Racial Variation in Depression Risk Factors and Symptom Trajectories among Older Women.
ABSTRACT: To assess racial variation in depression risk factors and symptom trajectories among older women.Using Nurses' Health Study data, participants (29,483 non-Hispanic white and 288 black women) aged 60 years or older, free of depression in 2000, were followed until 2012. Data on race and risk factors, selected a priori, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. Incident depression was defined as depression diagnosis, antidepressant use, or presence of severe depressive symptoms. Group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms were determined using latent variable modeling approaches.Black participants had lower risk (hazard ratio: 0.76; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.99) of incident late-life depression compared with whites. Although blacks had higher prevalence than whites of some risk factors at study baseline, distributions of major contributors to late-life depression risk (low exercise, sleep difficulty, physical/functional limitation, pain) were comparable. There was evidence of effect modification by race for relations of region of birth (Southern birthplace), smoking, and medical comorbidity to depression risk; however, wide confidence intervals occurred among blacks because of smaller sample size. Four trajectories were identified: minimal symptoms-stable (58.3%), mild symptoms-worsening (31.4%), subthreshold symptoms-worsening (4.8%), and subthreshold symptoms-improving (5.5%). Probabilities of trajectory types were similar for blacks and whites.Although overall trajectories of late-life depressive symptoms were comparable by race, there was racial variation in depression risk estimates associated with less-studied factors, such as U.S. region of birth. Future work may address unmeasured health and resilience determinants that may underlie observed findings and that could inform clinical assessment of late-life depression risk factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined race differences in the DSM-IV clinical significance criterion (CSC), an indicator of depressive role impairment, and its impact on assessment outcomes in older white and black women with diagnosed and subthreshold depression. DESIGN:We conducted a secondary analysis of a community-based interview study, using group comparisons and logistic regression. SETTING:Lower-income neighborhoods in a Midwestern city. PARTICIPANTS:411 community-dwelling depressed and non-depressed women ? 65 years (45.3% Black; mean age = 75.2, SD = 7.2) recruited through census tract-based telephone screening. MEASUREMENTS:SCID interview for DSM-IV to assess major depression and dysthymia; Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale to define subthreshold depression (?16 points); Mini-Mental State Examination, count of medical conditions, activities of daily living, and mental health treatment to assess health factors. RESULTS:Black participants were less likely than Whites to endorse the CSC (11.8% vs. 24.1%; p = .002). There were few race differences in depressive symptom type, severity, or count. Blacks with subthreshold depression endorsed more symptoms, though this comparison was not significant after adjustments. Health factors did not account for race differences in CSC endorsement. Disregarding the CSC-eliminated differences in diagnosis rate, race was a significant predictor of CSC endorsement in a logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:Race differences in CSC endorsement are not due to depressive symptom presentations or health factors. The use of the CSC may lead to underdiagnosis of depression among black older adults. Subthreshold depression among Blacks may be more severe compared to Whites, thus requiring tailored assessment and treatment approaches.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Blacks and Hispanics are at increased risk for dementia, even after socioeconomic and vascular factors are taken into account. This study tests a comprehensive model of psychosocial pathways leading to differences in longitudinal cognitive outcomes among older blacks and Hispanics, compared to non-Hispanic whites.<h4>Methods</h4>Using data from 10,173 participants aged 65 and older in the Health and Retirement Study, structural equation models tested associations among race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, external locus of control, and 6-year memory trajectories, controlling for age, sex, educational attainment, income, wealth, and chronic diseases.<h4>Results</h4>Greater perceived discrimination among blacks was associated with lower initial memory level via depressive symptoms and external locus of control, and with faster memory decline directly. Greater depressive symptoms and external locus of control among Hispanics were each independently associated with lower initial memory, but there were no pathways from Hispanic ethnicity to memory decline.<h4>Discussion</h4>Depression and external locus of control partially mediate racial/ethnic differences in memory trajectories. Perceived discrimination is a major driver of these psychosocial pathways for blacks, but not Hispanics. These results can inform the development of policies and interventions to reduce cognitive morbidity among racially/ethnically diverse older adults.
Project description:Background:Black-White differences are reported in social, psychological, behavioral, medical, and biological correlates of depression. This study was conducted to compare Black and White older adults for the association between neuroticism polygenic risk score (N-PRS) and chronicity of depressive symptoms over 20 years. Methods:Data came from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1990 - 2012, a nationally representative sample of Americans above age 50. Current analysis followed 9,249 individuals (7,924 Whites and 1,325 Blacks) for up to 22 years. Depressive symptoms were measured every two years between 1992 and 2012 using the 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D-8). The independent variable was N-PRS. The dependent variable was average depressive symptoms between 1992 and 2012. Linear regression was used for data analysis. Results:In the pooled sample, higher N-PRS was associated with higher average depressive symptoms over the 20-year follow up period [b=0.01, 95%CI=0.00 to 0.04], net of all covariates. We also found an interaction between race and N-PRS [b=-0.02, 95%CI=-0.03 to 0.00], suggesting a stronger effect of N-PRS on 20-year average depressive symptoms for Whites than Blacks. Based on our race-specific linear regression models, higher N-PRS was associated with higher depressive symptoms from 1992 to 2012 for Whites [b=0.01, 95%CI=0.01 to 0.02] but not Blacks [b=0.00, 95%CI=-0.02 to 0.02]. Conclusion:Black and White older adults may differ in the salience of the existing N-PRS for depressive symptoms, which better reflects the burden of depression for Whites than Blacks. This may be because the existing PRSs are derived from mostly or exclusively White samples, limiting their applicability in other race groups. Racial variation in psychosocial, clinical, and biological correlates of depression needs further research.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Although several environmental factors contribute to the etiology of late-life depressive symptoms, the role of ambient air pollution has been understudied. Experimental data support the neurotoxicity of airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5), but it remains unclear whether long-term exposure is associated with late-life depressive symptoms. Our secondary aim was to explore whether the observed associations between exposure and depressive symptoms are explained by dementia risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Prospective community-dwelling cohort study from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging (1999-2010). Our analyses included 1,989 older women (baseline age 73.3 ± 3.75) with no prior depression or cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS:Participants completed annual assessments of depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale). Average ambient PM2.5 exposure at the residential location was estimated by spatiotemporal modeling for the 3-years preceding each neuropsychological assessment. Participants underwent separate annual examinations for incident dementia defined by DSM-IV. Latent-class mixture models examined the association between PM2.5 and identified trajectories of symptoms. RESULTS:Six trajectories of depressive symptoms were identified. Across all women, PM2.5 exposure was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The effect was especially strong in two clusters with sustained depressive symptoms (n?=?625 sustained-mild [31%]; n?=?125 sustained-moderate; [6%]). Among those with sustained-moderate symptoms, the estimated adverse effect of PM2.5 exposure was greater than that of hypertension. Among women without dementia, associations were modestly attenuated. CONCLUSION:Long-term exposure to ambient fine particles was associated with increased depressive symptoms among older women without prior depression or cognitive impairment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Health risk assessments (HRAs), which often screen for depressive symptoms, are administered to millions of employees and health plan members each year. HRA data provide an opportunity to examine longitudinal trends in depressive symptomatology, as researchers have done previously with other populations.<h4>Objective</h4>The primary research questions were: (1) Can we observe longitudinal trajectories in HRA populations like those observed in other study samples? (2) Do HRA variables, which primarily reflect modifiable health risks, help us to identify predictors associated with these trajectories? (3) Can we make meaningful recommendations for population health management, applicable to HRA participants, based on predictors we identify?<h4>Methods</h4>This study used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to examine longitudinal trends in depressive symptomatology among 22,963 participants in a Web-based HRA used by US employers and health plans. The HRA assessed modifiable health risks and variables such as stress, sleep, and quality of life.<h4>Results</h4>Five classes were identified: A "minimal depression" class (63.91%, 14,676/22,963) whose scores were consistently low across time, a "low risk" class (19.89%, 4568/22,963) whose condition remained subthreshold, a "deteriorating" class (3.15%, 705/22,963) who began at subthreshold but approached severe depression by the end of the study, a "chronic" class (4.71%, 1081/22,963) who remained highly depressed over time, and a "remitting" class (8.42%, 1933/22,963) who had moderate depression to start, but crossed into minimal depression by the end. Among those with subthreshold symptoms, individuals who were male (P<.001) and older (P=.01) were less likely to show symptom deterioration, whereas current depression treatment (P<.001) and surprisingly, higher sleep quality (P<.001) were associated with increased probability of membership in the "deteriorating" class as compared with "low risk." Among participants with greater symptomatology to start, those in the "severe" class tended to be younger than the "remitting" class (P<.001). Lower baseline sleep quality (P<.001), quality of life (P<.001), stress level (P<.001), and current treatment involvement (P<.001) were all predictive of membership in the "severe" class.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The trajectories identified were consistent with trends in previous research. The results identified some key predictors: we discuss those that mirror prior studies and offer some hypotheses as to why others did not. The finding that 1 in 5 HRA participants with subthreshold symptoms deteriorated to the point of clinical distress during succeeding years underscores the need to learn more about such individuals. We offer additional recommendations for follow-up research, which should be designed to reflect changes in health plan demographics and HRA delivery platforms. In addition to utilizing additional variables such as cognitive style to refine predictive models, future research could also begin to test the impact of more aggressive outreach strategies aimed at participants who are likely to deteriorate or remain significantly depressed over time.
Project description:The role of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic composition on depression has received considerable attention in the United States. This study examines associations between trajectory patterns of neighborhood changes and depressive symptoms using data from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used latent class growth analysis to determine the number and distribution of person-centered trajectories for neighborhood characteristics, and multilevel growth curve models to examine how belonging to each class impacted depression trajectories from ages 13 to 32 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Others (NHO). The distribution of neighborhood SES classes across racial/ethnic groups suggests significant levels of economic inequality, but had no effect on depressive symptoms. A more complex picture emerged on the number and distribution of racial/ethnic composition latent class trajectories. Compared to NHB peers who lived in predominantly NHW neighborhoods from adolescence to adulthood, NHBs in more diverse neighborhoods had lower risk for depressive symptoms. Conversely, Hispanics living in neighborhoods with fewer NHWs had higher risk for depressive symptoms. Among NHOs, living in neighborhoods with a critical mass of other NHOs had a protective effect against depressive symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research links psychological stress to accelerated cellular aging. Here we examined whether long-term patterns of depression and caregiving burden, forms of chronic psychological stress, were associated with shorter telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging. METHODS:The study included 1250 healthy older women (mean: 68.0; range: 60-81 years) in the Nurses' Health Study. Long-term patterns in depressive symptoms and caregiving activity (separated into care of children/grandchildren vs. ill or disabled family members/others) incorporated questionnaire data between 1992 and 2000; relative leukocyte telomere lengths (LTLs) were measured in 2000-2001. Least-squares means LTL z-scores were calculated across categories of depression patterns and caregiving intensity. RESULTS:Six empirically-derived latent classes of depressive symptom trajectories were identified: minimal-stable (63.7%), mild-worsening (3.9%), subthreshold-improving (22.8%), subthreshold-worsening (2.7%), clinical range depressive-improving (6.2%), and clinical range depressive-persistent (0.6%). After collapsing trajectory patterns into 4 groups (combining those with minimal and mild symptoms into one group and those with clinical range depressive symptoms into one group) due to very small sample sizes in some groups, we observed marginal associations (p?=?0.07):?e.g., the least-squares means LTL z-scores were lowest (-0.08; 95% CI: -0.22 to 0.06) for the clinical range depressive symptoms group and highest (0.12; 0.04-0.20) for the subthreshold-improving group (Tukey's post-hoc pairwise p?=?0.07). With six depressive symptom trajectories, no significant associations were observed with regard to telomere lengths. There were no significant associations between caregiving intensity and LTLs. CONCLUSIONS:There were no associations between long-term patterns of caregiving burden and telomere lengths among older women. Possible differences in telomere lengths by types of long-term depressive symptom trajectories may warrant further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Telomeres cap and protect DNA but shorten with each somatic cell division. Aging and environmental and lifestyle factors contribute to the speed of telomere attrition. Current evidence suggests a link between relative telomere length (RTL) and depression but the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. We prospectively examined associations between RTL and subsequent depressive symptom trajectories. METHODS:Among 8,801 women of the Nurses' Health Study, depressive symptoms were measured every 4 years from 1992 to 2012; group-based trajectories of symptoms were identified using latent class growth-curve analysis. Multinomial logistic models were used to relate midlife RTLs to the probabilities of assignment to subsequent depressive symptom trajectory groups. RESULTS:We identified four depressive symptom trajectory groups: minimal depressive symptoms (62%), worsening depressive symptoms (14%), improving depressive symptoms (19%), and persistent-severe depressive symptoms (5%). Longer midlife RTLs were related to significantly lower odds of being in the worsening symptoms trajectory versus minimal trajectory but not to other trajectories. In comparison with being in the minimal symptoms group, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of being in the worsening depressive symptoms group was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.97; p?=?0.02), for every standard deviation increase in baseline RTL. CONCLUSIONS:In this large prospective study of generally healthy women, longer telomeres at midlife were associated with significantly lower risk of a subsequent trajectory of worsening mood symptoms over 20 years. The results raise the possibility of telomere shortening as a novel contributing factor to late-life depression.
Project description:Although studies have shown that depression is associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure, most studies have been in white patients. The impact of depression on outcomes in blacks with heart failure has not been studied.We analyzed 747 blacks and 1420 whites enrolled in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training, which randomized 2331 patients with ejection fraction ?35% to usual care with or without exercise training. We examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after 3 months with all-cause mortality/hospitalization. A race by baseline BDI-II interaction was observed (P=0.003) in which elevated baseline scores were associated with worse outcomes in blacks versus whites. In blacks, the association was nonlinear with a hazard ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.68) when comparing the 75th and 25th percentile of BDI-II (score of 15 and 5, respectively). No race interaction was observed for mortality (P=0.34). There was no differential association between BDI-II change and outcomes in blacks versus whites. In blacks, an increase in BDI-II score from baseline to 3 months was associated with increased mortality/hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.57 per 10 point increase), whereas a decrease was not related to outcomes.In blacks with heart failure, baseline symptoms of depression and worsening of symptoms over time are associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization. Routine assessment of depressive symptoms in blacks with heart failure may help guide management.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00047437.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Co-morbid major depression is a significant problem among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or coronary heart disease and this negatively impacts quality of life. Subthreshold depression is the most important risk factor for the development of major depression. Given the highly significant association between depression and adverse health outcomes and the limited capacity for depression treatment in primary care, there is an urgent need for interventions that successfully prevent the transition from subthreshold depression into a major depressive disorder. Nurse led stepped-care is a promising way to accomplish this. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led indicated stepped-care program to prevent major depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or coronary heart disease in primary care who also have subthreshold depressive symptoms.<h4>Methods/design</h4>An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside a cluster-randomized controlled trial in approximately thirty general practices in the Netherlands. Randomization takes place at the level of participating practice nurses. We aim to include 236 participants who will either receive a nurse-led indicated stepped-care program for depressive symptoms or care as usual. The stepped-care program consists of four sequential but flexible treatment steps: 1) watchful waiting, 2) guided self-help treatment, 3) problem solving treatment and 4) referral to the general practitioner. The primary clinical outcome measure is the cumulative incidence of major depressive disorder as measured with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Secondary outcomes include severity of depressive symptoms, quality of life, anxiety and physical outcomes. Costs will be measured from a societal perspective and include health care utilization, medication and lost productivity costs. Measurements will be performed at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.<h4>Discussion</h4>The intervention being investigated is expected to prevent new cases of depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or coronary heart disease and subthreshold depression, with subsequent beneficial effects on quality of life, clinical outcomes and health care costs. When proven cost-effective, the program provides a viable treatment option in the Dutch primary care system.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Dutch Trial Register NTR3715.