Real-world data on eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on to antiepileptic monotherapy.
ABSTRACT: To assess retention, tolerability, and safety, efficacy and effects on quality of life (QoL) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) add-on treatment over 6 months in a real-world adult population with partial-onset seizures.This non-interventional, multicenter, prospective study was performed in eight European countries. Adult patients (n = 247) for whom the physician had decided to initiate ESL as add-on to an existing antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy were invited to participate. The study comprised three visits: baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Data on ESL retention, efficacy, tolerability, safety, and QoL were collected.After 6 months, the retention rate of ESL was 82.2%, and 81.8% of patients reported a reduction of seizure frequency of at least 50%; 39.2% of patients reported seizure freedom at this time. The mean QOLIE-10 score improved from 2.9 (SD ± 0.8) at baseline to 2.1 (SD ± 0.8) after 6 months. 109 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 57 patients (26.0%); the majority were rated as related to ESL by the investigator and led to a discontinuation of ESL in 25 patients (11.4%). Eight patients (3.7%) suffered at least one serious AE. The most frequently reported AEs were dizziness, headache, convulsion, and fatigue.This study shows that ESL was well tolerated and efficacious as add-on therapy to one baseline AED. The use of ESL in patients less refractory than those included in previous clinical trials led to higher responder and seizure freedom rates. No new safety issues were observed.
Project description:PURPOSE:Pooled evaluation of the key efficacy and safety profile of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) added-on to stable antiepileptic therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. METHODS:Data from 1703 patients enrolled in four phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were pooled and analyzed. Following a 2 week titration period, ESL was administered at 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1200 mg once-daily doses for 12 weeks (maintenance period). Pooled efficacy variable was standardized (/4 weeks) seizure frequency (SSF) analyzed over the maintenance period as reduction in absolute and relative SSF and proportion of responders (?50% reduction in SSF). Pooled safety was analyzed by means of adverse events and clinical laboratory assessments. RESULTS:SSF was significantly reduced with ESL 800 mg (P < 0.0001) and 1200 mg (P < 0.0001) compared to placebo. Median relative reduction in SSF was 33.4% for ESL 800 mg and 37.8% for 1200 mg (placebo: 17.6%), and responder rate was 33.8% and 43.1% (placebo: 22.2%). ESL was more efficacious than placebo regardless of gender, geographical region, epilepsy duration, age at time of diagnosis, seizure type, and type of concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AED). Incidence of adverse events (AEs) and AEs leading to discontinuation was dose dependent. Most common AEs (>10% patients) were dizziness, somnolence, and nausea. The incidence of treatment-emergent AEs (dizziness, somnolence, ataxia, vomiting, and nausea) was lower in patients who began taking ESL 400 mg (followed by 400 mg increments to 800 or 1200 mg) than in those who began taking ESL 600 mg or 800 mg. CONCLUSIONS:Once-daily ESL 800 mg and 1200 mg showed consistent results across all efficacy and safety endpoints, independent of study population characteristics and type of concomitant AEDs. Treatment initiated with ESL 400 mg followed by 400 mg increments to 800 or 1200 mg provides optimal balance of efficacy and tolerability.
Project description:To examine the relationship between previously identified nonadherence trajectories during the first 6 months of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy and long-term seizure-free rates (defined as ?1 year of seizure freedom at the 4 years postdiagnosis milestone) in a cohort of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy.A prospective longitudinal observational study of AED adherence and seizure freedom in a consecutive cohort of 124 children (ages 2-12 years) with newly diagnosed epilepsy was conducted. The association between previously identified AED adherence trajectories (i.e., near-perfect adherence [e.g., average adherence = 96.8%] vs nonadherent) and seizure freedom for ?1 year at the 4 years postdiagnosis milestone was determined.Children who exhibited nonadherence to AED therapy in the first 6 months of treatment were 3.24 times more likely not to have achieved ?1 year of seizure freedom at the 4 years postdiagnosis milestone compared to children in the near-perfect adherence group (?² = 5.13; p = 0.02). Specifically, at the 4 years postdiagnosis milestone, only 12% of children in the near-perfect adherence group were continuing to experience seizures compared to 31% of children in the nonadherent group.Children with epilepsy who achieved near-perfect adherence during the first 6 months of therapy experienced a higher rate of seizure freedom 4 years postdiagnosis compared with those children who demonstrated early nonadherence. This suggests that adherence intervention early in the course of treatment could play a role in improving long-term seizure freedom rates in children with epilepsy.
Project description:Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL, Aptiom®) is a once-daily (QD) anticonvulsant, approved as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS). It is extensively converted after oral administration to eslicarbazepine, and is believed to exert its effect through inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels. The possible role of ESL as monotherapy to treat POS has not yet been established.This study was an 18-week, multicenter, randomized double-blind trial of gradual conversion to ESL monotherapy in adults with POS not well controlled by 1-2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), using historical data as the control. The study comprised an 8-week baseline period, a 2-week titration period, a 6-week AED conversion period, a 10-week monotherapy period, and either a 1-week taper period or optional entry to an open-label extension study. The primary endpoint compared the Kaplan-Meier (KM)-estimated 112-day exit rate with a threshold value calculated from the historical controls.There were 172 randomized patients; 154 (90%) entered the AED conversion period and 121 (70%) completed the study. The KM-estimated exit rates [confidence interval (CI)] were 15.6% [8.1-28.7%] for ESL 1200 mg, and 12.8% [7.5-21.5%] for ESL 1600 mg. The upper limits of the 95% CI KM-estimates were below the pre-specified threshold for historical control of 65.3%, indicating that ESL was efficacious in reducing seizure-related exits, compared with historical control. During the 18-week double-blind treatment period, median reductions in standardized seizure frequency occurred with ESL 1200 mg (36.1%) and ESL 1600 mg (47.5%). The responder rates (a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency from baseline) during the 18-week double-blind period and the monotherapy period, respectively, were 35.2% and 38.9% for ESL 1200 mg, and 46.0% and 46.0% for ESL 1600 mg. The overall adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of ESL.These findings indicate that ESL monotherapy (1200 and 1600 mg QD) was efficacious and well tolerated in this study.NCT01091662 ; EudraCT No. 2010-018684-42.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:This study investigated the seizure recurrence rate and potential predictors of seizure recurrence following antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal after resective epilepsy surgery in children with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the records of 70 children and adolescents with FCD types I, II, and IIIa who underwent resective epilepsy surgery between 2004 and 2015 and were followed for at least 2 years after surgery. RESULTS:We attempted AED withdrawal in 40 patients. The median time of starting the AED reduction was 10.8 months after surgery. Of these 40 patients, 14 patients (35%) experienced seizure recurrence during AED reduction or after AED withdrawal. Half of the 14 patients who experienced recurrence regained seizure freedom after AED reintroduction and optimization. Compared with their preoperative status, the AED dose or number was decreased in 57.1% of patients, and remained unchanged in 14.3% after surgery. A multivariate analysis found that incomplete resection (p=0.004) and epileptic discharges on the postoperative EEG (p=0.025) were important predictors of seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal. Over the mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years after surgery, 34 patients (48.6% of the entire cohort) were seizure-free with and without AEDs. CONCLUSIONS:Children with incomplete resection and epileptic discharges on postoperative EEG are at a high risk of seizure recurrence after drug withdrawal. Complete resection of FCD may lead to a favorable surgical outcome and successful AED withdrawal after surgery.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Although many studies have attempted to describe treatment outcomes in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, results are often limited by the adoption of nonhomogeneous criteria and different definitions of seizure freedom. We sought to evaluate treatment outcomes with a newly administered antiepileptic drug (AED) in a large population of adults with drug-resistant focal epilepsy according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) outcome criteria. METHODS:This is a multicenter, observational, prospective study of 1053 patients with focal epilepsy diagnosed as drug-resistant by the investigators. Patients were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months, for up to a maximum of 34 months after introducing another AED into their treatment regimen. Drug resistance status and treatment outcomes were rated according to ILAE criteria by the investigators and by at least two independent members of an external expert panel (EP). RESULTS:A seizure-free outcome after a newly administered AED according to ILAE criteria ranged from 11.8% after two failed drugs to 2.6% for more than six failures. Significantly fewer patients were rated by the EP as having a "treatment failure" as compared to the judgment of the investigator (46.7% vs 62.9%, P < 0.001), because many more patients were rated as "undetermined outcome" (45.6% vs 27.7%, P < 0.001); 19.3% of the recruited patients were not considered drug-resistant by the EP. SIGNIFICANCE:This study validates the use of ILAE treatment outcome criteria in a real-life setting, providing validated estimates of seizure freedom in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy in relation to the number of previously failed AEDs. Fewer than one in 10 patients achieved seizure freedom on a newly introduced AED over the study period. Pseudo drug resistance could be identified in one of five cases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuromodulation-based treatments have become increasingly important in epilepsy treatment. Most patients with epilepsy treated with neuromodulation do not achieve complete seizure freedom, and, therefore, previous studies of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy have focused instead on reduction of seizure frequency as a measure of treatment response. OBJECTIVE:To elucidate rates and predictors of seizure freedom with VNS. METHODS:We examined 5554 patients from the VNS therapy Patient Outcome Registry, and also performed a systematic review of the literature including 2869 patients across 78 studies. RESULTS:Registry data revealed a progressive increase over time in seizure freedom after VNS therapy. Overall, 49% of patients responded to VNS therapy 0 to 4 months after implantation (?50% reduction seizure frequency), with 5.1% of patients becoming seizure-free, while 63% of patients were responders at 24 to 48 months, with 8.2% achieving seizure freedom. On multivariate analysis, seizure freedom was predicted by age of epilepsy onset >12 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.58), and predominantly generalized seizure type (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82), while overall response to VNS was predicted by nonlesional epilepsy (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.81). Systematic literature review results were consistent with the registry analysis: At 0 to 4 months, 40.0% of patients had responded to VNS, with 2.6% becoming seizure-free, while at last follow-up, 60.1% of individuals were responders, with 8.0% achieving seizure freedom. CONCLUSION:Response and seizure freedom rates increase over time with VNS therapy, although complete seizure freedom is achieved in a small percentage of patients. ABBREVIATIONS:AED, antiepileptic drugVNS, vagus nerve stimulation.
Project description:To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy.This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%).Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%-26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%-40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ?20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses.Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials.This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective.
Project description:Importance:A study published in 2000 showed that more than one-third of adults with epilepsy have inadequate control of seizures with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This study evaluates overall treatment outcomes in light of the introduction of more than 1 dozen new AEDs in the past 2 decades. Objective:To assess long-term treatment outcome in patients with newly diagnosed and treated epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants:This longitudinal observational cohort study was conducted at the Epilepsy Unit of the Western Infirmary in Glasgow, Scotland. A total of 1795 individuals who were newly treated for epilepsy with AEDs between July 1, 1982, and October 31, 2012, were included in this analysis. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (until October 31, 2014) or until death, whichever came sooner. Data analysis was completed between March 2015 and May 2016. Exposures:Treatment with antiepileptic drugs for patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy. Main Outcomes and Measures:Seizure control was assessed at the end of the study period. Probability of achieving 1-year seizure freedom was estimated for each AED regimen prescribed. Multivariable models assessed the associations between risk factors and AED treatment outcome after adjustments were made for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results:Of the 1795 included patients, 964 (53.7%) were male; the median age was 33 years (range, 9-93 years). At the end of the study period, 1144 patients (63.7%) had been seizure free for the previous year or longer. Among those achieving 1-year seizure freedom, 993 (86.8%) were taking monotherapy and 1028 (89.9%) had achieved seizure control with the first or second AED regimens. Of the total patient pool, 906 (50.5%) remained seizure free for 1 year or longer with the initial AED. If this AED failed, the second and third regimens provided an additional 11.6% and 4.4% likelihoods of seizure freedom, respectively. Only 2.12% of patients attained optimal seizure control with subsequent AEDs. Epilepsy that was not successfully controlled with the first AED had 1.73 times greater odds of not responding to treatment for each subsequent medication regimen (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.56-1.91; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance:Despite the availability of many new AEDs with differing mechanisms of action, overall outcomes in newly diagnosed epilepsy have not improved. Most patients who attain control do so with the first or second AED. The probability of achieving seizure freedom diminishes substantially with each subsequent AED regimen tried. More than one-third of patients experience epilepsy that remains uncontrolled.
Project description:To provide evidence-based recommendations for treatment of adults with an unprovoked first seizure.We defined relevant questions and systematically reviewed published studies according to the American Academy of Neurology's classification of evidence criteria; we based recommendations on evidence level.Adults with an unprovoked first seizure should be informed that their seizure recurrence risk is greatest early within the first 2 years (21%-45%) (Level A), and clinical variables associated with increased risk may include a prior brain insult (Level A), an EEG with epileptiform abnormalities (Level A), a significant brain-imaging abnormality (Level B), and a nocturnal seizure (Level B). Immediate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, as compared with delay of treatment pending a second seizure, is likely to reduce recurrence risk within the first 2 years (Level B) but may not improve quality of life (Level C). Over a longer term (>3 years), immediate AED treatment is unlikely to improve prognosis as measured by sustained seizure remission (Level B). Patients should be advised that risk of AED adverse events (AEs) may range from 7% to 31% (Level B) and that these AEs are likely predominantly mild and reversible. Clinicians' recommendations whether to initiate immediate AED treatment after a first seizure should be based on individualized assessments that weigh the risk of recurrence against the AEs of AED therapy, consider educated patient preferences, and advise that immediate treatment will not improve the long-term prognosis for seizure remission but will reduce seizure risk over the subsequent 2 years.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily (QD) oral antiepileptic drug (AED) for focal-onset seizures (FOS). Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to assess dose selection, identify significant AED drug interactions, and quantitate relationships between exposure and safety and efficacy outcomes from Phase 3 trials of adjunctive ESL.<h4>Methods</h4>Eslicarbazepine (the primary active metabolite of ESL) population PK was evaluated using data from 1351 subjects enrolled in 14 studies (11 Phase 1 and three Phase 3 studies) after multiple oral doses ranging from 400 to 1200 mg. Population PK and PD models related individual eslicarbazepine exposures to safety outcomes and efficacy responses.<h4>Results</h4>Eslicarbazepine PK was described by a one-compartment model with linear absorption and elimination. The probability of a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE; dizziness, headache, or somnolence) was higher with an initial dose of ESL 800 mg than with an initial dose of ESL 400 mg QD. Body weight, sex, region, and baseline use of carbamazepine (CBZ) or lamotrigine were also found to influence the probability of TEAEs. Eslicarbazepine exposure influenced serum sodium concentration, standardized seizure frequency, and probability of response; better efficacy outcomes were predicted in patients not from Western Europe (WE; vs WE patients) and those not taking CBZ (vs taking CBZ) at baseline.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pharmacokinetic and PK/PD modeling were implemented during the development of ESL for adjunctive treatment of FOS in adults. This quantitative approach supported decision-making during the development of ESL, and contributed to dosing recommendations and labeling information related to drug interactions.