Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Improving alloreactive Bw4 donor selection by genotyping codon 86 of KIR3DL1/S1.
ABSTRACT: KIR3DL1 is a natural killer (NK) cell receptor that recognizes the Bw4 epitope of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. Following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking Bw4, KIR3DL1-expressing NK cells from Bw4-positive donors can be alloreactive and eliminate tumor cells. However, KIR3DL1 alleles having T instead of C at nucleotide 320 (encoding leucine 86 instead of serine 86) are not expressed on the cell surface. Thus, not all individuals testing positive for KIR3DL1 are optimal donors for Bw4-negative recipients. Therefore, we developed a method for genotyping codon 86, which was validated by its perfect correlation with NK cell phenotype for 100 donors of diverse KIR3DL1/S1 genotype. We typed 600 donors and found that ?12.2% had the KIR3DL1 gene, but did not express cell-surface KIR3DL1. By contrast, high-expressing allotypes were identified when haplotypes from four families with duplicated KIR3DL1/S1 genes were characterized at high resolution. Identifying donors who have KIR3DL1 but lack cell-surface KIR3DL1 would refine donor selection. With this technique, the number of individuals identified who may not be optimal donors for Bw4-negative patients increases by threefold, when compared with standard methods. Taken together, we propose that allele typing of killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) polymorphisms should become a standard practice when selecting donors.
Project description:Combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4 alleles protect against HIV infection and/or disease progression. These combinations enhance NK cell responsiveness through the ontological process of education. However, educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cells do not have enhanced degranulation upon direct recognition of autologous HIV-infected cells. Since antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is associated with improved HIV infection outcomes and NK cells overcome inhibition through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) to mediate ADCC, we hypothesized that KIR3DL1-educated NK cells mediate anti-HIV ADCC against autologous cells. A whole-blood flow cytometry assay was used to evaluate ADCC-induced activation of NK cells. This assay assessed activation (gamma interferon [IFN-?] production and/or CD107a expression) of KIR3DL1(+) and KIR3DL1(-) NK cells, from HLA-Bw4(+) and HLA-Bw4(-) HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, in response to autologous HIV-specific ADCC targets. KIR3DL1(+) NK cells were more functional than KIR3DL1(-) NK cells from HLA-Bw4(+), but not HLA-Bw4(-), healthy controls. In HIV-infected individuals, no differences in NK cell functionality were observed between KIR3DL1(+) and KIR3DL1(-) NK cells in HLA-Bw4(+) individuals, consistent with dysfunction of NK cells in the setting of HIV infection. Reflecting the partial normalization of NK cell responsiveness following initiation of antiretroviral therapy, a significant correlation was observed between the peripheral CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts in antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects and the functionality of NK cells. However, peripheral CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts were not correlated with an anti-HIV ADCC functional advantage in educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cells. The abrogation of the functional advantage of educated NK cells may enhance HIV disease progression. Strategies to enhance the potency of NK cell-mediated ADCC may improve HIV therapies and vaccines.
Project description:The killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 (KIR3DL1) inhibits activation of NK cells upon interaction with HLA class I molecules such as HLA-B*57:01, which contains the Bw4 epitope spanning residues 77-83 (e.g., NLRIALR), and not with HLA allomorphs that possess the Bw6 motif (e.g., HLA-B*08:01), which differ at residues 77, 80, 81, 82, and 83. Although Bw4 residues Ile(80) and Arg(83) directly interact with KIR3DL1*001, their precise role in determining KIR3DL1-HLA-Bw4 specificity remains unclear. Recognition of HLA-B*57:01 by either KIR3DL1(+) NK cells or the NK cell line YTS transfected with KIR3DL1*001 was impaired by mutation of residues 80 and 83 of HLA-B*57:01 to the corresponding amino acids within the Bw6 motif. Conversely, the simultaneous introduction of three Bw4 residues at positions 80, 82, and 83 into HLA-B*08:01 conferred an interaction with KIR3DL1*001. Structural analysis of HLA-B*57:01, HLA-B*08:01, and mutants of each bearing substitutions at positions 80 and 83 revealed that Ile(80) and Arg(83) within the Bw4 motif constrain the conformation of Glu(76), primarily through a salt bridge between Arg(83) and Glu(76). This salt bridge was absent in HLA-Bw6 molecules as well as position 83 mutants of HLA-B*57:01. Mutation of the Bw4 residue Ile(80) also disrupted this salt bridge, providing further insight into the role that position 80 plays in mediating KIR3DL1 recognition. Thus, the strict conformation of HLA-Bw4 allotypes, held in place by the Glu(76)-Arg(83) interaction, facilitates KIR3DL1 binding, whereas Bw6 allotypes present a platform on the ?1 helix that is less permissive for KIR3DL1 binding.
Project description:<i>Bw4</i> homozygosity in human leukocyte antigen class B alleles has been associated with a delayed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) development and better control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) than <i>Bw6</i> homozygosity. Efficient CD8 T cell and natural killer (NK) cell functions have been described to restrain HIV-1 replication. However, the role of KIR3DL1 expression on these cells was not assessed in <i>Bw4</i>-homozygous participants infected with HIV-1 CRF01_A/E subtype, currently the most prevalent subtype in China. Here, we found that the frequency of KIR3DL1-expressing CD8 T cells of individuals homozygous for <i>Bw6</i> [1.53% (0-4.56%)] was associated with a higher VL set point (Spearman <i>r</i><sub>s</sub>?=?0.59, <i>P</i>?=?0.019), but this frequency of KIR3DL1<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells [1.37% (0.04-6.14%)] was inversely correlated with CD4 T-cell count in individuals homozygous for <i>Bw4</i> (<i>r</i><sub>s</sub>?=?-0.59, <i>P</i>?=?0.011). Moreover, CD69 and Ki67 were more frequently expressed in KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells in individuals homozygous for <i>Bw4</i> than <i>Bw6</i> (<i>P</i>?=?0.046 for CD69; <i>P</i>?=?0.044 for Ki67), although these molecules were less frequently expressed in KIR3DL1<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells than in KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells in both groups (all <i>P</i>?<?0.05). KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells have stronger p24-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cell responses secreting IFN-? and CD107a than KIR3DL1<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells in both groups (all <i>P</i>?<?0.05). Thus, KIR3DL1 expression on CD8 T cells were associated with the loss of multiple functions. Interestingly, CD69<sup>+</sup>NK cells lacking KIR3DL1 expression were inversely correlated with HIV-1 VL set point in <i>Bw4</i>-homozygous individuals (<i>r</i><sub>s</sub>?=?-0.52, <i>P</i>?=?0.035). Therefore, KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells with strong early activation and proliferation may, together with KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD69<sup>+</sup>NK cells, play a protective role during acute/early HIV infection in individuals homozygous for <i>Bw4</i>. These findings highlight the superior functions of KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells and KIR3DL1<sup>-</sup>CD69<sup>+</sup>NK cells being a potential factor contributing to delayed disease progression in the early stages of HIV-1 infection.
Project description:NK cells recognize self-HLA via killer Ig-like receptors (KIR). Homeostatic HLA expression signals for inhibition via KIR, and downregulation of HLA, a common consequence of viral infection, allows NK activation. Like HLA, KIR are highly polymorphic, and allele combinations of the most diverse receptor-ligand pair, KIR3DL1 and HLA-B, correspond to hierarchical HIV control. We used primary cells from healthy human donors to demonstrate how subtype combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-B calibrate NK education and their consequent capacity to eliminate HIV-infected cells. High-density KIR3DL1 and Bw4-80I partnerships endow NK cells with the greatest reactivity against HLA-negative targets; NK cells exhibiting the remaining KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 combinations demonstrate intermediate responsiveness; and Bw4-negative KIR3DL1(+) NK cells are poorly responsive. Cytotoxicity against HIV-infected autologous CD4(+) T cells strikingly correlated with reactivity to HLA-negative targets. These findings suggest that the programming of NK effector function results from defined features of receptor and ligand subtypes. KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes exhibit an array of binding strengths. Like KIR3DL1, subtypes of HLA-Bw4 are expressed at distinct, predictable membrane densities. Combinatorial permutations of common receptor and ligand subtypes reveal binding strength, receptor density, and ligand density to be functionally important. These findings have immediate implications for prognosis in patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, they demonstrate how features of KIR and HLA modified by allelic variation calibrate NK cell reactive potential.
Project description:Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) are a family of receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) and T-cell subsets. KIR3DL1 is a highly polymorphic receptor that binds to groups of HLAA and HLA-B allotypes that express the Bw4 epitope. The variation in KIR3DL1 allotypes manifests at a number of levels. Most dramatically, a common allelic variant encodes an activating rather than an inhibitory receptor (KIR3DS1). In addition, sequence variants can affect both the frequency of expression within the NK cell population and the intensity of expression on a given cell. KIR3DL1 polymorphism also influences the interaction with HLA-Bw4 molecules, due to contacts with the HLA molecule itself and sensitivity to the presented peptide. A body of evidence from genetic association studies supports the biological significance not only of the interaction of KIR3DL1 with HLA-Bw4 but also the functional variation seen with different KIR3DL1 and HLA allotypes. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of KIR3DL1 function and our recent insights from the structure of the KIR3DL1 in complex with HLA. In addition, we will summarize our current understanding of KIR3DS1, including its ligand specificity and its role in immune responses.
Project description:Allotypes of the natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR3DL1 vary in both NK cell expression patterns and inhibitory capacity upon binding to their ligands, HLA-B Bw4 molecules, present on target cells. Using a sample size of over 1,500 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ individuals, we show that various distinct allelic combinations of the KIR3DL1 and HLA-B loci significantly and strongly influence both AIDS progression and plasma HIV RNA abundance in a consistent manner. These genetic data correlate very well with previously defined functional differences that distinguish KIR3DL1 allotypes. The various epistatic effects observed here for common, distinct KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Bw4 combinations are unprecedented with regard to any pair of genetic loci in human disease, and indicate that NK cells may have a critical role in the natural history of HIV infection.
Project description:Variable interaction between the Bw4 epitope of HLA-B and the polymorphic KIR3DL1/S1 system of inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors diversifies the development, repertoire formation, and response of human NK cells. KIR3DL1*004, a common KIR3DL1 allotype, in combination with Bw4(+) HLA-B, slows progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Analysis in this study of KIR3DL1*004 membrane traffic in NK cells shows this allotype is largely misfolded but stably retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it binds to the chaperone calreticulin and does not induce the unfolded protein response. A small fraction of KIR3DL1*004 folds correctly and leaves the endoplasmic reticulum to be expressed on the surface of primary NK and transfected NKL cells, in a form that can be triggered to inhibit NK cell activation and secretion of IFN-?. Consistent with this small proportion of correctly folded molecules, trace amounts of MHC class I coimmunoprecipitated with KIR3DL1*004. There was no indication of any extensive intracellular interaction between unfolded KIR3DL1*004 and cognate Bw4(+) HLA-B. A similarly limited interaction of Bw4 with KIR3DL1*002, when both were expressed by the same cell, was observed despite the efficient folding of KIR3DL1*002 and its abundance on the NK cell surface. Several positions of polymorphism modulate KIR3DL1 abundance at the cell surface, differences that do not necessarily correlate with the potency of allotype function. In this context, our results suggest the possibility that the effect of Bw4(+) HLA-B and KIR3DL1*004 in slowing progression to AIDS is mediated by interaction of Bw4(+) HLA-B with the small fraction of cell surface KIR3DL1*004.
Project description:KIR3DL1 is among the most interesting receptors studied, within the killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) family. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I Bw4 epitope inhibits strongly Natural Killer (NK) cell's activity through interaction with KIR3DL1 receptor, while Bw6 generally does not. This interaction has been indicated to play an important role in the immune control of different viral infectious diseases. However, the structural interaction between the KIR3DL1 receptor and different HLA-B alleles has been scarcely studied. To understand the complexity of KIR3DL1-HLA-B interaction, HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4/Bw6 epitope and KIR3DL1?001 allele in presence of different peptides has been evaluated by using a structural immunoinformatic approach. Different energy minimization force fields (ff) have been tested and NOVA ff enables the successful prediction of ligand-receptor interaction. HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4 epitope present the highest capability of interaction with KIR3DL1?001 compared to the HLA-B alleles presenting Bw6. The presence of the epitope Bw4 determines a conformational change which leads to a stronger interaction between nonpolymorphic arginine at position 79 of HLA-B and KIR3DL1?001 136-142 loop. The data shed new light on the modalities of KIR3DL1 interaction with HLA-B alleles essential for the modulation of NK immune-mediated response.
Project description:KIR3DL1 is a polymorphic, inhibitory NK cell receptor specific for the Bw4 epitope carried by subsets of HLA-A and HLA-B allotypes. The Bw4 epitope of HLA-B*5101 and HLA-B*1513 is determined by the NIALR sequence motif at positions 77, 80, 81, 82, and 83 in the alpha(1) helix. Mutation of these positions to the residues present in the alternative and nonfunctional Bw6 motif showed that the functional activity of the Bw4 epitopes of B*5101 and B*1513 is retained after substitution at positions 77, 80, and 81, but lost after substitution of position 83. Mutation of leucine to arginine at position 82 led to loss of function for B*5101 but not for B*1513. Further mutagenesis, in which B*1513 residues were replaced by their B*5101 counterparts, showed that polymorphisms in all three extracellular domains contribute to this functional difference. Prominent were positions 67 in the alpha(1) domain, 116 in the alpha(2) domain, and 194 in the alpha(3) domain. Lesser contributions were made by additional positions in the alpha(2) domain. These positions are not part of the Bw4 epitope and include residues shaping the B and F pockets that determine the sequence and conformation of the peptides bound by HLA class I molecules. This analysis shows how polymorphism at sites throughout the HLA class I molecule can influence the interaction of the Bw4 epitope with KIR3DL1. This influence is likely mediated by changes in the peptides bound, which alter the conformation of the Bw4 epitope.
Project description:During development, NK cells are "educated" to respond aggressively to cells with low surface expression of HLA class I, a hallmark of malignant and infected cells. The mechanism of education involves interactions between inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and specific HLA epitopes, but the details of this process are unknown. Because of the genetic diversity of HLA class I genes, most people have NK cells that are incompletely educated, representing an untapped source of human immunity. We demonstrate how mature peripheral KIR3DL1+ human NK cells can be educated in vitro. To accomplish this, we trained NK cells expressing the inhibitory KIR3DL1 receptor by co-culturing them with target cells that expressed its ligand, Bw4+HLA-B. After this training, KIR3DL1+ NK cells increased their inflammatory and lytic responses toward target cells lacking Bw4+HLA-B, as though they had been educated in vivo. By varying the conditions of this basic protocol, we provide mechanistic and translational insights into the process NK cell education.