Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Quaternary Ammonium 4-Deoxypyridoxine Derivatives.
ABSTRACT: A series of novel quaternary ammonium 4-deoxypyridoxine derivatives was synthesized. Two compounds demonstrated excellent activity against a panel of Gram-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains with MICs in the range of 0.5-2??g/mL, exceeding the activity of miramistin. At the same time, both compounds were inactive against the Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains. Cytotoxicity studies on human skin fibroblasts and embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that the active compounds possessed similar toxicity with benzalkonium chloride but were slightly more toxic than miramistin. SOS-chromotest in S. typhimurium showed the lack of DNA-damage activity of both compounds; meanwhile, one compound showed some mutagenic potential in the Ames test. The obtained results make the described chemotype a promising starting point for the development of new antibacterial therapies.
Project description:Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) are two of the most common household antiseptics, but show weaker efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria as well as against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, relative to other S.?aureus strains. We prepared 28 novel quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) that represent a hybrid of these two structures, using 1- to 2-step synthetic sequences. The biscationic (bisQAC) species prepared show uniformly potent activity against six bacterial strains tested, with nine novel antiseptics displaying single-digit micromolar activity across the board. Effects of unequal chain lengths of two installed side chains had less impact than the overall number of side chain carbon atoms present, which was optimal at 22-25 carbons. This is further indication that simple refinements to multiQAC architectures can show improvement over current household antiseptics.
Project description:Quaternary ammonium amphiphiles are a class of compounds with a wide range of commercial and industrial uses. In the pharmaceutical field, the most common quaternary ammonium surfactant is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is employed as a preservative in several topical formulations for ocular, skin, or nasal application. Despite the broad antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi and small enveloped viruses, safety concerns regarding its irritant and cytotoxic effect on epithelial cells still remain. In this work, quaternary ammonium derivatives of leucine esters (C10, C12 and C14) were synthesised as BAC analogues. These cationic surfactants were characterised in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC, by tensiometry), cytotoxicity (MTS and LDH assays on the Caco-2 and Calu-3 cell lines) and antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis among the Gram-positives, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among the Gram-negatives and the yeast Candida albicans. They showed satisfactory surface-active properties, and a cytotoxic effect that was dependent on the length of the hydrophobic chain. Lower minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) values were calculated for C14-derivatives, which were comparable to those calculated for BAC toward Gram-positive bacteria and slightly higher for Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans. Thus, the synthesised leucine-based quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants can potentially find application as promising surface-active compounds with antimicrobial activity.
Project description:Ninety-seven epidemiologically unrelated strains of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated for their sensitivities to quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide). The MICs for seven serogroup 1/2 strains were high. Three came from the environment and four came from food; none were isolated from human or animal samples. All 97 strains carried the mdrL gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump, and the orfA gene, a putative transcriptional repressor of mdrL. The absence of plasmids in four of the seven resistant strains and the conservation of resistance after plasmid curing suggested that the resistance genes are not plasmid borne. Moreover, PCR amplification and Southern blot hybridization experiments failed to find genes phylogenetically related to the qacA and smr genes, encoding multidrug efflux systems previously described for the genus Staphylococcus. The high association between nontypeability by phages and the loss of sensitivity to quaternary ammonium compounds are suggestive of an intrinsic resistance due to modifications in the cell wall.
Project description:Given the limited number of structural classes of clinically available antimicrobial drugs, the discovery of antibacterials with novel chemical scaffolds is an important strategy in the development of effective therapeutics for both naturally occurring and engineered resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, several diarylamidine derivatives were evaluated for their ability to protect macrophages from cell death following infection with Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. Four bis-(imidazolinylindole) compounds were identified with potent antibacterial activity as measured by the protection of macrophages and by the inhibition of bacterial growth in vitro. These compounds were effective against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species, including several antibiotic-resistant strains. Minor structural variations among the four compounds correlated with differences in their effects on bacterial macromolecular synthesis and mechanisms of resistance. In vivo studies revealed protection by two of the compounds of mice lethally infected with B. anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Yersinia pestis. Taken together, these results indicate that the bis-(imidazolinylindole) compounds represent a new chemotype for the development of therapeutics for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species as well as against antibiotic-resistant infections.
Project description:We sought to explore the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-amines for TLR7 (or 8)-modulatory activities. This chemotype, readily accessed via the Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé multi-component reaction, resulted in compounds that were TLR7/8-inactive, but exhibited bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial activity of this new chemotype, a resistant strain of S. aureus was generated by serially passaging the organism in escalating doses of the most active analogue. A comparison of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of known bacteriostatic agents in wild-type and resistant strains indicates a novel mechanism of action. Structure-activity relationship studies have led to the identification of positions on the scaffold for additional structural modifications that should allow for the introduction of probes designed to examine cognate binding partners and molecular targets, while not significantly compromising antibacterial potency.
Project description:Essential oils (EOs) from the stems and leaves of Origanum vulgare L. grown in Saudi Arabia and Jordan were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detector (FID) techniques on two different columns (polar and nonpolar). A detailed phytochemical analysis led to the identification of 153 constituents of these essential oils. Both Saudi and Jordanian plants are classified by chemotypes rich in cymyl-compounds. However, the Saudi Origanum contains carvacrol as the major component and is, thus, characterized as a carvacrol chemotype, while the Jordanian Origanum contains thymol as the major component, and, thus, it is classified as a thymol chemotype. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the studied EOs and their major components, including carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. All the tested compounds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria. Among them, thymol demonstrated superior activity against all the tested organisms, followed by carvacrol. Moreover, results on oil composition and oil yield of O. vulgare L. from different parts of the world is compared in detail with the present outcomes.
Project description:In view of the pressing need to identify new antibacterial agents able to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria, we investigated a series of fused selenazolinium derivatives (1-8) regarding their in vitro antimicrobial activities against 25 ESKAPE-pathogen strains. Ebselen was used as reference compound. Most of the selenocompounds demonstrated an excellent in vitro activity against all S. aureus strains, with activities comparable to or even exceeding the one of ebselen. In contrast to ebselen, some selenazolinium derivatives (1, 3, and 7) even displayed significant actions against all Gram-negative pathogens tested. The 3-bromo-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)[1,2]selenazolo[2,3-a]pyridinium chloride (1) was particularly active (minimum inhibitory concentrations, MICs: 0.31-1.24 µg/mL for MRSA, and 0.31-2.48 µg/mL for Gram-negative bacteria) and devoid of any significant mutagenicity in the Ames assay. Our preliminary mechanistic studies in cell culture indicated that their mode of action is likely to be associated with an alteration of intracellular levels of glutathione and cysteine thiols of different proteins in the bacterial cells, hence supporting the idea that such compounds interact with the intracellular thiolstat. This alteration of pivotal cysteine residues is most likely the result of a direct or catalytic oxidative modification of such residues by the highly reactive selenium species (RSeS) employed.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodeterioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents in enhancing the activity of a biocide (benzalkonium chloride) was assessed. EDTA, polyethylenimine (PEI), and succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic) were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of the members of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas genera, as indicated by an increase in the uptake of a hydrophobic probe (1-N-phenylnaphthylamine) and sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics. Visualization of Pseudomonas cells treated with EDTA or PEI by atomic force microscopy revealed damage in the outer membrane structure. PEI especially increased the surface area and bulges of the cells. Topographic images of EDTA-treated cells were compatible with events assigned for the effect of EDTA on outer membranes, i.e., release of lipopolysaccharide and disintegration of OM structure. In addition, the effect of EDTA treatment was visualized in phase-contrast images as large areas with varying hydrophilicity on cell surfaces. In liquid culture tests, EDTA and PEI supplementation enhanced the activity of benzalkonium chloride toward the target strains. Use of permeabilizers in biocide formulations would enable the use of decreased concentrations of the active biocide ingredient, thereby providing environmentally friendlier products.
Project description:A series of 108 novel quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives carrying various substituents at the quaternary nitrogen's and acetal carbon was synthesized. Thirteen compounds exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25-16 µg/mL) comparable or superior than miramistin, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine. A strong correlation between the lipophilicity and antibacterial activity was found. The most active compounds had logP values in the range of 1-3, while compounds with logP > 6 and logP < 0 were almost inactive. All active compounds demonstrated cytotoxicity comparable with miramistin and chlorhexidine on HEK-293 cells and were three-fold less toxic when compared to benzalkonium chloride. The antibacterial activity of leading compound 5c12 on biofilm-embedded Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparable or even higher than that of the benzalkonium chloride. In vivo 5c12was considerably less toxic (LD50 1705 mg/kg) than benzalkonium chloride, miramistine, and chlorhexidine at oral administration on CD-1 mice. An aqueous solution of 5c12 (0.2%) was shown to be comparable to reference drugs efficiency on the rat's skin model. The molecular target of 5c12 seems to be a cellular membrane as other quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results make the described quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives promising and lead molecules in the development of the new antiseptics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity.
Project description:The vitamin B-6 antimetabolite 4-deoxypyridoxine, when injected into 13-day chick embryos, has the effect of increasing the amount of collagen solubilized from the leg bones by buffered saline solutions, 24 h after the injection. This effect is similar to, but less marked than, that produced by the administration of the lathyrogen beta-amino-propionitrile. Since that fraction of the total collagen which is solubilized by saline represents the least-cross-linked pool, it is concluded that 4-deoxypyridoxine is a lathyrogen, decreasing the cross-linking in the developing embryo, and confirming the importance of vitamin B-6 in that process. Lysyl oxidase, the cross-linking enzyme, was measured in extracts made from the epiphysial cartilages of embryos 24 h after the injection of either 4-deoxypyridoxine or beta-aminopropionitrile. The injection of 5 mg of beta-aminopropionitrile causes the lysyl oxidase activity to fall to 61% of that of saline-injected controls; after treatment with 4-deoxypyridoxine, the activity is 74% of the control value. In the latter case, full activity is not restored to the extracts by preincubation with pyridoxal phosphate. The results are discussed in relation to the early development of the connective tissues.