Developmental suppression of schizophrenia-associated miR-137 alters sensorimotor function in zebrafish.
ABSTRACT: The neurodevelopmentally regulated microRNA miR-137 was strongly implicated as risk locus for schizophrenia in the most recent genome wide association study coordinated by the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (PGC). This molecule is highly conserved in vertebrates enabling the investigation of its function in the developing zebrafish. We utilized this model system to achieve overexpression and suppression of miR-137, both transiently and stably through transgenesis. While miR-137 overexpression was not associated with an observable specific phenotype, downregulation by antisense morpholino and/or transgenic expression of miR-sponge RNA induced significant impairment of both embryonic and larval touch-sensitivity without compromising overall anatomical development. We observed miR-137 expression and activity in sensory neurons including Rohon-Beard neurons and dorsal root ganglia, two neuronal cell types that confer touch-sensitivity in normal zebrafish, suggesting a role of these cell types in the observed phenotype. The lack of obvious anatomical or histological pathology in these cells, however, suggested that subtle axonal network defects or a change in synaptic function and neural connectivity might be responsible for the behavioral phenotype rather than a change in the cellular morphology or neuroanatomy.
Project description:Voltage-gated Na(+) channels initiate and propagate action potentials in excitable cells. Mammalian Na(+) channels are composed of one pore-forming alpha-subunit and two beta-subunits. SCN1B encodes the Na(+) channel beta1-subunit that modulates channel gating and voltage dependence, regulates channel cell surface expression, and functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM). We recently identified scn1ba, a zebrafish ortholog of SCN1B. Here we report that zebrafish express a second beta1-like paralog, scn1bb. In contrast to the restricted expression of scn1ba mRNA in excitable cells, we detected scn1bb transcripts and protein in several ectodermal derivatives including neurons, glia, the lateral line, peripheral sensory structures, and tissues derived from other germ layers such as the pronephros. As expected for beta1-subunits, elimination of Scn1bb protein in vivo by morpholino knock-down reduced Na(+) current amplitudes in Rohon-Beard neurons of zebrafish embryos, consistent with effects observed in heterologous systems. Further, after Scn1bb knock-down, zebrafish embryos displayed defects in Rohon-Beard mediated touch sensitivity, demonstrating the significance of Scn1bb modulation of Na(+) current to organismal behavior. In addition to effects associated with Na(+) current modulation, Scn1bb knockdown produced phenotypes consistent with CAM functions. In particular, morpholino knock-down led to abnormal development of ventrally projecting spinal neuron axons, defasciculation of the olfactory nerve, and increased hair cell number in the inner ear. We propose that, in addition to modulation of electrical excitability, Scn1bb plays critical developmental roles by functioning as a CAM in the zebrafish embryonic nervous system.
Project description:Peripheral axons of somatosensory neurons innervate the skin early in development to detect touch stimuli. Embryological experiments had suggested that the skin produces guidance cues that attract sensory axons, but neither the attractants nor their neuronal receptors had previously been identified.To investigate peripheral axon navigation to the skin, we combined live imaging of developing zebrafish Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons with molecular loss-of-function manipulations. Simultaneously knocking down two members of the leukocyte antigen-related (LAR) family of receptor tyrosine phosphatases expressed in RB neurons, or inhibiting their function with dominant-negative proteins, misrouted peripheral axons to internal tissues. Time-lapse imaging indicated that peripheral axon guidance, rather than outgrowth or maintenance, was defective in LAR-deficient neurons. Peripheral axons displayed a similar misrouting phenotype in mutants defective in heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) production and avoided regions in which HSPGs were locally degraded.HSPGs and LAR family receptors are required for sensory axon guidance to the skin. Together, our results support a model in which peripheral HSPGs are attractive ligands for LAR receptors on RB neurons.
Project description:Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality.
Project description:The PR domain containing 1a, with ZNF domain factor, gene prdm1a plays an integral role in the development of a number of different cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis, including neural crest cells, Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons and the cranial neural crest-derived craniofacial skeletal elements. To better understand how Prdm1a regulates the development of various cell types in zebrafish, we performed a microarray analysis comparing wild type and prdm1a mutant embryos and identified a number of genes with altered expression in the absence of prdm1a. Rescue analysis determined that two of these, sox10 and islet1, lie downstream of Prdm1a in the development of neural crest cells and Rohon-Beard neurons, respectively. In addition, we identified a number of other novel downstream targets of Prdm1a that may be important for the development of diverse tissues during zebrafish embryogenesis. Overall design: RNA was isolated from whole zebrafish embryos at 25hpf, three replicates each for wildtype and prdm1a mutant embryos.
Project description:The PR domain containing 1a, with ZNF domain factor, gene prdm1a plays an integral role in the development of a number of different cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis, including neural crest cells, Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons and the cranial neural crest-derived craniofacial skeletal elements. To better understand how Prdm1a regulates the development of various cell types in zebrafish, we performed a microarray analysis comparing wild type and prdm1a mutant embryos and identified a number of genes with altered expression in the absence of prdm1a. Rescue analysis determined that two of these, sox10 and islet1, lie downstream of Prdm1a in the development of neural crest cells and Rohon-Beard neurons, respectively. In addition, we identified a number of other novel downstream targets of Prdm1a that may be important for the development of diverse tissues during zebrafish embryogenesis. RNA was isolated from whole zebrafish embryos at 25hpf, three replicates each for wildtype and prdm1a mutant embryos.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer. We previously showed that the microRNA miR-137 is downregulated in clinical samples of pancreatic cancer, and its expression negatively regulates the proliferation and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS:The stemness features of pancreatic cancer cells was detected by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and sphere formation assay. Xenograft mouse models were used to assess the role of miR-137 in stemness features of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to determine how miR-137 regulates KLF12. Bioinformatics and Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of KLF12 recruitment to the DVL2 promoters. Involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathways was investigated by western blot and Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:miR-137 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell stemness in vitro and vivo. KLF12 as miR-137 target inhibits CSC phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. Suppression of KLF12 by miR-137 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signalling. KLF12 expression correlates with DVL2 and canonical Wnt pathway in clinical pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that miR-137 reduces stemness features of pancreatic cancer cells by Targeting KLF12-associated Wnt/β-catenin pathways and may identify new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:The developmental activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HDs) is critically controlled by LIM domain-interacting cofactors of LIM-HDs (CLIM, also known as NLI or LDB). CLIM cofactors associate with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSDPs, also known as SSBPs) thereby recruiting SSDP1 and/or SSDP2 to LIM-HD/CLIM complexes. Although evidence has been presented that SSDPs are important for the activity of specific LIM-HD/CLIM complexes, the developmental roles of SSDPs are unclear. We show that SSDP1a and SSDP1b mRNAs are widely expressed early during zebrafish development with conspicuous expression of SSDP1b in sensory trigeminal and Rohon-Beard neurons. SSDP1 and CLIM immunoreactivity co-localize in these neuronal cell types and in other structures. Over-expression of the N-terminal portion of SSDP1 (N-SSDP1), which contains the CLIM-interaction domain, increases endogenous CLIM protein levels in vivo and impairs the formation of eyes and midbrain-hindbrain boundary. In addition, manipulation of SSDP1 via N-SSDP1 over-expression or SSDP1b knock down impairs trigeminal and Rohon-Beard sensory axon growth. We show that N-SSDP1 is able to partially rescue the inhibition of axon growth induced by a dominant-negative form of CLIM (DN-CLIM). These results reveal specific functions of SSDP in neural patterning and sensory axon growth, in part due to the stabilization of LIM-HD/CLIM complexes.
Project description:The deregulation of paxillin (PXN) has been involved in the progression and metastasis of different malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). miR-137 is frequently suppressed in CRC. PXN is predicted to be a direct target of miR-137 in CRC cells. On this basis, we hypothesized that overexpression of PXN induced by suppression of miR-137 may promote tumor progression and metastasis and predicts poor prognosis. We detected the expression of PXN and miR-137 in clinical tumor tissues by immunohistochemical analysis and real-time PCR, positive PXN staining was observed in 198 of the 247 (80.1%) cases, whereas no or weak PXN staining was observed in the adjacent non-cancerous area. Higher level of PXN messenger RNA (mRNA) and lower level of miR-137 was observed in cancer tissues than adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High expression of PXN and low expression of miR-137 was associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and adverse prognosis. Moreover, the expression of PXN was negatively correlated with miR-137 expression. A dual-luciferase reporter gene assay validated that PXN was a direct target of miR-137. The use of miR-137 mimics or inhibitor could decrease or increase PXN mRNA and protein levels in CRC cell lines. Knockdown of PXN or ectopic expression of miR-137 could markedly inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and repress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that overexpression of PXN induced by suppression of miR-137 promotes tumor progression and metastasis and could serve as an independent prognostic indicator in CRC patients.
Project description:Anxiety and depression are major public health concerns worldwide. Although genome-wide association studies have identified several genes robustly associated with susceptibility for these disorders, the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with anxiety and depression is largely unknown. Reduction of microRNA-137 (miR-137) level has been implicated in the etiology of major depressive disorder. However, little is known about the in vivo impact of the loss of miR-137 on the biology of anxiety and depression. Here, we generated a forebrain-specific miR-137 knockout mouse line, and showed that miR-137 is critical for dendritic and synaptic growth in the forebrain. Mice with miR-137 loss-of-function exhibit anxiety-like behavior, and impaired spatial learning and memory. We then observe an elevated expression of EZH2 in the forebrain of miR-137 knockout mice, and provide direct evidence that knockdown of EZH2 can rescue anxious phenotypes associated with the loss of miR-137. Together our results suggest that loss of miR-137 contributes to the etiology of anxiety, and EZH2 might be a potential therapeutic target for anxiety and depressive phenotypes associated with the dysfunction of miR-137.
Project description:Recent genetic evidence has revealed microRNA-137 (miR-137) as a risk gene in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the following cellular studies have demonstrated the importance of miR-137 in regulating neurogenesis. We have generated miR-137 knockout mice which display behaviors that resemble some symptoms of these two diseases. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism, we performed comprehensive analyses of the entire RNA and protein molecules of the miR-137 mouse brains. The dataset uploaded here is the raw data of the mass spectrometry-based whole proteome analysis of the six miR-137 mouse brains: wild-type, heterozygous (miR-137+/–) and homozygous (miR-137–/–) from two different litters. The tandem mass tag (TMT) methodology was employed in this proteomics analysis for the quantitation. The sample channels are: 128C (miR-137+/+, litter 1), 129N (miR-137+/–, litter 1), 129C (miR-137–/–, litter 1), 130N (miR-137+/+, litter 2), 130C (miR-137+/–, litter 2), and 131N (miR-137–/–, litter 2).