oncologist did not influence trust differently for immigrants compared to for non-immigrants. However, smiling strongly enhanced perceived friendliness for non-immigrants, but not for immigrants. Immigrant patients' strong trust levels may be formed a priori, instead of based on physicians' communication. Physicians may need to make extra efforts to optimize their communication.
Project description:Increasing immigration and school ethnic segregation have raised concerns about the social integration of minority students. We examined the role of immigrant status in social exclusion and the moderating effect of classroom immigrant density among Swedish 14-15-year olds (n?=?4795, 51?% females), extending conventional models of exclusion by studying multiple outcomes: victimization, isolation, and rejection. Students with immigrant backgrounds were rejected more than majority youth and first generation non-European immigrants were more isolated. Immigrants generally experienced more social exclusion in immigrant sparse than immigrant dense classrooms, and victimization increased with higher immigrant density for majority youth. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to victimization, subtle forms of exclusion may impede the social integration of immigrant youth but that time in the host country alleviates some risks for exclusion.
Project description:This study examines disparities in subjective well-being (SWB) among older migrants and natives across several European countries using data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Our results show a significant SWB gap between migrants and non-migrants that diminishes with increasing age. While migrants from Northern and Central Europe have similar SWB levels as natives, Southern European, Eastern European, and Non-European migrants have significantly lower levels of SWB than the native population. The immigrant-native gap becomes smaller but remains significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and health, the financial situation, citizenship, age at migration, and length of residence. Additionally, we find that the size of the SWB gap varies largely across countries. Current family reunion policies as measured by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) correlate with these country differences. The immigrant-native gap is bigger in countries with restrictive and smaller in countries with open policies.
Project description:Recent sustainability science research focuses on tradeoffs between human well-being and stress placed on the environment from fossil fuel consumption, a relationship known as the carbon intensity of well-being (CIWB). In this study we assess how the effect of economic development on consumption-based CIWB--a ratio of consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions to average life expectancy--changed from 1990 to 2008 for 69 nations throughout the world. We examine the effect of development on consumption-based CIWB for the overall sample as well as for smaller samples restricted to mostly high-income OECD nations, Non-OECD nations, and more nuanced regional samples of Non-OECD nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. We find that the effect of economic development on CIWB increased through time for the overall sample. However, analyses of the Non-OECD and OECD samples indicate that while the effect of development on CIWB increased from null to a moderate level for the Non-OECD nations, the effect of economic development was much larger, relatively stable through time, and more unsustainable for the OECD nations. Additional findings reveal important regional differences for Non-OECD nations. In the early 1990s, increased development led to a reduction in CIWB for Non-OECD nations in Africa, but in more recent years the relationship changed, becoming less sustainable. For the samples of Non-OECD nations in Asia and Latin America, we find that economic development increased consumption-based CIWB, and increasingly so throughout the 19 year period of study.
Project description:Immigrants from certain low- and middle-income countries are more prone to cancers attributed to viral infections in early life. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus but is highly preventable by regular screening. We assessed participation among immigrants in a population-based cervical screening programme and identified factors that predicted non-adherence within different immigrant groups.We used data from several nationwide registries. The study population consisted of 208 626 (15%) immigrants and 1 157 223 (85%) native Norwegians. Non-adherence was defined as no eligible screening test in 2008-12. We estimated prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with non-adherence by modified Poisson regression.In total, 52% of immigrants were not screened. All immigrants showed 1.72 times higher non-adherence rates (95% CI 1.71-1.73) compared with native Norwegian women when adjusted for age and parity. The proportion of non-adherent immigrants varied substantially by region of origin and country of origin. Being unemployed or not in the workforce, being unmarried, having low income and having a male general practitioner was associated with non-adherence regardless of region of origin. Living <10 years in Norway was an evident determinant of non-adherence among most but not all immigrant groups.An increasing proportion of immigrants and low screening participation among them pose new public health challenges in Europe. Immigrants are diverse in terms of their sociodemographic attributes and screening participation. Tailored information and service delivery may be necessary to increase cancer screening among immigrants.
Project description:Despite the high academic achievements of Korean students in international comparison studies, their teachers' job satisfaction remains below the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average. As job satisfaction is one of the major factors affecting student achievement as well as student and teacher retention, the identification of the most important satisfaction predictors is crucial. The current study analyzed data from the OECD 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) via machine learning. In particular, group Mnet (a penalized regression method) was employed in order to consider hundreds of TALIS predictors in one statistical model. Specifically, this study repeated 100 times of variable selection after random data-splitting as well as cross-validation, and presented predictors selected 50% of the time or more. As a result, 18 predictors were identified out of 558, including variables relating to collaborative school climates and teacher self-efficacy, which was consistent with previous research. Newly found variables to teacher job satisfaction included items about teacher feedback, participatory school climates, and perceived barriers to professional development. Suggestions and future research topics are discussed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To validate a questionnaire designed to show the existence of migratory grief (MG) and its dimensions in the immigrant population, and to study its relationship with certain sociodemographic variables. DESIGN:A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study. EMPLACEMENT:Consultations in Primary Health Care. PATIENTS:The study included 290 Primary Health Care immigrant patients over 18-years old. There were 12 rejections due to, lack of time, absence of a translator, and lack of understanding. PRINCIPAL MEASUREMENTS:An MG questionnaire with 17 questions was employed, carrying out a factor analysis with final extraction of 4 factors explaining 52.1% of overall variance. Sociodemographic variables were collected: gender, age, marital status, nationality, social network, time in Spain, legal and work situation and communication difficulties. Multivariate analysis was performed using the sociodemographic variables. RESULTS:Four factors were found (fear, homesickness, concern and loss of identity), showing that non-communality was < 0.30 and considering that the 4 factors represent the group of variables from the questionnaire. After analysing the correlations between the different factors, it was observed that concern is related to fear and homesickness, this latter being independent from fear. The loss of identity had a low correlation with other factors. Cronbach's alpha showed good consistency in factors 1, 2 and 3. Some sociodemographic variables are associated with the presence of each factor. CONCLUSIONS:We present a validated instrument to study and characterise MG, adapted to study the different dimensions of the grief in immigrant population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The recently developed Social Exclusion Index for Health Surveys (SEI-HS) revealed particularly strong social exclusion in non-Western immigrant groups compared to the native Dutch population. To qualify such results, cross-cultural validation of the SEI-HS in non-Western immigrant groups is called for. METHODS:A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used, employing quantitative data from the Netherlands Public Health Monitor along with qualitative interviews. Data from 1,803 adults aged 19 years or older of Surinamese, 1,009 of Moroccan and 1,164 of Turkish background and 19,318 native Dutch living in the four largest cities in the Netherlands were used to test the factorial structure of the SEI-HS and differential item functioning across immigrant groups. Additionally, 52 respondents with a high score on the SEI-HS and from different background were interviewed on the item content of the SEI-HS and subjective feelings of exclusion. For each SEI-HS item the semantic, conceptual and contextual connotations were coded and compared between the immigrant groups and native Dutch. RESULTS:High levels of social exclusion were found in 20.0% of the urban population of Surinamese origin, 20.9% of Moroccan, 28.7% of Turkish and 4.2% of native Dutch origin. The 4-factor structure of the SEI-HS was confirmed in all three immigrant groups. None of the items demonstrated substantial differential item functioning in relation to immigration background. The interviews uncovered some methodological shortcomings, but these did not substantially impact the observed excess of social exclusion in immigrant groups. CONCLUSIONS:The present study provides evidence in support of the validity of the SEI-HS in adults of Surinamese, Moroccan and Turkish background and confirms the major social exclusion of these immigrant groups in the main cities in the Netherlands. Policy measures to enhance social inclusion and reduce exclusion are urgently needed.
Project description:Using a national longitudinal survey data set from the Higher Education Research Institute, this study tested whether students who identified as a sexual minority (for example, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer) were more or less likely to persist after 4 years in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, as opposed to switching to a non-STEM program, compared to their heterosexual peers. A multilevel regression model controlling for various experiences and characteristics previously determined to predict retention in STEM demonstrated that, net of these variables, sexual minority students were 8% less likely to be retained in STEM compared to switching into a non-STEM program. Despite this finding, sexual minority STEM students were more likely to report participating in undergraduate research programs, and the gender disparity in STEM retention appears to be reversed for sexual minority STEM students.