Enantioselective Photocatalytic [3 + 2] Cycloadditions of Aryl Cyclopropyl Ketones.
ABSTRACT: Control of stereochemistry in photocycloaddition reactions remains a substantial challenge; almost all successful catalytic examples to date have involved [2 + 2] photocycloadditions of enones. We report a method for the asymmetric [3 + 2] photocycloaddition of aryl cyclopropyl ketones that enables the enantiocontrolled construction of densely substituted cyclopentane structures not synthetically accessible using other catalytic methods. These results show that the dual-catalyst strategy developed in our laboratory broadens synthetic chemists' access to classes of photochemical cycloadditions that have not previously been feasible in enantioselective form.
Project description:We report a new method for the formal [3+2] reaction of aryl cyclopropyl ketones with olefins to generate highly substituted cyclopentane ring systems. The key initiation step in this process is the one-electron reduction of the ketone to the corresponding radical anion, which is accomplished using a photocatalytic system comprising Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), La(OTf)(3), and TMEDA.
Project description:In contrast to the wealth of catalytic systems that are available to control the stereochemistry of thermally promoted cycloadditions, few similarly effective methods exist for the stereocontrol of photochemical cycloadditions. A major unsolved challenge in the design of enantioselective catalytic photocycloaddition reactions has been the difficulty of controlling racemic background reactions that occur by direct photoexcitation of substrates while unbound to catalyst. Here, we describe a strategy for eliminating the racemic background reaction in asymmetric [2 + 2] photocycloadditions of ?,?-unsaturated ketones to the corresponding cyclobutanes by using a dual-catalyst system consisting of a visible light-absorbing transition-metal photocatalyst and a stereocontrolling Lewis acid cocatalyst. The independence of these two catalysts enables broader scope, greater stereochemical flexibility, and better efficiency than previously reported methods for enantioselective photochemical cycloadditions.
Project description:Efficient [2+2] heterodimerizations of dissimilar acyclic enones can be accomplished upon visible light irradiation in the presence of a ruthenium(II) photocatalyst. Similar cycloadditions under standard UV photolysis conditions are inefficient and unselective. Nevertheless, a diverse range of unsymmetrical tri- and tetrasubstituted cyclobutane structures can be produced in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivities using this new method. The reaction is promoted by any visible light source, and efficient, gram-scale cycloadditions can be conducted upon irradiating with ambient sunlight.
Project description:A chiral phosphoric acid with a 2,2'-binaphthol core was prepared that displays two thioxanthone moieties at the 3,3'-position as light-harvesting antennas. Despite its relatively low triplet energy, the phosphoric acid was found to be an efficient catalyst for the enantioselective intermolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition of ?-carboxyl-substituted cyclic enones (e.r. up to 93:7). Binding of the carboxylic acid to the sensitizer is suggested by NMR studies and by DFT calculations to occur by means of two hydrogen bonds. The binding event not only enables an enantioface differentiation but also modulates the triplet energy of the substrates.
Project description:The reactivity of photoexcited molecules has been extensively studied for decades but until today direct bond-forming reactions of such excited states in a catalytic and asymmetric fashion are restricted to the synthesis of cyclobutanes via [2?+?2] photocycloadditions. Herein, we demonstrate a previously elusive visible-light-induced catalytic asymmetric [2?+?3] photocycloaddition of alkenes with vinyl azides. A wide range of complex 1-pyrrolines are obtained as single diastereoisomers and with up to >99% enantiomeric excess using a simple reaction setup and mild reaction conditions. The reaction is proposed to proceed through the photoexcitation of a complex out of chiral rhodium catalyst coordinated to ?,?-unsaturated N-acylpyrazole substrates. All reactive intermediates remain bound to the catalysts thereby providing a robust catalytic scheme (no exclusion of air necessary) with excellent stereocontrol. This work expands the scope of stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions of photoexcited intermediates by providing catalytic asymmetric access to a key nitrogen heterocycle in organic chemistry.
Project description:The application of thioallenoates to catalytic enantioselective [2+2]-cycloadditions with unactivated alkenes is reported.In many cases, the thioallenoates examined exhibit superior reactivity and selectivity compared to the alkoxy analogs generally used in these cycloadditions.
Project description:1,3-Dithiane-protected enones (enone dithianes) were found to undergo an intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition under visible-light irradiation (?=405?nm) in the presence of a Brønsted acid (7.5-10?mol?%). Key to the success of the reaction is presumably the formation of colored thionium ions, which are intermediates of the catalytic cycle. Cyclobutanes were thus obtained in very good yields (78-90?%). It is also shown that the dithiane moiety can be reductively or oxidatively removed without affecting the photochemically constructed ring skeleton.
Project description:Synthesis of aza-rocaglates, nitrogen-containing analogues of the rocaglate natural products, is reported. The route features ESIPT-mediated (3+2) photocycloaddition of 1-alkyl-2-aryl-3-hydroxyquinolinones with the dipolarophile methyl cinnamate. A continuous photoflow reactor was utilized for photocycloadditions. An array of compounds bearing the hexahydrocyclopenta[b]indole core structure was synthesized and evaluated in translation inhibition assays.
Project description:The synthesis of unsymmetrical cyclobutanes by controlled heterodimerization of olefins remains a substantial challenge, particularly in an enantiocontrolled fashion. Shown herein is that chiral Lewis acid catalyzed triplet sensitization enables the synthesis of highly enantioenriched diarylcyclobutanes by photocycloaddition of structurally varied 2'-hydroxychalcones with a range of styrene coupling partners. The utility of this reaction is demonstrated through the direct synthesis of a representative norlignan cyclobutane natural product.
Project description:The regio- and stereoselectivity of intramolecular [2 + 2] photocycloadditions of 2'-hydroxyenones are shown to be solvent-dependent. In the presence of aprotic solvents, 2'-hydroxyenones undergo photocycloadditions in a manner consistent with the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the carbonyl group and the tether's hydroxy functionality. In protic solvents, intermolecular interactions appear to disrupt the intramolecular hydrogen bond, providing products with complementary diastereoselectivity. If the facial accessibility of the alpha-tethered olefin is limited, the cycloadditions proceed to give head-to-tail or head-to-head regioisomers, depending on the nature of the solvent employed.