LWD-TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock.
Project description:Genomic interactions in allopolyploids create expression variation of homoeologous alleles through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. However, the molecular basis for this is largely unknown. Here we investigated the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions among homoeologous transcription factors in the circadian-clock feedback loop, consisting of CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), plus the interaction with a chromatin factor, HISTONE DEACETYLASE1 (HD1). In the allotetraploids formed between A. thaliana (At) and Arabidopsis arenosa (Aa), AtCCA1 is expressed at lower levels than AaCCA1, which could alter clock output traits. The reduced AtCCA1 expressions in the allotetraploids are consistent with the biochemical data that AaCHE showed preferential binding to the AtCCA1 promoter, in which AaCHE interacts with a higher affinity to AtHD1 than AtCHE. AaCHE also showed a higher affinity to TOC1 than AtCHE, consistent with the effect of TOC1 on repressing CCA1. Thus, stronger AaCHE-TOC1 and AaCHE-AtHD1 interactions reduce AtCC1 allelic expression. Our current data suggest a biochemical basis for protein interactions in trans with a preference to the cis-acting elements in heterologous combinations to reduce AtCCA1 expression, while altered CCA1 expression has been shown to affect metabolic and biomass heterosis in interspecific hybrids or allotetraploids.
Project description:The circadian clock in Arabidopsis exerts a critical role in timing multiple biological processes and stress responses through the regulation of up to 80% of the transcriptome. As a key component of the clock, the Myb-like transcription factor CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) is able to initiate and set the phase of clock-controlled rhythms and has been shown to regulate gene expression by binding directly to the evening element (EE) motif found in target gene promoters. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying clock regulation of the rhythmic transcriptome, specifically how clock components connect to clock output pathways, is poorly understood. In this study, using ChIP followed by deep sequencing of CCA1 in constant light (LL) and diel (LD) conditions, more than 1,000 genomic regions occupied by CCA1 were identified. CCA1 targets are enriched for a myriad of biological processes and stress responses, providing direct links to clock-controlled pathways and suggesting that CCA1 plays an important role in regulating a large subset of the rhythmic transcriptome. Although many of these target genes are evening expressed and contain the EE motif, a significant subset is morning phased and enriched for previously unrecognized motifs associated with CCA1 function. Furthermore, this work revealed several CCA1 targets that do not cycle in either LL or LD conditions. Together, our results emphasize an expanded role for the clock in regulating a diverse category of genes and key pathways in Arabidopsis and provide a comprehensive resource for future functional studies.
Project description:Circadian clocks synchronise biological processes with the day/night cycle, using molecular mechanisms that include interlocked, transcriptional feedback loops. Recent experiments identified the evening complex (EC) as a repressor that can be essential for gene expression rhythms in plants. Integrating the EC components in this role significantly alters our mechanistic, mathematical model of the clock gene circuit. Negative autoregulation of the EC genes constitutes the clock's evening loop, replacing the hypothetical component Y. The EC explains our earlier conjecture that the morning gene Pseudo-Response Regulator 9 was repressed by an evening gene, previously identified with Timing Of CAB Expression1 (TOC1). Our computational analysis suggests that TOC1 is a repressor of the morning genes Late Elongated Hypocotyl and Circadian Clock Associated1 rather than an activator as first conceived. This removes the necessity for the unknown component X (or TOC1mod) from previous clock models. As well as matching timeseries and phase-response data, the model provides a new conceptual framework for the plant clock that includes a three-component repressilator circuit in its complex structure.
Project description:Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the molecular mechanism for this remains largely elusive. In Arabidopsis hybrids and allopolyploids, increased photosynthetic and metabolic activities are linked to altered expression of circadian clock regulators, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1). It is unknown whether a similar mechanism mediates heterosis in maize hybrids. Here we report that higher levels of carbon fixation and starch accumulation in the maize hybrids are associated with altered temporal gene expression. Two maize CCA1 homologs, ZmCCA1a and ZmCCA1b, are diurnally up-regulated in the hybrids. Expressing ZmCCA1 complements the cca1 mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis, and overexpressing ZmCCA1b disrupts circadian rhythms and biomass heterosis. Furthermore, overexpressing ZmCCA1b in maize reduced chlorophyll content and plant height. Reduced height stems from reduced node elongation but not total node number in both greenhouse and field conditions. Phenotypes are less severe in the field than in the greenhouse, suggesting that enhanced light and/or metabolic activities in the field can compensate for altered circadian regulation in growth vigor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis reveals a temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets to the early morning in the hybrids, suggesting that activation of morning-phased genes in the hybrids promotes photosynthesis and growth vigor. This temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets correlated with nonadditive and additive gene expression in early and late stages of seedling development. These results could guide breeding better hybrid crops to meet the growing demand in food and bioenergy.
Project description:The plant circadian clock exerts a critical role in the regulation of multiple biological processes including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. It is estimated that the clock regulates up to 80% of the transcriptome in Arabidopsis, thus understanding the molecular mechanisms that control this rhythmic transcriptome requires identification of the targets of each clock component. The Arabidopsis core clock is partially comprised of a transcriptional regulatory loop between the MYB domain containing transcription factors CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1). As a key component of the clock, CCA1 is able to initiate and set the phase of clock-controlled rhythms. CCA1 regulates the transcription of several genes by directly binding to the evening element (EE) motif primarily found in the promoters of evening expressed genes. Using a genome-wide approach we have identified direct targets of CCA1 in plants grown in constant (LL) and driven conditions (LD). These CCA1 targets are enriched for a myriad of biological processes and stress responses. While many of these target genes are evening phased and contain the EE in their promoter regions, a significant subset is morning phased and lack an EE. Furthermore, several CCA1 targets do not cycle in either LL or LD or both. Expression analysis in CCA1 overexpressing plants confirms CCA1 regulation of analyzed targets. Our results emphasize an expanded role for the circadian clock in regulation of key pathways in Arabidopsis, and provide a comprehensive and solid resource for future functional studies. ChIP-Seq of CCA1-GFP plants under control of the CCA1 promoter in continuous light and diel conditions
Project description:The circadian clock is a timekeeping system for regulation of numerous biological daily rhythms. One characteristic of the circadian clock is that period length remains relatively constant in spite of environmental fluctuations, such as temperature change. Here, using the curated collection of in-house small molecule chemical library (ITbM chemical library), we show that small molecule 3,4-dibromo-7-azaindole (B-AZ) lengthened the circadian period of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). B-AZ has not previously been reported to have any biological and biochemical activities. Target identification can elucidate the mode of action of small molecules, but we were unable to make a molecular probe of B-AZ for target identification. Instead, we performed other analysis, gene expression profiling that potentially reveals mode of action of molecules. Short-term treatment of B-AZ decreased the expression of four dawn- and morning-phased clock-associated genes, CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9 (PRR9) and PRR7. Consistently, amounts of PRR5 and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) proteins, transcriptional repressors of CCA1, LHY, PRR9 and PRR7 were increased upon B-AZ treatment. B-AZ inhibited Casein Kinase 1 family (CK1) that phosphorylates PRR5 and TOC1 for targeted degradation. A docking study and molecular dynamics simulation suggested that B-AZ interacts with the ATP-binding pocket of human CK1 delta, whose amino acid sequences are highly similar to those of Arabidopsis CK1. B-AZ-induced period-lengthening effect was attenuated in prr5 toc1 mutants. Collectively, this study provides a novel and simple structure CK1 inhibitor that modulates circadian clock via accumulation of PRR5 and TOC1.
Project description:Light and temperature are two important environmental signals to plants. After dawn, photo-activated phytochromes translocate into the nucleus and interact with a family of negative basic helix-loop-helix PIF regulators. Subsequent phosphorylation and degradation of PIFs triggers a series of photomorphogenic responses. However, excess light can damage the photosynthetic apparatus and leads to photoinhibition. Plants acclimate to a balanced state of photomorphogenesis to avoid photodamage. Here, we show that upregulation of PIF4 expression by SHB1 and CCA1 under red light represents a desensitization step. After dawn, the highly expressed circadian clock protein CCA1 brings circadian signals to the regulatory region of the PIF4 signaling hub. Recruitment of SHB1 by CCA1 modulates red light-specific induction of PIF4 expression thus integrating circadian and light signals. As noon approaches and light intensity and ambient temperature tend to increase, the SHB1-CCA1 interaction sustains PIF4 expression to trigger thermomorphogenic responses to changing light and temperature conditions.
Project description:HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) and its paralog HUB2 act in a conserved heterotetrameric complex in the chromatin-mediated transcriptional modulation of developmental programs, such as flowering time, dormancy, and the circadian clock. The KHD1 and SPEN3 proteins were identified as interactors of the HUB1 and HUB2 proteins with in vitro RNA-binding activity. Mutants in SPEN3 and KHD1 had reduced rosette and leaf areas. Strikingly, in spen3 mutants, the flowering time was slightly, but significantly, delayed, as opposed to the early flowering time in the hub1-4 mutant. The mutant phenotypes in biomass and flowering time suggested a deregulation of their respective regulatory genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) that are known targets of the HUB1-mediated histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub). Indeed, in the spen3-1 and hub1-4 mutants, the circadian clock period was shortened as observed by luciferase reporter assays, the levels of the CCA1? and CCA1? splice forms were altered, and the CCA1 expression and H2Bub levels were reduced. In the spen3-1 mutant, the delay in flowering time was correlated with an enhanced FLC expression, possibly due to an increased distal versus proximal ratio of its antisense COOLAIR transcript. Together with transcriptomic and double-mutant analyses, our data revealed that the HUB1 interaction with SPEN3 links H2Bub during transcript elongation with pre-mRNA processing at CCA1 Furthermore, the presence of an intact HUB1 at the FLC is required for SPEN3 function in the formation of the FLC-derived antisense COOLAIR transcripts.
Project description:Our computational model of the circadian clock comprised the feedback loop between LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), and a predicted, interlocking feedback loop involving TOC1 and a hypothetical component Y. Experiments based on model predictions suggested GIGANTEA (GI) as a candidate for Y. We now extend the model to include a recently demonstrated feedback loop between the TOC1 homologues PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 (PRR7), PRR9 and LHY and CCA1. This three-loop network explains the rhythmic phenotype of toc1 mutant alleles. Model predictions fit closely to new data on the gi;lhy;cca1 mutant, which confirm that GI is a major contributor to Y function. Analysis of the three-loop network suggests that the plant clock consists of morning and evening oscillators, coupled intracellularly, which may be analogous to coupled, morning and evening clock cells in Drosophila and the mouse.
Project description:In Arabidopsis, the circadian clock central oscillator genes are important cellular components to generate and maintain circadian rhythms. There is a negative feedback loop between the morning expressed CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)/LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and evening expressed TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1). CCA1 and LHY negatively regulate the expression of TOC1, while TOC1 also binds to the promoters of CCA1 and LHY to repress their expression. Recent studies indicate that histone modifications play an important role in the regulation of the central oscillators. However, the regulatory relationship between histone modifications and the circadian clock genes remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that the Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1)-like histone demethylases, LDL1 and LDL2, can interact with CCA1/LHY to repress the expression of TOC1. ChIP-Seq analysis indicated that LDL1 targets a subset of genes involved in the circadian rhythm regulated by CCA1. Furthermore, LDL1 and LDL2 interact with the histone deacetylase HDA6 and co-regulate TOC1 by histone demetylation and deacetylaion. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how the circadian clock central oscillator genes are regulated through histone modifications.