Molecular aspects of β, β-carotene-9', 10'-oxygenase 2 in carotenoid metabolism and diseases.
ABSTRACT: Carotenoids, the carotenes and xanthophylls, are essential components in human nutrition. β, β-carotene-9', 10'-oxygenase 2 (BCO2), also named as β, β-carotene-9', 10'-dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2) catalyzes the asymmetrical cleavage of carotenoids, whereas β, β-carotene-15, 15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) conducts the symmetrical cleavage of pro-vitamin A carotenoids into retinoid. Unlike BCMO1, BCO2 has a broader substrate specificity and has been considered an alternative way to produce vitamin A. In contrast to BCMO1, a cytoplasmic protein, BCO2 is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The difference in cellular compartmentalization may reflect the different substrate specificity and physiological functions with respect to BCMO1 and BCO2. The BCO2 gene mutations are proven to be associated with yellow color of skin and fat tissue and milk in livestock. Mutation in intron 2 of BCO2 gene is also supposed to be related to the expression of IL-18, a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Further, BCO2 is associated with the development of mitochondrial oxidative stress, macular degeneration, anemia, and hepatic steatosis. This review of the literature will mostly address recent updates regarding the role of BCO2 in carotenoid metabolism, and discuss the potential impacts of BCO2 protein and the mutations in mammalian diseases.
Project description:Provitamin A carotenoids are oxidatively cleaved by β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) at the central 15-15' double bond to form retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Another carotenoid oxygenase, β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at the 9'-10' bond to yield an ionone and an apo-10'-carotenoid. Previously published substrate specificity studies of BCO2 were conducted using crude lysates from bacteria or insect cells expressing recombinant BCO2. Our attempts to obtain active recombinant human BCO2 expressed in Escherichia coli were unsuccessful. We have expressed recombinant chicken BCO2 in the strain E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified the enzyme by cobalt ion affinity chromatography. Like BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. Its catalytic activity with β-carotene as substrate is at least 10-fold lower than that of BCO1. In further contrast to BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 also catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene and the non-provitamin A carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, and is inactive with all-trans-lycopene and β-apocarotenoids. Apo-10'-carotenoids were detected as enzymatic products by HPLC, and the identities were confirmed by LC-MS. Small amounts of 3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal were also consistently detected in BCO2-β-cryptoxanthin reaction mixtures. With the exception of this activity with β-cryptoxanthin, BCO2 cleaves specifically at the 9'-10' bond to produce apo-10'-carotenoids. BCO2 has been shown to function in preventing the excessive accumulation of carotenoids, and its broad substrate specificity is consistent with this.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sheep carcasses with yellow fat are sporadically observed at Norwegian slaughter houses. This phenomenon is known to be inherited as a recessive trait, and is caused by accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue. Two enzymes are known to be important in carotenoid degradation in mammals, and are therefore potential candidate genes for this trait. These are beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) and the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). RESULTS: In the present study the coding region of the BCMO1 and the BCO2 gene were sequenced in yellow fat individuals and compared to the corresponding sequences from control animals with white fat. In the yellow fat individuals a nonsense mutation was found in BCO2 nucleotide position 196 (c.196C>T), introducing a stop codon in amino acid position 66. The full length protein consists of 575 amino acids. In spite of a very low frequency of this mutation in the Norwegian AI-ram population, 16 out of 18 yellow fat lambs were found to be homozygous for this mutation. CONCLUSION: In the present study a nonsense mutation (c.196C>T) in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene is found to strongly associate with the yellow fat phenotype in sheep. The existence of individuals lacking this mutation, but still demonstrating yellow fat, suggests that additional mutations may cause a similar phenotype in this population. The results demonstrate a quantitatively important role for BCO2 in carotenoid degradation, which might indicate a broad enzyme specificity for carotenoids. Animals homozygous for the mutation are not reported to suffer from any negative health or development traits, pointing towards a minor role of BCO2 in vitamin A formation. Genotyping AI rams for c.196C>T can now be actively used in selection against the yellow fat trait.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. beta, beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) catalyzes the central cleavage of beta-carotene to all-trans retinal and is the key enzyme in the intestinal metabolism of carotenes to vitamin A. However, human and various rodent species show markedly different efficiencies in intestinal BCMO1-mediated carotene to retinoid conversion. The aim of this study is to identify potentially human-specific regulatory control mechanisms of BCMO1 gene expression. RESULTS:We identified and functionally characterized the human BCMO1 promoter sequence and determined the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene in a BCMO1 expressing human intestinal cell line, TC-7. Several functional transcription factor-binding sites were identified in the human promoter that are absent in the mouse BCMO1 promoter. We demonstrate that the proximal promoter sequence, nt -190 to +35, confers basal transcriptional activity of the human BCMO1 gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) binding elements resulted in decreased basal promoter activity. Mutation of both promoter elements abrogated the expression of intestinal cell BCMO1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays and transcription factor co-expression in TC-7 cells showed MEF2C and PPARgamma bind to their respective DNA elements and synergistically transactivate BCMO1 expression. CONCLUSION:We demonstrate that human intestinal cell BCMO1 expression is dependent on the functional cooperation between PPARgamma and MEF2 isoforms. The findings suggest that the interaction between MEF2 and PPAR factors may provide a molecular basis for interspecies differences in the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene.
Project description:Carotenoids are the precursors for vitamin A and are proposed to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Mammalian genomes encode a family of structurally related nonheme iron oxygenases that modify double bonds of these compounds by oxidative cleavage and cis-to-trans isomerization. The roles of the family members BCMO1 and RPE65 for vitamin A production and vision have been well established. Surprisingly, we found that the third family member, ?,?-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCDO2), is a mitochondrial carotenoid-oxygenase with broad substrate specificity. In BCDO2-deficient mice, carotenoid homeostasis was abrogated, and carotenoids accumulated in several tissues. In hepatic mitochondria, accumulated carotenoids induced key markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (9-fold), and reduced rates of ADP-dependent respiration by 30%. This impairment was associated with an 8- to 9-fold induction of phosphor-MAP kinase and phosphor-AKT, markers of cell signaling pathways related to oxidative stress and disease. Administration of carotenoids to human HepG2 cells depolarized mitochondrial membranes and resulted in the production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, our studies in BCDO2-deficient mice and human cell cultures indicate that carotenoids can impair respiration and induce oxidative stress. Mammalian cells thus express a mitochondrial carotenoid-oxygenase that degrades carotenoids to protect these vital organelles.
Project description:The critical role of retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) for vision, reproduction, and survival has been well established. Vitamin A is produced from dietary carotenoids such as ?-carotene by centric cleavage via the enzyme BCO1. The biochemical and molecular identification of a second structurally related ?-carotene metabolizing enzyme, BCO2, has led to a prolonged debate about its relevance in vitamin A biology. While BCO1 cleaves provitamin A carotenoids, BCO2 is more promiscuous and also metabolizes nonprovitamin A carotenoids such as zeaxanthin into long-chain apo-carotenoids. Herein we demonstrate, in cell lines, that human BCO2 is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Different human BCO2 isoforms possess cleavable N-terminal leader sequences critical for mitochondrial import. Subfractionation of murine hepatic mitochondria confirmed the localization of BCO2 to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Studies in BCO2-knockout mice revealed that zeaxanthin accumulates in the inner mitochondrial membrane; in contrast, ?-carotene is retained predominantly in the cytoplasm. Thus, we provide evidence for a compartmentalization of carotenoid metabolism that prevents competition between BCO1 and BCO2 for the provitamin and the production of noncanonical ?-carotene metabolites.
Project description:Carotenoids and their metabolites are widespread and exert key biological functions in living organisms. In vertebrates, the carotenoid oxygenase BCMO1 converts carotenoids such as β,β-carotene to retinoids, which are required for embryonic pattern formation and cell differentiation. Vertebrate genomes encode a structurally related protein named BCDO2 but its physiological function remains undefined. Here, we show that BCDO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-regulated protein during zebrafish development. Targeted knockdown of this mitochondrial enzyme resulted in anemia at larval stages. Marker gene analysis and staining for hemoglobin revealed that erythropoiesis was not impaired but that erythrocytes underwent apoptosis in BCDO2-deficient larvae. To define the mechanism of this defect, we have analyzed the role of BCDO2 in human cell lines. We found that carotenoids caused oxidative stress in mitochondria that eventually led to cytochrome c release, proteolytic activation of caspase 3 and PARP1, and execution of the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, BCDO2 prevented this induction of the apoptotic pathway by carotenoids. Thus, our study identifying BCDO2 as a crucial protective component against oxidative stress establishes this enzyme as mitochondrial carotenoid scavenger and a gatekeeper of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
Project description:The macula of the primate retina uniquely concentrates high amounts of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, but the underlying biochemical mechanisms for this spatial- and species-specific localization have not been fully elucidated. For example, despite abundant retinal levels in mice and primates of a binding protein for zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, the pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1), only human and monkey retinas naturally contain detectable levels of these carotenoids. We therefore investigated whether or not differences in expression, localization, and activity between mouse and primate carotenoid metabolic enzymes could account for this species-specific difference in retinal accumulation. We focused on ?,?-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2, also known as BCDO2), the only known mammalian xanthophyll cleavage enzyme. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that BCO2 is expressed in both mouse and primate retinas. Cotransfection of expression plasmids of human or mouse BCO2 into Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce zeaxanthin demonstrated that only mouse BCO2 is an active zeaxanthin cleavage enzyme. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies showed that the binding affinities between human BCO2 and lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are 10- to 40-fold weaker than those for mouse BCO2, implying that ineffective capture of carotenoids by human BCO2 prevents cleavage of xanthophyll carotenoids. Moreover, BCO2 knockout mice, unlike WT mice, accumulate zeaxanthin in their retinas. Our results provide a novel explanation for how primates uniquely concentrate xanthophyll carotenoids at high levels in retinal tissue.
Project description:A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation.
Project description:Cell culture studies indicate that beta-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules influence the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Here, we analyzed the roles of the two BC metabolizing enzymes, BCMO1 and BCDO2, for this process in mouse models. Wild-type mice converted BC into retinoids and showed reduced body adiposity (by 28%), leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. This effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1-/- mice that showed increased BCDO2 expression and gamma-10gamma-apocarotenoid production. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARgamma activity. The goal of the study was to analyze the putative differential effects of BC accumulation on Bcmo1 ko mice, and BC metabolites in wt mice. Inguinal adipose tissue gene expression profile comparing adult male and female mice under control diet and beta-carotene (BC) supplemented diet during 14 weeks. 47 mice in total. 23 wild-type (11 male/12 female) and 24 bcmo1 (12 male/12 female) mice, fed on vitamin A diet (1500 IU vit A/kg diet) or vitamin A diet supplemented with BC (1500 IU vit A/kg diet +150 mg BC/kg diet) during 14 weeks.
Project description:Cell culture studies indicate that beta-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules influence the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Here, we analyzed the roles of the two BC metabolizing enzymes, BCMO1 and BCDO2, for this process in mouse models. Wild-type mice converted BC into retinoids and showed reduced body adiposity (by 28%), leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. This effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1-/- mice that showed increased BCDO2 expression and gamma-10gamma-apocarotenoid production. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARgamma activity. Overall design: The goal of the study was to analyze the putative differential effects of BC accumulation on Bcmo1 ko mice, and BC metabolites in wt mice. Inguinal adipose tissue gene expression profile comparing adult male and female mice under control diet and beta-carotene (BC) supplemented diet during 14 weeks. 47 mice in total. 23 wild-type (11 male/12 female) and 24 bcmo1 (12 male/12 female) mice, fed on vitamin A diet (1500 IU vit A/kg diet) or vitamin A diet supplemented with BC (1500 IU vit A/kg diet +150 mg BC/kg diet) during 14 weeks.