Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al-induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress.
Project description:Auxin acts synergistically with cytokinin to control the shoot stem-cell niche, while both hormones act antagonistically to maintain the root meristem. In aluminum (Al) stress-induced root growth inhibition, auxin plays an important role. However, the role of cytokinin in this process is not well understood. In this study, we show that cytokinin enhances root growth inhibition under stress by mediating Al-induced auxin signaling. Al stress triggers a local cytokinin response in the root-apex transition zone (TZ) that depends on IPTs, which encode adenosine phosphate isopentenyltransferases and regulate cytokinin biosynthesis. IPTs are up-regulated specifically in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress and promote local cytokinin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The process of root growth inhibition is also controlled by ethylene signaling which acts upstream of auxin. In summary, different from the situation in the root meristem, auxin acts with cytokinin in a synergistic way to mediate aluminum-induced root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Auxin and cytokinin (CK) are both important hormones involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, the details of auxin biosynthesis and the interaction between auxin and CK are still unclear. Isolation and characterization of an auxin deficient mutant cytokinin induced root curling 2 (ckrc2) in this work reveal that CKRC2 encodes a previously identified member of YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase-like proteins (YUC8). Our results show that, like other YUCs, CKRC2/YUC8 is a rate-limiting enzyme for catalyzing the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), acting downstream of CKRC1/TAA1 in the IPyA pathway. Here we show that the transcription of both CKRC1/TAA and CKRC2/YUC8 can be induced by CK and that the phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) is required for this upregulation. Transcription of PIF4 itself is induced by CK via the AHKs-ARR1/12 signalling pathway. These results indicate that PIF4 plays an essential role in mediating the regulatory effect of CK on the transcriptions of CKRC1 and CKRC2 genes in the IPyA pathway of auxin biosynthesis.
Project description:Auxin is an essential hormone, but its biosynthetic routes in plants have not been fully defined. In this paper, we show that the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of amino transferases converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) and that the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases participates in converting IPA to indole-3-acetic acid, the main auxin in plants. Both the YUCs and the TAAs have been shown to play essential roles in auxin biosynthesis, but it has been suggested that they participate in two independent pathways. Here, we show that all of the taa mutant phenotypes, including defects in shade avoidance, root resistance to ethylene and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), are phenocopied by inactivating YUC genes. On the other hand, we show that the taa mutants in several known auxin mutant backgrounds, including pid and npy1, mimic all of the well-characterized developmental defects caused by combining yuc mutants with the auxin mutants. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of YUC1 partially suppresses the shade avoidance defects of taa1 and the sterile phenotypes of the weak but not the strong taa mutants. In addition, we discovered that the auxin overproduction phenotypes of YUC overexpression lines are dependent on active TAA genes. Our genetic data show that YUC and TAA work in the same pathway and that YUC is downstream of TAA. The yuc mutants accumulate IPA, and the taa mutants are partially IPA-deficient, indicating that TAAs are responsible for converting tryptophan to IPA, whereas YUCs play an important role in converting IPA to indole-3-acetic acid.
Project description:The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant growth and development, and YUCCA (YUC) proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step for endogenous auxin biosynthesis. Despite YUC family genes have been isolated from several species, systematic expression analyses of YUCs in response to abiotic stress are lacking, and little is known about the function of YUC homologs in agricultural crops. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a world cultivated vegetable crop with great economical and nutritional value. In this study, we isolated 10 YUC family genes (CsYUCs) from cucumber and explored their expression pattern under four types of stress treatments. Our data showed that CsYUC8 and CsYUC9 were specifically upregulated to elevate the auxin level under high temperature. CsYUC10b was dramatically increased but CsYUC4 was repressed in response to low temperature. CsYUC10a and CsYUC11 act against the upregulation of CsYUC10b under salinity stress, suggesting that distinct YUC members participate in different stress response, and may even antagonize each other to maintain the proper auxin levels in cucumber. Further, CsYUC11 was specifically expressed in the male flower in cucumber, and enhanced tolerance to salinity stress and regulated pedicel and stamen development through auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Rice is an important monocotyledonous crop worldwide; it differs from the dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis in many aspects. In Arabidopsis, ethylene and auxin act synergistically to regulate root growth and development. However, their interaction in rice is still unclear. Here, we report that the transcriptional activation of OsEIL1 on the expression of YUC8/REIN7 and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)-dependent auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation. Using an inhibitor of YUC activity, which regulates auxin biosynthesis via the conversion of IPA to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), we showed that ethylene-inhibited primary root elongation is dependent on YUC-based auxin biosynthesis. By screening phenotypes of seedling primary root from mutagenesis libraries following ethylene treatment, we identified a rice ethylene-insensitive mutant, rein7-1, in which YUC8/REIN7 is truncated at its C-terminus. Mutation in YUC8/REIN7 reduced auxin biosynthesis in rice, while YUC8/REIN7 overexpression enhanced ethylene sensitivity in the roots. Moreover, YUC8/REIN7 catalyzed the conversion of IPA to IAA, truncated version at C-terminal end of the YUC8/REIN7 resulted in significant reduction of enzymatic activity, indicating that YUC8/REIN7 is required for IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis and ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedlings. Further investigations indicated that ethylene induced YUC8/REIN7 expression and promoted auxin accumulation in roots. Addition of low concentrations of IAA rescued the ethylene response in the rein7-1, strongly demonstrating that ethylene-inhibited root elongation depends on IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis. Genetic studies revealed that YUC8/REIN7-mediated auxin biosynthesis functioned downstream of OsEIL1, which directly activated the expression of YUC8/REIN7. Thus, our findings reveal a model of interaction between ethylene and auxin in rice seedling primary root elongation, enhancing our understanding of ethylene signaling in rice.
Project description:Nitrate (NO3 (-)) is a key element for crop production but its levels in agricultural soils are limited. Plants have developed mechanisms to cope with these NO3 (-) fluctuations based on sensing nitrate at the root apex. Particularly, the transition zone (TZ) of root apex has been suggested as a signaling-response zone. This study dissects cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying NO3 (-) resupply effects on primary root (PR) growth in maize, confirming nitric oxide (NO) as a putative modulator. Nitrate restoration induced PR elongation within the first 2 h, corresponding to a stimulation of cell elongation at the basal border of the TZ. Xyloglucans (XGs) immunolocalization together with Brefeldin A applications demonstrated that nitrate resupply induces XG accumulation. This effect was blocked by cPTIO (NO scavenger). Transcriptional analysis of ZmXET1 confirmed the stimulatory effect of nitrate on XGs accumulation in cells of the TZ. Immunolocalization analyses revealed a positive effect of nitrate resupply on auxin and PIN1 accumulation, but a transcriptional regulation of auxin biosynthesis/transport/signaling genes was excluded. Short-term nitrate treatment repressed the transcription of genes involved in strigolactones (SLs) biosynthesis and transport, mainly in the TZ. Enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) transcription in presence of cPTIO indicated endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCDs activity. Finally, treatment with the SLs-biosynthesis inhibitor (TIS108) restored the root growth in the nitrate-starved seedlings. Present report suggests that the NO-mediated root apex responses to nitrate are accomplished in cells of the TZ via integrative actions of auxin, NO and SLs.
Project description:Auxin plays an essential role in root development. It has been a long-held dogma that auxin required for root development is mainly transported from shoots into roots by polarly localized auxin transporters. However, it is known that auxin is also synthesized in roots. Here we demonstrate that a group of YUCCA (YUC) genes, which encode the rate-limiting enzymes for auxin biosynthesis, plays an essential role in Arabidopsis root development. Five YUC genes (YUC3, YUC5, YUC7, YUC8 and YUC9) display distinct expression patterns during root development. Simultaneous inactivation of the five YUC genes (yucQ mutants) leads to the development of very short and agravitropic primary roots. The yucQ phenotypes are rescued by either adding 5 nM of the natural auxin, IAA, in the growth media or by expressing a YUC gene in the roots of yucQ. Interestingly, overexpression of a YUC gene in shoots in yucQ causes the characteristic auxin overproduction phenotypes in shoots; however, the root defects of yucQ are not rescued. Our data demonstrate that localized auxin biosynthesis in roots is required for normal root development and that auxin transported from shoots is not sufficient for supporting root elongation and root gravitropic responses.
Project description:A well-developed root system in rice and other crops can ensure plants to efficiently absorb nutrients and water. Auxin is a key regulator for various aspect of root development, but the detailed molecular mechanisms by which auxin controls crown root development in rice are not understood. We show that overexpression of a YUC gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in auxin biosynthesis, causes massive proliferation of crown roots. On the other hand, we find that disruption of TAA1, which functions upstream of YUC genes, greatly reduces crown root development. We find that YUC overexpression-induced crown root proliferation requires the presence of the transcription factor WOX11. Moreover, the crown rootless phenotype of taa1 mutants was partially rescued by overexpression of WOX11. Furthermore, we show that WOX11 expression is induced in OsYUC1 overexpression lines, but is repressed in the taa1 mutants. Our results indicate that auxin synthesized by the TAA/YUC pathway is necessary and sufficient for crown root development in rice. Auxin activates WOX11 transcription, which subsequently drives crown root initiation and development, establishing the YUC-Auxin-WOX11 module for crown root development in rice.
Project description:Although the cross-talk between auxin and ethylene has been described during plant development, the role played by auxin upon gene expression during aerenchyma formation is poorly understood. Root aerenchyma formation results from the opening of gas spaces in the cortex. It is part of a developmental program (constitutive) or due to ethylene treatment or abiotic stress (induced) such as flooding and nutrient starvation. This process relies on programmed cell death and cell wall modifications. Here we followed development of aerenchyma formation in sugarcane along 5 cm from the root apex. As a constitutive process, the aerenchyma formation was observed in the cortex from the 3rd cm onwards. This occurred despite 1-methylcyclepropene (1-MCP) treatment, an inhibitor of ethylene perception. However, this process occurred while ethylene (and auxin) levels decreased. Within the aerenchyma formation zone, the concentration of ethylene is lower in comparison to the concentration in maize. Besides, the ratio between both hormones (ethylene and auxin) was around 1:1. These pieces of evidence suggest that ethylene sensitivity and ethylene-auxin balance may play a role in the formation of aerenchyma. Furthermore, the transcriptional analysis showed that genes related to cell expansion are up-regulated due to 1-MCP treatment. Our results help explaining the regulation of the formation constitutive aerenchyma in sugarcane.
Project description:Auxin is an essential regulator for plant development. To elucidate the mechanisms by which auxin regulates plant development, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant naked pins in yuc mutants 1 (npy1) that develops pin-like inflorescences and fails to initiate any flowers in yuc1 yuc4, a background that is defective in auxin biosynthesis. The phenotypes of npy1 yuc1 yuc4 triple mutants closely resemble those of Arabidopsis mutants pin-formed1 (pin1), pinoid (pid), and monopteros (mp), which are defective in either auxin transport or auxin signaling. NPY1 belongs to a large family of proteins and is homologous to NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3), a BTB/POZ protein that regulates phototropic responses along with the protein kinase PHOT1 (Phototropin 1). We demonstrate that NPY1 works with the protein kinase PID, which is homologous to PHOT1, to regulate auxin-mediated plant development. The npy1 pid double mutants fail to form any cotyledons, a phenotype that is also observed in yuc1 yuc4 pid triple mutants. Interestingly, both auxin-regulated organogenesis and phototropic responses require an auxin response factor (ARF). Disruption of ARF7/NPH4 leads to nonphototropic hypocotyls and arf5/mp forms pin-like inflorescences. Whereas the PHOT1/NPH3 pathway is regulated by light, our data suggest that the PID/NPY1 pathway may be regulated by auxin synthesized by the YUC flavin monooxygenases. Our findings put YUCs, PID, and NPY1 into a genetic framework for further dissecting the mechanisms of auxin action in plant development.