Data analyses of honokiol-induced autophagy of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT: This article contains raw and processed data related to a research, "Honokiol induces autophagic cell death in malignant glioma through reactive oxygen species-mediated regulation of the p53/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway" (C.J. Lin, T.L. Chen, Y.Y. Tseng, G.J. Wu, M.H. Hsieh, Y.W. Lin, R.M. Chen, 2016) . Data were obtained by immunoblotting analyses of light chain 3 (LC3)-II, beclin-1, Akt, and mTOR in human glioma U87 MG cells and mouse glioma tissues treated with honokiol, an active constituent extracted from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, "Honokiol induces autophagy of neuroblastoma cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and endoplasmic reticular stress/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration" (P.S. Yeh, W. Wang, Y.A. Chang, C.J. Lin, J.J. Wang, R.M. Chen, 2016) . The processed data show the effects of honokiol on induction of autophagy in human glioma U87 MG cells by analyzing levels of LC3-II, p62, and bectin-1, "Honokiol-induced apoptosis and autophagy in glioblastoma multiforme cells" (K.H. Chang, M.D Yan, C.J. Yao, P.C. Lin, G.M. Lai, 2013) . In addition, chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, was administered to the cells to further confirm honokiol-induced cell autophagy. Sequentially, mice with gliomas were created and treated with honokiol. Amounts of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Akt and mTOR in glioma tissues were analyzed to determine the possible mechanisms of honokiol-induced autophagy.
Project description:Although the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to Akt to mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) pathway promotes survival signaling, inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR induce minimal cell death in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10) mutant glioma. Here, we show that the dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitor PI-103 induces autophagy in a form of glioma that is resistant to therapy. Inhibitors of autophagosome maturation cooperated with PI-103 to induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, indicating that the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy acted as a survival signal in this setting. Not all inhibitors of mTOR synergized with inhibitors of autophagy. Rapamycin delivered alone induced autophagy, yet cells survived inhibition of autophagosome maturation because of rapamycin-mediated activation of Akt. In contrast, adenosine 5'-triphosphate-competitive inhibitors of mTOR stimulated autophagy more potently than did rapamycin, with inhibition of mTOR complexes 1 and 2 contributing independently to induction of autophagy. We show that combined inhibition of PI3K and mTOR, which activates autophagy without activating Akt, cooperated with inhibition of autophagy to cause glioma cells to undergo apoptosis. Moreover, the PI3K-mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, which is in clinical use, synergized with the lysosomotropic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, another agent in clinical use, to induce apoptosis in glioma xenografts in vivo, providing a therapeutic approach potentially translatable to humans.
Project description:Honokiol, an active natural product derived from Magnolia officinalis, exerted anticancer effects through a variety of mechanisms on multiple types of cancers. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of honokiol in suppressing the human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells were evaluated. Treatment of two OSCC cell lines with honokiol resulted in reducing the cell proliferation and arresting the cell cycle at G1 stage which was correlated with the down-regulation of Cdk2 and Cdk4 and the up-regulation of cell cycle suppressors, p21 and p27. In addition, the caspase-dependent programmed cell death was substantially detected, and the autophagy was induced as the autophagosome formation and autophagic flux proceeded. Modulation of autophagy by autophagic inducer, rapamycin or inhibitors, 3-MA or bafilomycin, potentiated the honokiol-mediated anti-OSCC effects where honokiol exerted multiple actions in suppression of MAPK pathway and regulation of Akt/mTOR or AMPK pathways. As compared to clinical therapeutic agent, 5-FU, honokiol exhibited more potent activity against OSCC cells and synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU. Furthermore, orally administrated honokiol exerted effective antitumour activity in vivo in OSCC-xenografted mice. Thus, this study revealed that honokiol could be a promising candidate in preventing human OSCCs.
Project description:Three hitherto undescribed species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from limestone karst in China are described and illustrated. Affinities of the species are discussed and Global Species Conservation Assessments presented. The new species are Pilea cavernicola A.K. Monro, C.J. Chen & Y.G. Wei, sp. nov. (Vulnerable) which most closely resembles Pilea scripta (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Wedd. and Pilea gracilis Handel-Mazzetti, Pilea shizongensis A.K. Monro, C.J. Chen & Y.G. Wei, sp. nov. (Endangered) which is most similar to Pilea aquarum Dunn and Pilea guizhouensis A.K. Monro, C.J. Chen & Y.G. Wei, sp. nov. (Vulnerable) which resembles Pilea boniana Gagnep. and Pilea rubriflora C. Wright mostclosely.
Project description:Apoptosis and autophagy are the two prominent forms of developmental cell death, and researches have shown that crosstalk exists between these two processes. A prior study demonstrated that triptolide inhibited the proliferation of malignant glioma cells. However, whether apoptosis and autophagy participate in the inhibitory effect of triptolide in glioma cells has not been clarified. In the present study, we demonstrated that triptolide potently inhibited the growth of glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Additionally, the treatment with triptolide induced apoptosis and autophagy in various glioma cell lines. Triptolide-induced autophagy may have tumor-supporting effects. Autophagy and apoptosis could cross-inhibit each other in glioma cells treated with triptolide. Moreover, we found that triptolide induced ROS production and JNK activation and inhibited the activity of Akt and mTOR. Finally, we demonstrated that triptolide suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft glioma model. Collectively, these data indicated that triptolide induced G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via activating the ROS/JNK and blocking the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in glioma cells. Triptolide may be a potential anti-tumor drug targeting gliomas.
Project description:Purpose:Arctigenin (ARG) is a natural lignan compound extracted from Arctium lappa and has displayed anticancer function and therapeutic effect in a variety of cancers. Arctigenin is mainly from Arctium lappa extract. It has been shown to induce autophagy in various cancers. However, as for whether arctigenin induces autophagy in gliomas or not, the specific mechanism is still worth exploring. Methods:Using CCK8, the monoclonal experiment was made to detect the proliferation ability. The scratch experiment and the transwell experiment were applied to the migration and invasion ability. PI/RNase and FITC-conjugated anti-annexin V were used to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to determine the specified protein level, and constructed LC3B-GFP plasmid was used for analysis of autophagy. Results:Our research showed that ARG inhibited the growth and proliferation and invasion and migration of glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner (U87MG and T98G) and arrested the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ARG induced autophagy in a dose-dependent manner. We applied Western blotting to measure the increase in the key autophagy protein LC3B, as well as some other autophagy-related proteins (increase in Beclin-1 and decrease in P62). In order to further explore the mechanism that ARG passed initiating autophagy to inhibit cell growth, we further found by Western blotting that AKT and mTOR phosphorylation proteins (P-AKT, P-mTOR) were reduced after ARG treatment, and we used AKT agonists to rescue, and the phosphorylated proteins of AKT and mTOR increased, and we found that the autophagy-related proteins were also reversed. And interestingly, the protein of apoptosis was also reversed along with autophagy. Conclusions:We thought ARG inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing autophagy and apoptosis through the AKT/mTOR pathway.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Celastrol, a triterpene compound derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii, has been reported to possess potential antitumor activity towards various malignancies. However, the effect of celastrol on glioma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive.<h4>Methods</h4>Glioma cells, including the U251, U87-MG and C6 cell lines and an animal model were used. The effects of celastrol on cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, reactive oxygen species production assay and immunoblotting after treatment of celastrol. Fisher's exact test, a one-way ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare differences between groups. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 software.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we found that exposure to celastrol induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Celastrol increased the formation of autophagosomes, accumulation of LC3B and the expression of p62 protein. Celastrol-treated glioma cells exhibited decreased cell viability after the use of autophagy inhibitors. Additionally, autophagy and apoptosis caused by celastrol in glioma cells inhibited each other. Furthermore, celastrol induced JNK activation and ROS production and inhibited the activities of Akt and mTOR kinases. JNK and ROS inhibitors significantly attenuated celastrol-trigged apoptosis and autophagy, while Akt and mTOR inhibitors had opposite effects.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, our study revealed that celastrol caused G2/M phase arrest and trigged apoptosis and autophagy by activating ROS/JNK signaling and blocking the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Project description:Glioma reported to be refractory to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor is the most common malignant tumor in central nervous system. Our research showed the low expression of miR-450a-5p and high expression of EGFR in glioma tissues. MiR-450a-5p was also observed to synergize with gefitinib to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion and induce the apoptosis and autophagy of glioma cells. Furthermore, miR-450a-5p was demonstrated to target 3'UTR of EGFR, and regulated EGFR-induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, the above effects induced by miR-450a-5p in glioma cells were reversed by WIPI1 silencing. The inhibition role of miR-450a-5p on glioma growth was also confirmed in vivo by subcutaneous and intracranial tumor xenografts. Therefore, we conclude that miR-450a-5p synergizes with gefitinib to inhibit the glioma tumorigenesis through inducing autophagy by regulating the EGFR-induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby enhancing the drug sensitivity of gefitinib.
Project description:Tempsarima Chang & Chen, gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Issidae: Sarimini), with type species Tempsarima bipunctata Chang & Chen, sp. nov. and Tetrichina Chang & Chen, gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Issidae: Sarimini), with type species Tetrichina trihamulata Chang & Chen, sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Hainan Province of China. The female genitalia characters of Issidae are discussed.
Project description:Autophagy and the (PI3K-Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway play significant roles in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell death and survival. Curcumin (Cur) has been reported to prevent several cancers, including GBM. However, the poor solubility and limited bioavailability of natural Cur limits its application in preventing GBM growth. Previously, we have shown the greater apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic effects of solid lipid Cur particles (SLCP) than natural Cur in cultured GBM cells. Here, we compared the autophagic responses on cultured U-87MG, GL261, F98, C6-glioma, and N2a cells after treatment with Cur or SLCP (25 µM for 24 h). Different autophagy, mitophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) markers, along with the PI3K-AKkt/mTOR signaling pathway, and the number of autophagy vacuoles were investigated after treatment with Cur and or SLCP. We observed increased levels of autophagy and decreased levels of mitophagy markers, along with inhibition of the PI3K-Akt/mTOR pathway after treatments with Cur or SLCP. Cell survival markers were downregulated, and cell death markers were upregulated after these treatments. We found greater effects in the case of SCLP-treated cells in comparison to Cur. Given that fewer effects were observed on C-6 glioma and N2a cells. Our results suggest that SLCP could be a safe and effective means of therapeutically modulating autophagy in GBM cells.
Project description:The diagnostic characters of the Chinese planthopper genus Sinonissus Wang, Shi & Bourgoin, 2018 are redefined. Three new species of this genus, S. daozhenensis Chang & Chen, sp. nov. (Guizhou), S. hamulatus Chang & Chen, sp. nov. (Guizhou) and S. longicaudus Chang & Chen, sp. nov. (Sichuan) are described and illustrated, and their female genitalia compared. A checklist and key to the Chinese species of Sinonissus are given.