Comparative virulence studies and transcriptome analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals.
ABSTRACT: Several studies have been conducted to check the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals and animal-derived food products but limited data are available regarding their virulence and associated gene expression profile. In the present study, antibiotic resistance and virulence of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus animal isolates were determined in vitro by agar dilution, biofilm formation, adhesion, invasion and intracellular survivability assays. In addition, the pathogenicity of these isolates was examined in a murine model of S. aureus sepsis. MRSA1679a, a strain isolated from chicken, was observed to be highly virulent, in cell culture and in mouse model, and exhibited extensive resistant profile. Comparative gene expression profile of MRSA1679a and the reference human MRSA strain (ATCC 29213) was performed using Illumina-based transcriptome and RT-qPCR analyses. Several virulence elements including 22 toxin genes were detected in MRSA animal-isolate. In addition, we observed enhanced expression of crucial virulence regulators, such as sarA and KdpDE in MRSA animal-isolate compared to the human isolate. Collectively, gene expression profile including several virulence and drug-resistance factors confirmed the unique and highly virulent determinants of the MRSA strain of poultry origin which warrants further attention due to significant threat to public health.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that livestock (LA)-MRSA ST398 evolved from a human-adapted methicillin-susceptible <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) clone. However, detailed information regarding ST9 is still unclear. Here, we characterized a community-associated methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (CA-MRSA) ST9-SCC<i>mec</i> XII isolate that has not been previously reported to cause serious disease in China. We obtained whole-genome sequences of one ST9-t899-XII isolate-ZY462471-from a patient with bloodstream infection without livestock contact. The antibiotic susceptibilities of ZY462471 were determined and the clinical information was extracted from medical notes and compared with twenty-seven previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed to investigate the probable host evolutionary origins of ZY462471, and the difference in resistome and virulence factors were investigated. Virulence assay was performed to evaluate the high virulence potential of ZY462471 and compare the virulence between the closest ST9 MSSA neighbours. Clinical data suggested that ZY462471 is a CA-MRSA. Phylogenetic analysis showed a much closer relationship of ZY462471 with human-associated MSSA ST9 isolates than other LA-MRSA ST9 isolates, suggesting that ZY462471 probably evolved from ST9 MSSA predecessors by acquiring an SCC<i>mec</i> cassette. Importantly, virulence assays indicated that ZY462471 was highly virulent and compared with the MSSA ST9 predecessors, ZY462471 did not show attenuated virulence. Finally, we found that ZY462471 harboured an immune evasion cluster (IEC)-carrying ?C-?, which is typically found in human clinical <i>S. aureus</i> rather than LA-MRSA isolates, suggesting that ZY4762471 obtained the IEC-carrying ?C-?s from human clinical <i>S. aureus</i> strains. Considering its high virulence potential, this strain should be monitored to prevent more widespread dissemination.
Project description:Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159) to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding ?-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and ?-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new virulence factors, suggesting that this clone's enhanced pathogenicity could lie within subtler genome changes, such as SNPs within regulatory genes. To investigate the role of accessory genome elements in CA-MRSA epidemiology, we next sequenced three additional Australian non-ST93 CA-MRSA strains and compared them with JKD6159, 19 completed S. aureus genomes and 59 additional S. aureus genomes for which unassembled genome sequence data was publicly available (82 genomes in total). These comparisons showed that despite its distinctive genotype, JKD6159 and other CA-MRSA clones (including USA300) share a conserved repertoire of three notable accessory elements (SSCmecIV, PVL prophage, and pMW2). This study demonstrates that the genetically distinct ST93 CA-MRSA from Australia is highly virulent. Our comparisons of geographically and genetically diverse CA-MRSA genomes suggest that apparent convergent evolution in CA-MRSA may be better explained by the rapid dissemination of a highly conserved accessory genome from a common source.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Community acquired (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increasingly causes disease worldwide. USA300 has emerged as the predominant clone causing superficial and invasive infections in children and adults in the USA. Epidemiological studies suggest that USA300 is more virulent than other CA-MRSA. The genetic determinants that render virulence and dominance to USA300 remain unclear. RESULTS: We sequenced the genomes of two pediatric USA300 isolates: one CA-MRSA and one CA-methicillin susceptible (MSSA), isolated at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. DNA sequencing was performed by Sanger dideoxy whole genome shotgun (WGS) and 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing strategies. The sequence of the USA300 MRSA strain was rigorously annotated. In USA300-MRSA 2658 chromosomal open reading frames were predicted and 3.1 and 27 kilobase (kb) plasmids were identified. USA300-MSSA contained a 20 kb plasmid with some homology to the 27 kb plasmid found in USA300-MRSA. Two regions found in US300-MRSA were absent in USA300-MSSA. One of these carried the arginine deiminase operon that appears to have been acquired from S. epidermidis. The USA300 sequence was aligned with other sequenced S. aureus genomes and regions unique to USA300 MRSA were identified. CONCLUSION: USA300-MRSA is highly similar to other MRSA strains based on whole genome alignments and gene content, indicating that the differences in pathogenesis are due to subtle changes rather than to large-scale acquisition of virulence factor genes. The USA300 Houston isolate differs from another sequenced USA300 strain isolate, derived from a patient in San Francisco, in plasmid content and a number of sequence polymorphisms. Such differences will provide new insights into the evolution of pathogens.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 8 (CC8) sequence type 239 (ST239) represents a predominant hospital-associated MRSA sublineage present worldwide. The Canadian epidemic MRSA strains CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 are moderately virulent members of this group but are closely related to the highly virulent strain TW20. Whole-genome sequencing of CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 was conducted to identify genetic determinants associated with their virulence.
Project description:M92 is a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizing strain belonging to ST239-MRSA-III. It frequently shows local nasal colonization in our hospital staff, but has never been associated with infection. We sequenced the complete genome of M92, in order to compare it to highly virulent MRSA strains to gain insight into MRSA virulence factors.
Project description:USA100 strains are significant contributors to the overall burden of health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Strain 209 is a representative MRSA isolate that serves as a model organism for agr type II studies and USA100 virulence assessments. We present a draft genome sequence of this strain.
Project description:Whole-genome analysis by 62-strain microarray showed variation in resistance and virulence genes on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) between 40 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain CC22-SCCmecIV but also showed (i) detection of two previously unrecognized MRSA transmission events and (ii) that 7/8 patients were infected with a variant of their own colonizing isolate.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9. Within 14 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and 198 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, ST97 was the predominant MSSA clone and ST9-MRSA-SCCmecXII-spa t899 was the most common MRSA clone. The MRSA strains showed much higher rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics than did MSSA strains. Compared with other MSSA strains, MSSA ST398 was more resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. No isolates were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The molecular profiles of the virulence genes varied in different strains. ST520 strains carried seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, and ST9 and ST97 harbored sdrD-sdrE genes. Virulence phenotype analysis showed diversity in different clones. Biofilm formation ability was significantly enhanced in ST188 and ST7, and red blood cell lysis capacity was relatively strong in all S. aureus strains of animal origin except ST7. Our results indicate that MSSA was the predominant S. aureus strain causing bovine mastitis in eastern regions of China. However, the presence of multidrug resistant and toxigenic MRSA clone ST9 suggests that comprehensive surveillance of S. aureus infection should be implemented in the management of animal husbandry products.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The increase and spread of virulent-outbreak associated, methicillin and vancomycin resistant (MRSA/VRSA) Staphylococcus aureus require a better understanding of the resistance and virulence patterns of circulating and emerging strains globally. This study sought to establish the resistance phenotype, and strains of 32 non-duplicate clinical MRSA and MSSA S. aureus isolates from four Kenyan hospitals, identify their resistance and virulence genes and determine the genetic relationships of MRSA with global strains. METHODS:Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined on a Vitek 2, genomic DNA sequenced on an Illumina Miseq and isolates typed in-silico. Resistance and virulence genes were identified using ARIBA and phylogenies generated using RAxML. RESULTS:The MRSA isolates were 100% susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, and tigecycline. Nine distinct CC, 12 ST and 15 spa types including the novel t17826 and STs (4705, 4707) were identified with CC8 and CC152 predominating. MRSA isolates distributed across 3 CCs; CC5-ST39 (1), CC8 - ST241 (4), a novel CC8-ST4705 (1), ST8 (1) and CC152 (1). There was >?90% phenotype-genotype concordance with key resistance genes identified only among MRSA isolates: gyrA, rpoB, and parC mutations, mecA, ant (4')-lb, aph (3')-IIIa, ermA, sat-4, fusA, mphC and msrA. Kenyan MRSA isolates were genetically diverse and most closely related to Tanzanian and UK isolates. There was a significant correlation between map, hlgA, selk, selq and cap8d virulence genes and severe infections. CONCLUSION:The findings showed a heterogeneous S. aureus population with novel strain types. Though limited by the low number of isolates, this study begins to fill gaps and expand our knowledge of S. aureus epidemiology while uncovering interesting patterns of distribution of strain types which should be further explored. Although last-line treatments are still effective, the potential for outbreaks of both virulent and resistant strains remain, requiring sustained surveillance of S. aureus populations.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly responsible for staphylococcal infections in the community. A large percentage of the community-acquired methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) strains in the USA produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which is associated with severe infections. The virulence of the clinical CA-MRSA strain USA300 was compared to that of its isogenic pvl-deleted mutant, and it was shown that PVL contributes to lung and muscle tissue destruction, respectively, in murine necrotizing pneumonia and skin infection models. Mice infected with the USA300 strain developed a dominant anti-PVL response. The PVL subunits were therefore tested as vaccinogens against this isolate, and their vaccine efficacy correlated with both the route of vaccination and infection. These data suggest that PVL is a virulence factor in murine CA-MRSA infections.