Project description:Tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL fusion protein is the driver in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The gate-keeper mutation T315I is the most challenging mutant due to its resistance to most tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The third generation TKI ponatinib is the only effective TKI to treat CML patients harboring T315I-BCR-ABL mutation, but with high rate of major arterial thrombotic events. Alternative strategies to specifically target T315I-BCR-ABL are needed for the treatment of CML patients harboring such a mutation. Given that Sp1 is a fundamental transcriptional factor to positively regulate WT-BCR-ABL fusion oncogene, the purpose of this investigation was aimed at evaluating the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanism in terms of Sp1 regulational effect on the transcription of T315I-BCR-ABL fusion oncogene. Like in WT-BCR-ABL, we identified enrichment of Sp1 on the promoter of T315I-BCR-ABL fusion gene. Treatment of WT- and T315I-BCR-ABL-expressing CML cells by niclosamide diminished such an enrichment of Sp1, and decreased WT- and T315I-BCR-ABL transcription and its downstream signaling molecules such as STAT5 and Akt. Further, niclosamide significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. The in vivo efficacy validation of p-niclosamide, a water soluble derivative of niclosamide, showed that p-niclosamide significantly inhibited the tumor burden of nude mice subcutaneously bearing T315I-BCR-ABL-expressing CML cells, and prolonged the survival of allografted leukemic mice harboring BaF3-T315I-BCR-ABL. We conclude that niclosamide is active against T315I-BCR-ABL-expressing cells, and may be a promising agent for CML patients regardless of T315I mutation status.
Project description:Chromosomal translocations generating the BCR-ABL oncogene cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation confers drug resistance to FDA-approved targeted therapeutics imatinib mesylate, dasatinib, and nilotinib. We tested the ability of a recombinant yeast-based vaccine expressing the T315I-mutated BCR-ABL antigen to stimulate an anti-BCR-ABL(T315I) immune response. The yeast-based immunotherapy significantly reduced or eliminated BCR-ABL(T315I) leukemia cells from the peripheral blood of immunized animals and extended leukemia-free survival in a murine model of BCR-ABL(+) leukemia compared to animals receiving sham injection or yeast expressing ovalbumin. With immunization, leukemic cells harboring BCR-ABL(T315I) were selectively eliminated after challenge with a mixed population of BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL(T315I) leukemias. In summary, yeast-based immunotherapy represents a novel approach against the emergence of cancer drug resistance by the pre-emptive targeted ablation of tumor escape mutants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl-T315I is the notorious point mutation that causes resistance to imatinib and the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, leading to poor prognosis. CML blasts have constitutive p65 (RelA NF-kappaB) transcriptional activity, and NF-kappaB may be a potential target for molecular therapies in CML that may also be effective against CML cells with Bcr-Abl-T315I. RESULTS: In this report, we discovered that pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in CML cells, including the cells harboring Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation. Additionally, pristimerin inhibited the growth of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Pristimerin blocked the TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, translocation of p65, and expression of NF-kappaB-regulated genes. Pristimerin inhibited two steps in NF-kappaB signaling: TAK1TauIKK and IKKTauIkappaBalpha. Pristimerin potently inhibited two pairs of CML cell lines (KBM5 versus KBM5-T315I, 32D-Bcr-Abl versus 32D-Bcr-Abl-T315I) and primary cells from a CML patient with acquired resistance to imatinib. The mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl in imatinib-sensitive (KBM5) or imatinib-resistant (KBM5-T315I) CML cells were reduced after pristimerin treatment. Further, inactivation of Bcr-Abl by imatinib pretreatment did not abrogate the TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation while silencing p65 by siRNA did not affect the levels of Bcr-Abl, both results together indicating that NF-kappaB inactivation and Bcr-Abl inhibition may be parallel independent pathways. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that pristimerin is effective in vitro and in vivo against CML cells, including those with the T315I mutation. The mechanisms may involve inhibition of NF-kappaB and Bcr-Abl. We concluded that pristimerin could be a lead compound for further drug development to overcome imatinib resistance in CML patients.
Project description:The emergence of resistance to imatinib mediated by mutations in the BCR-ABL has become a major challenge in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Alternative therapeutic strategies to override imatinib-resistant CML are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the effect of AKI603, a novel small molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinase A (AurA) to overcome resistance mediated by BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. Our results showed that AKI603 exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity in leukemic cells. AKI603 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation capacities in imatinib-resistant CML cells by inducing cell cycle arrest with polyploidy accumulation. Surprisingly, inhibition of AurA by AKI603 induced leukemia cell senescence in both BCR-ABL wild type and T315I mutation cells. Furthermore, the induction of senescence was associated with enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Moreover, the anti-tumor effect of AKI603 was proved in the BALB/c nude mice KBM5-T315I xenograft model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the small molecule AurA inhibitor AKI603 may be used to overcome drug resistance induced by BCR-ABL-T315I mutation in CML.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by a constitutive activation of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl/T315I is the predominant mutation that causes resistance to Imatinib. In the present study, we synthesized a novel Bcr-Abl inhibitor, HS-543, and investigated its effect on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl/T315I (BaF3/T315I) or wild-type Bcr-Abl (BaF3/WT). HS-543 showed anti-proliferative effects in the BaF3/WT cells as well as the BaF3/T315I cells with resistance to Imatinib and strongly inhibited the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it significantly increased the sub G1 phase associated with early apoptosis, with increased levels of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3, as well as the TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that HS-543 induced apoptosis with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by decreasing the expression of Mcl-1 and survivin, together with increasing that of Bax. In BaF3/T315I xenograft models, HS-543 significantly delayed tumor growth, unlike Imatinib. Our results demonstrate that HS-543 exhibits the induction of apoptosis and anti-proliferative effect by blocking the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in the T315I-mutated Bcr-Abl cells with resistance to Imatinib. We suggest that HS-543 may be a novel promising agent to target Bcr-Abl and overcome Imatinib resistance in CML patients.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by constitutively active fusion protein tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) against BCR-ABL, imatinib, is the first-line therapy for CML, acquired resistance almost inevitably emerges. The underlying mechanism are point mutations within the BCR-ABL gene, among which T315I is notorious because it resists to almost all currently available inhibitors. Here we took use of a previously generated chimeric ubiquitin ligase, SH2-U-box, in which SH2 from the adaptor protein Grb2 acts as a binding domain for activated BCR-ABL, while U-box from CHIP functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase domain, so as to target the ubiquitination and degradation of both native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL. As such, SH2-U-box significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in CML cells harboring either the wild-type or T315I-mutant BCR-ABL (K562 or K562R), with BCR-ABL-dependent signaling pathways being repressed. Moreover, SH2-U-box worked in concert with imatinib in K562 cells. Importantly, SH2-U-box-carrying lentivirus could markedly suppress the growth of K562-xenografts in nude mice or K562R-xenografts in SCID mice, as well as that of primary CML cells. Collectively, by degrading the native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL, the chimeric ubiquitin ligase SH2-U-box may serve as a potential therapy for both imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML.
Project description:Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL(T315I)-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment with BCR-ABL inhibitors is often hampered by development of drug resistance. In a screen for novel chemotherapeutic drug candidates with genotoxic activity, we identified a bisindolylmaleimide derivative, IX, as a small molecule compound with therapeutic potential against CML including drug-resistant CML. We show that Bisindolylmaleimide IX inhibits DNA topoisomerase, generates DNA breaks, activates the Atm-p53 and Atm-Chk2 pathways, and induces cell cycle arrest and cell death. Interestingly, Bisindolylmaleimide IX is highly effective in targeting cells positive for BCR-ABL. BCR-ABL positive cells display enhanced DNA damage and increased cell cycle arrest in response to Bisindolylmaleimide IX due to decreased expression of topoisomerases. Cells positive for BCR-ABL or drug-resistant T315I BCR-ABL also display increased cytotoxicity since Bisindolylmaleimide IX inhibits B-Raf and the downstream oncogene addiction pathway. Mouse cancer model experiments showed that Bisindolylmaleimide IX, at doses that show little side effect, was effective in treating leukemia-like disorders induced by BCR-ABL or T315I BCR-ABL, and prolonged the lifespan of these model mice. Thus, Bisindolylmaleimide IX presents a novel drug candidate to treat drug-resistant CML via activating BCR-ABL-dependent genotoxic stress response and inhibiting the oncogene addiction pathway activated by BCR-ABL.
Project description:Despite the success of imatinib at inhibiting Bcr-Abl and treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), resistance to the therapy occurs over time in patients. In particular, the resistance to imatinib caused by the gatekeeper mutation T315I in Bcr-Abl remains a challenge in the clinic. Inspired by the successful development of ponatinib to curb drug resistance, we hypothesize that the incorporation of an alkyne linker in other heterocyclic scaffolds can also achieve potent inhibition of Bcr-Abl(T315I) by allowing for simultaneous occupancy of both the active site and the allosteric pocket in the Abl kinase domain. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of alkyne-containing pyrazolopyrimidines as Bcr-Abl inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that some alkyne-containing pyrazolopyrimidines potently inhibit not only Abl(T315I) in vitro but also Bcr-Abl(T315I) in cells. These pyrazolopyrimidines can serve as lead compounds for future development of novel targeted therapy to overcome drug resistance of CML.
Project description:Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. T315I Bcr-Abl is the most notorious point mutation to elicit acquired resistance to imatinib (IM), leading to poor prognosis. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that platinum pyrithione (PtPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via targeting the 26 S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), without effecting on the 20 S proteasome. Here we further report that (i) PtPT induces apoptosis in Bcr-Abl wild-type and Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation cells including the primary mononuclear cells from CML patients clinically resistant to IM, as well as inhibits the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in vivo; (ii) PtPT downregulates Bcr-Abl level through restraining Bcr-Abl transcription, and decreasing Bcr-Abl protein mediated by DUBs inhibition-induced caspase activation; (iii) UPS inhibition is required for PtPT-induced caspase activation and cell apoptosis. These findings support that PtPT overcomes IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We conclude that PtPT can be a lead compound for further drug development to overcome imatinib resistance in CML patients.