Comparative analysis of adaptor-mediated clathrin assembly reveals general principles for adaptor clustering.
ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) manages the sorting and uptake of the bulk of membrane proteins (or cargo) from the plasma membrane. CME is initiated by the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), in which adaptors nucleate clathrin assembly. Clathrin adaptors display diversity in both the type and number of evolutionarily conserved clathrin-binding boxes. How this diversity relates to the process of adaptor clustering as clathrin assembles around a growing pit remains unclear. Using real-time, fluorescence microscopy-based assays, we compare the formation kinetics and distribution of clathrin assemblies on membranes that display five unique clathrin adaptors. Correlations between equilibrium and kinetic parameters of clathrin assembly to the eventual adaptor distribution indicate that adaptor clustering is determined not by the amount of clathrin recruited or the degree of clathrin clustered but instead by the rate of clathrin assembly. Together our results emphasize the need to analyze kinetics of protein interactions to better understand mechanisms that regulate CME.
Project description:Multimeric adaptors are broadly involved in vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking. AP2 adaptor, in particular, plays a central role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) by recruiting cargo and clathrin to endocytic sites. It is generally thought that trafficking adaptors such as AP2 adaptor assemble spontaneously. In this work, however, we discovered that AP2 adaptor assembly is an ordered process controlled by alpha and gamma adaptin binding protein (AAGAB), an uncharacterized factor identified in our genome-wide genetic screen of CME. AAGAB guides the sequential association of AP2 subunits and stabilizes assembly intermediates. Without the assistance of AAGAB, AP2 subunits fail to form the adaptor complex, leading to their degradation. The function of AAGAB is abrogated by a mutation that causes punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 (PPKP1), a human skin disease. Since other multimeric trafficking adaptors operate in an analogous manner to AP2 adaptor, their assembly likely involves a similar regulatory mechanism.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major mechanism for internalization in mammalian cells. CME initiates by recruitment of adaptors and clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Nearly half of nascent CCPs abort, whereas others are stabilized by unknown mechanisms and undergo further maturation before pinching off to form clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), the main lipid binding partner of endocytic proteins, is required for CCP assembly, but little is currently known about its contribution(s) to later events in CCV formation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown and overexpression, we have analyzed the effects of manipulating PIP(2) synthesis and turnover on CME by quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and computational analysis. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase cannot be detected within CCPs but functions in initiation and controls the rate and extent of CCP growth. In contrast, the 5'-inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 localizes to CCPs and controls early stabilization and maturation efficiency. Together these results suggest that the balance of PIP(2) synthesis in the bulk plasma membrane and its local turnover within CCPs control multiple stages of CCV formation.
Project description:Adaptor protein 2 (AP2) is a major constituent of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Whether it is essential for all forms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in mammalian cells is an open issue. Here, we demonstrate, by live TIRF microscopy, the existence of a subclass of relatively short-lived CCPs lacking AP2 under physiological, unperturbed conditions. This subclass is retained in AP2-knockout cells and is able to support the internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) but not of transferrin receptor (TfR). The AP2-independent internalization mechanism relies on the endocytic adaptors eps15, eps15L1, and epsin1. The absence of AP2 impairs the recycling of the EGFR to the cell surface, thereby augmenting its degradation. Accordingly, under conditions of AP2 ablation, we detected dampening of EGFR-dependent AKT signaling and cell migration, arguing that distinct classes of CCPs could provide specialized functions in regulating EGFR recycling and signaling.
Project description:Numerous endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs) mediate assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) into cargo-containing vesicles. Analysis of EAP function through bulk measurement of cargo uptake has been hampered due to potential redundancy among EAPs and, as we show here, the plasticity and resilience of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Instead, EAP function is best studied by uncovering the correlation between variations in EAP association to individual CCPs and the resulting variations in maturation. However, most EAPs bind to CCPs in low numbers, making the measurement of EAP association via fused fluorescent reporters highly susceptible to detection errors. Here, we present a framework for unbiased measurement of EAP recruitment to CCPs and their direct effects on CCP dynamics. We identify dynamin and the EAP-binding ?-adaptin appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor as switches in a regulated, multistep maturation process and provide direct evidence for a molecular checkpoint in CME.
Project description:At small synapses in the brain, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the dominant mode of synaptic vesicle retrieval following weak stimulation [1-4]. Clathrin cannot bind to membranes or cargo directly and instead uses adaptor proteins to do so . Although the involvement of clathrin and dynamin in synaptic vesicle retrieval is clear, it is unknown which adaptor proteins are used to sort the essential components into the vesicle [1, 4, 6]. In nonneuronal cells, CME of the majority of transmembrane receptors is either directly or indirectly via the heterotetrameric AP-2 complex . In neurons, RNAi of the ?2 subunit of AP-2 resulted in only minor inhibition of synaptic vesicle retrieval [7, 8], a result echoed in C. elegans . These results suggest that alternative adaptors may be employed for vesicle retrieval. Here, we tested which adaptors are required for vesicle retrieval at hippocampal synapses using a targeted RNAi screen coupled with optical measurements. Stonin 2 emerged as a major adaptor, whereas AP-2 played only a minor role in endocytosis at the synapse. Moreover, using chemically induced rerouting of stonin 2 to mitochondria it was possible to switch endocytically competent synapses to an impaired state on a timescale of minutes.
Project description:Clathrin-coated vesicles mediate endocytosis and transport between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes in eukaryotic cells. Clathrin adaptors play central roles in coat assembly, interacting with clathrin, cargo and membranes. Two main types of clathrin adaptor act in TGN-endosome traffic: GGA proteins and the AP-1 complex. Here we characterize the relationship between GGA proteins, AP-1 and other TGN clathrin adaptors using live-cell and super-resolution microscopy in yeast. We present evidence that GGA proteins and AP-1 are recruited sequentially in two waves of coat assembly at the TGN. Mutations that decrease phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) levels at the TGN slow or uncouple AP-1 coat assembly from GGA coat assembly. Conversely, enhanced PtdIns(4)P synthesis shortens the time between adaptor waves. Gga2p binds directly to the TGN PtdIns(4)-kinase Pik1p and contributes to Pik1p recruitment. These results identify a PtdIns(4)P-based mechanism for regulating progressive assembly of adaptor-specific clathrin coats at the TGN.
Project description:During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, adaptor proteins recognize specific internalization signals on cargo receptors, either recruiting cargos into clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) or initiating clathrin-coat assembly around the cargo molecules. Here, we identify epsin 1, a clathrin-, ubiquitin-, and phospholipid-interacting protein, as a cargo-specific adaptor for influenza virus entry through the clathrin-mediated pathway. Using live-cell imaging to monitor the entry of individual virus particles, we observed recruitment of epsin 1 to the binding sites of influenza viruses in synchrony with the assembly of CCPs. Epsin 1 knockdown by siRNA significantly inhibited the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the influenza virus and caused the majority of the virus particles to enter through a clathrin-independent pathway. The same treatment did not affect the entry of several classical ligands for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including transferrin, LDL, and EGF. Overexpression of the dominant-negative epsin 1 mutant lacking the ubiquitin-interaction motifs nearly completely blocked the clathrin-mediated entry of the influenza virus without affecting transferrin uptake. These results suggest that epsin 1 functions as a cargo-specific adaptor for the clathrin-mediated entry of the influenza virus.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is crucial for modulating the protein composition of a cell's plasma membrane. Clathrin forms a cage-like, polyhedral outer scaffold around a vesicle, to which cargo-selecting clathrin adaptors are attached. Adaptor protein complex (AP2) is the key adaptor in CME. Crystallography has shown AP2 to adopt a range of conformations. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy, tomography, and subtomogram averaging to determine structures, interactions, and arrangements of clathrin and AP2 at the key steps of coat assembly, from AP2 in solution to membrane-assembled clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). AP2 binds cargo and PtdIns(4,5)P 2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate)-containing membranes via multiple interfaces, undergoing conformational rearrangement from its cytosolic state. The binding mode of AP2 ?2 appendage into the clathrin lattice in CCVs and buds implies how the adaptor structurally modulates coat curvature and coat disassembly.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) begins with the nucleation of clathrin assembly on the plasma membrane, followed by stabilization and growth/maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that eventually pinch off and internalize as clathrin-coated vesicles. This highly regulated process involves a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs), many of which are multidomain proteins that encode a wide range of biochemical activities. Although domain-specific activities of EAPs have been extensively studied, their precise stage-specific functions have been identified in only a few cases. Using single-guide RNA (sgRNA)/dCas9 and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated protein knockdown, combined with an image-based analysis pipeline, we have determined the phenotypic signature of 67 EAPs throughout the maturation process of CCPs. Based on these data, we show that EAPs can be partitioned into phenotypic clusters, which differentially affect CCP maturation and dynamics. Importantly, these clusters do not correlate with functional modules based on biochemical activities. Furthermore, we discover a critical role for SNARE proteins and their adaptors during early stages of CCP nucleation and stabilization and highlight the importance of GAK throughout CCP maturation that is consistent with GAK's multifunctional domain architecture. Together, these findings provide systematic, mechanistic insights into the plasticity and robustness of CME.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is vital for the internalization of most cell-surface proteins. In CME, plasma membrane-binding clathrin adaptors recruit and polymerize clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits into which cargo is sorted. Assembly polypeptide 2 (AP2) is the most abundant adaptor and is pivotal to CME. Here, we determined a structure of AP2 that includes the clathrin-binding ?2 hinge and developed an AP2-dependent budding assay. Our findings suggest that an autoinhibitory mechanism prevents clathrin recruitment by cytosolic AP2. A large-scale conformational change driven by the plasma membrane phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and cargo relieves this autoinhibition, triggering clathrin recruitment and hence clathrin-coated bud formation. This molecular switching mechanism can couple AP2's membrane recruitment to its key functions of cargo and clathrin binding.