GATA-1 and NF-Y cooperate to mediate erythroid-specific transcription of Gfi-1B gene.
ABSTRACT: Expression of Gfi (growth factor-independence)-1B, a Gfi-1-related transcriptional repressor, is restricted to erythroid lineage cells and is essential for erythropoiesis. We have determined the transcription start site of the human Gfi-1B gene and located its first non-coding exon approximately 7.82 kb upstream of the first coding exon. The genomic sequence preceding this first non-coding exon has been identified to be its erythroid-specific promoter region in K562 cells. Using gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we have demonstrated that NF-Y and GATA-1 directly participate in transcriptional activation of the Gfi-1B gene in K562 cells. Ectopic expression of GATA-1 markedly stimulates the activity of the Gfi-1B promoter in a non-erythroid cell line U937. Interestingly, our results have indicated that this GATA-1-mediated trans-activation is dependent on NF-Y binding to the CCAAT site. Here we conclude that functional cooperation between GATA-1 and NF-Y contributes to erythroid-specific transcriptional activation of Gfi-1B promoter.
Project description:Growth Factor Independent-1B (Gfi-1B) is a transcriptional repressor that plays critical roles in the control of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Gfi-1B expression was described to be repressed by an autoregulatory feedback control loop. Here, we show that Gfi-1 transcription is positively regulated early after induction of erythroid differentiation and remains highly active to late erythroblasts. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in CD34+ cells from human cord blood, we found that Gfi-1 and GATA-2 in immature progenitors and then Gfi-1B and GATA-1 in erythroblasts are bound to the Gfi-1B promoter as well as to the promoter of c-myc, a known Gfi-1B target gene. Surprisingly, this Gfi-1/GATA-2-Gfi-1B/GATA-1 switch observed at erythroblast stages is associated to an increase in the Gfi-1B transcription whereas it triggers repression of c-myc transcription. Accordingly, analysis of chromatin modification patterns shows that HDAC, CoREST, and LSD1 are recruited to the c-myc promoter leading to appearance of repressive chromatin marks. In contrast, the Gfi-1B promoter remains associated with a transcriptionally active chromatin configuration as highlighted by an increase in histone H3 acetylation and concomitant release of the LSD1 and CoREST corepressors. The repressive function of Gfi-1B therefore depends on the nature of the proteins recruited to the target gene promoters and on chromatin modifications. We conclude that Gfi-1B behaves as a lineage-affiliated gene with an open chromatin configuration in multipotent progenitors and sustained activation as cells progress throughout erythroid differentiation.
Project description:The transcription factor GATA-1, EKLF and NF-E2 promotes erythroid differentition by regulating their target genes, however, the intricate interplays between these key TFs and microRNA genes are largely unknown. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of GATA-1, EKLF and NF-E2 together with microRNA genomic promoter profiling by ChIP-on-chip analysis demonstrated that GATA-1, EKLF and NF-E2 collaborately regulate a series of microRNA genes. Comparison of microRNA promoter arrays of GATA-1 VS EKLF VS NF-E2 in K562 cells suffering with hemin induced erythroid differentiation
Project description:The human embryonic, fetal and adult ?-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal ?-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal ?-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal ?-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed ?-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of ?-globin gene.
Project description:The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Gfi-1b is essential for erythroid and megakaryocytic development in the embryo. Its roles in the maintenance of bone marrow erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis have not been defined. We investigated Gfi-1b's adult functions using a loxP-flanked Gfi-1b allele in combination with a novel doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene that efficiently mediates recombination in the bone marrow. We reveal strict, lineage-intrinsic requirements for continuous adult Gfi-1b expression at two distinct critical stages of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Induced disruption of Gfi-1b was lethal within 3 wk with severely reduced hemoglobin levels and platelet counts. The erythroid lineage was arrested early in bipotential progenitors, which did not give rise to mature erythroid cells in vitro or in vivo. Yet Gfi-1b(-/-) progenitors had initiated the erythroid program as they expressed many lineage-restricted genes, including Klf1/Eklf and Erythropoietin receptor. In contrast, the megakaryocytic lineage developed beyond the progenitor stage in Gfi-1b's absence and was arrested at the promegakaryocyte stage, after nuclear polyploidization, but before cytoplasmic maturation. Genome-wide analyses revealed that Gfi-1b directly regulates a wide spectrum of megakaryocytic and erythroid genes, predominantly repressing their expression. Together our study establishes Gfi-1b as a master transcriptional repressor of adult erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis.
Project description:GATA-1 and NF-E2 are erythroid specific activators that bind to the ?-globin locus. To explore the roles of these activators in transcription of the human fetal stage specific ?-globin genes, we reduced GATA-1 and p45/NF-E2 using shRNA in erythroid K562 cells. GATA-1 or p45/NF-E2 knockdown inhibited the transcription of the ?-globin genes, hypersensitive site (HS) formation in the LCR and chromatin loop formation of the ?-globin locus, but histone acetylation across the locus was decreased only in the case of GATA-1 knockdown. In p45/NF-E2 knockdown cells, GATA-1 binding was maintained at the LCR HSs and ?-globin promoter, but NF-E2 binding at the LCR HSs was reduced by GATA-1 knockdown regardless of the amount of p45/NF-E2 in K562 cells. These results indicate that histone acetylation is dependent on GATA-1 binding, but the binding of GATA-1 is not sufficient for the ?-globin transcription, HS formation and chromatin loop formation and NF-E2 is required. This idea is supported by the distinctive binding pattern of CBP and Brg1 in the ?-globin locus. Furthermore GATA-1-dependent loop formation between HS5 and 3'HS1 suggests correlation between histone modifications and chromatin looping.
Project description:Gfi-1 and Gfi-1b are novel proto-oncogenes identified by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. By gene targeting, we establish that Gfi-1b is required for the development of two related blood lineages, erythroid and megakaryocytic, in mice. Gfi-1b(-/-) embryonic stem cells fail to contribute to red cells of adult chimeras. Gfi-1b(-/-) embryos exhibit delayed maturation of primitive erythrocytes and subsequently die with failure to produce definitive enucleated erythrocytes. The fetal liver of mutant mice contains erythroid and megakaryocytic precursors arrested in their development. Myelopoiesis is normal. Therefore, Gfi-1b is an essential transcriptional regulator of erythroid and megakaryocyte development.
Project description:FKLF-2 (KLF13) was cloned from fetal globin-expressing tissues and has been shown to be abundantly expressed in erythroid cells. In this study we examined the transcriptional regulation of the KLF13 gene. A 5.5 kb 5' flanking region cloned from mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cell genomic DNA showed that major cis regulatory activities exist in the 550 bp sequence to the unique transcription start site, and that the promoter is more active in K562 cells than in COS-7 cells. The promoter was trans-activated by co-expressed GATA-1 through the sequence containing two CCAAT motifs, suggesting that GATA-1 is involved in the abundant expression of KLF13 mRNA in the erythroid tissue. Dual action, i.e. activating effect in COS-7 and repressive effect in K562 cell, was observed on its own promoter, suggesting a feedback mechanism for the transcriptional control of the KLF13 gene in the erythroid environment. These findings provide an insight on the mechanism of inducible mRNA expression of the KLF13 gene in erythroid cells.
Project description:Growth Factor Independence-1B (Gfi-1B) is a transcriptional repressor essential for erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Targeted gene disruption of Gfi-1B in mice leads to embryonic lethality due to failure to produce definitive erythrocytes, hindering the study of Gfi-1B function in adult hematopoiesis. We here show that, in humans, Gfi-1B controls the development of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of bipotent erythro-megakaryocytic progenitors (MEP). We further identify in this cell population the type III transforming growth factor-? receptor gene, TGFBR3, as a direct target of Gfi-1B. Knock down of Gfi-1B results in altered TGF? signaling as shown by the increase in Smad2 phosphorylation and its inability to associate to the Transcription Intermediary Factor 1? (TIF1?). Because Smad2/TIF1? complex is known to specifically regulate erythroid differentiation, we propose that, by repressing the transforming growth factor-? receptor III (T?R?II) expression, Gfi-1B favors the Smad2/TIF1? interaction downstream of TGF? signaling, allowing immature progenitors to differentiate toward the erythroid lineage.
Project description:GATA-1 is essential for the generation of the erythroid, megakaryocytic, eosinophilic and mast cell lineages. It acts as an activator and repressor of different target genes, for example, in erythroid cells it represses cell proliferation and early hematopoietic genes while activating erythroid genes, yet it is not clear how both of these functions are mediated. Using a biotinylation tagging/proteomics approach in erythroid cells, we describe distinct GATA-1 interactions with the essential hematopoietic factor Gfi-1b, the repressive MeCP1 complex and the chromatin remodeling ACF/WCRF complex, in addition to the known GATA-1/FOG-1 and GATA-1/TAL-1 complexes. Importantly, we show that FOG-1 mediates GATA-1 interactions with the MeCP1 complex, thus providing an explanation for the overlapping functions of these two factors in erythropoiesis. We also show that subsets of GATA-1 gene targets are bound in vivo by distinct complexes, thus linking specific GATA-1 partners to distinct aspects of its functions. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the different roles of GATA-1 in erythroid differentiation.
Project description:The Kell blood-group antigen was originally reported to be a protein expressed in erythroid tissue only. Transcriptional analysis of the KEL promoter activity in human erythroleukaemia K562 and epithelial HeLa cells by electrophoretic mobility-shift and supershift assays, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays, co-transfection studies and site-directed mutagenesis provided the following results: (i) the KEL promoter exhibits a strong transcriptional activity in K562 cells and, unexpectedly, a basal non-erythroid activity in HeLa cells, (ii) up-regulation of the 5' distal promoter activity occurs only in the erythroid context, and (iii) two motifs localized in the exon 1 region, which bind the Sp1/Sp3 and the human GATA-1/Ku70/80 factors, were required for down-regulation of the promoter activity, but inhibition of the promoter activity by the repressing factors in HeLa cells was incomplete. KEL expression in HeLa cells was performed further by primer-extension analysis, which revealed the presence of a low amount of Kell transcript correlating with basal expression of the Kell protein in these cells, as shown by immunopurification and Western-blot analysis. DNA sequencing of the transcript revealed a sequence identical to that obtained from erythroid tissue. In human tissues, KEL expression was investigated by dot-blot analysis and revealed high levels of Kell mRNAs, particularly in brain tissues, testis and lymphoid tissues. Moreover, most tissues analysed exhibited low levels of Kell transcripts. The Kell protein was also detected by immunohistochemistry in the Sertoli cells of the testis and in lymphoid tissues like spleen and tonsil, specifically localized in the follicular dendritic cells. Altogether, the results indicated that KEL expression is not restricted to erythroid tissue.