Discordance between MTB/RIF and Real-Time Tuberculosis-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Bronchial Washing Specimen and Its Clinical Implications.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied. The clinical risk factors for discordance and false positivity of assays were also studied. Among 130 patients who were clinically diagnosed with PTB, 64 patients showed positive acid-fast bacilli culture results, 56 patients showed positive results in molecular methods and clinician diagnosed PTB without results of microbiology in 10 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 80.0%, 98.95%, 98.1%, and 87.9%, respectively, for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.5%, 92.6%, 88.3%, and 88.0%, respectively, for TB/NTM PCR. The discordant proportion was 16.9% and was higher in culture-negative PTB compared to culture-confirmed PTB (24.3% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.024). However, there were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics, regardless of the discordance. The diagnostic yield increased with an additional assay (7.7% for Xpert MTB/RIF and 9.2% for TB/NTM PCR). False positivity was less common in patients tested with Xpert MTB/RIF (1.05% vs. 7.37%, p = 0.0035). No host-related risk factor for false positivity was identified. The Xpert MTB/RIF and TB/NTM PCR assay in bronchial washing specimens can improve the diagnostic yields for PTB, although there were considerable discordant results without any patient-related risk factors.
Project description:At present, tuberculosis remains a serious threat to human health. The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is still difficult, and the prominent challenge for diagnosis is the lack of a highly sensitive and specific method. In order to explore the diagnostic value of parallel tests, this study prospectively enrolled 258 patients with smear-negative PTB from May 2, 2015 to December 31, 2016. The sputum specimens and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from all patients were assessed for MTB detection by culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, and simultaneous amplification and testing method for TB (SAT-TB). Overall, the sensitivity of any single test using culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, or SAT-TB was lower than that for parallel tests (p < 0.05), and the sensitivity rates for MTB detection in BALF were significantly higher than those in sputum samples. There were lower agreements in the detection results between sputum samples and BALF for all tests (p < 0.05). The parallel tests models of using culture plus Xpert MTB/RIF plus SAT-TB, culture plus Xpert, or culture plus SAT-TB achieved higher sensitivities compared with all three single test models (p < 0.05). Additionally, joint detection using sputum and BALF samples achieved a high sensitivity (0.8566, 95% CI: 0.8086-0.8941). In conclusion, the parallel tests model using culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, and SAT-TB in sputum plus BALF significantly increases the diagnostic performance of smear-negative PTB; thus, this method should be applied clinically when PTB is suspected but smear results are negative.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India. METHODS:The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU), with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB)) accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm. RESULTS:4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8) pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2) of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4) who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9), with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment. CONCLUSION:Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising solution to present-day challenges in the diagnosis of PTB in pediatric patients.
Project description:Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampin (RIF) resistance, has been well documented in low-resource settings with high TB-incidence. However, few studies have assessed its accuracy in low TB incidence settings. We evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF using clinical sputum specimens routinely collected from suspect pulmonary TB patients over a 4-year time period in San Diego County, California. Xpert MTB/RIF results were compared to acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). Of 751 sputum specimens, 134 (17.8%) were MTBC culture-positive and 2 (1.5%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR). For the detection of MTBC, Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity was 89.6% (97.7% and 74.5% in smear-positive and -negative sputa, respectively) and specificity was 97.2%; while AFB smear sensitivity and specificity were 64.9% and 77.8%, respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF detected 35 of 47 smear-negative culture-positive specimens, and excluded 124 of 137 smear-positive culture-negative specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF also correctly excluded 99.2% (121/122) of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) specimens, including all 33 NTM false-positives by smear microscopy. For the detection of RIF resistance, Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.3%, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that Xpert MTB/RIF is able to accurately detect MTBC and RIF resistance in routinely collected respiratory specimens in a low TB-incidence setting, with comparable performance to that achieved in high-incidence settings; and suggest that under these conditions the assay has particular utility in detecting smear-negative TB cases, excluding smear-positive patients without MTBC disease, and differentiating MTBC from NTM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Xpert MTB/RIF, the first automated molecular test for tuberculosis, is transforming the diagnostic landscape in high-burden settings. This study assessed the impact of up-front Xpert MTB/RIF testing on detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and rifampicin-resistant PTB (DR-TB) cases in India. METHODS:This demonstration study was implemented in 18 sub-district level TB programme units (TUs) in India in diverse geographic and demographic settings covering a population of 8.8 million. A baseline phase in 14 TUs captured programmatic baseline data, and an intervention phase in 18 TUs had Xpert MTB/RIF offered to all presumptive TB patients. We estimated changes in detection of TB and DR-TB, the former using binomial regression models to adjust for clustering and covariates. RESULTS:In the 14 study TUs, which participated in both phases, 10,675 and 70,556 presumptive TB patients were enrolled in the baseline and intervention phase, respectively, and 1,532 (14.4%) and 14,299 (20.3%) bacteriologically confirmed PTB cases were detected. The implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF was associated with increases in both notification rates of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 1.39; CI 1.18-1.64), and proportion of bacteriological confirmed TB cases among presumptive TB cases (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.33; CI 1.6-1.52). Compared with the baseline strategy of selective drug-susceptibility testing only for PTB cases at high risk of drug-resistant TB, Xpert MTB/RIF implementation increased rifampicin resistant TB case detection by over fivefold. Among, 2765 rifampicin resistance cases detected, 1055 were retested with conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). Positive predictive value (PPV) of rifampicin resistance detected by Xpert MTB/RIF was 94.7% (CI 91.3-98.1), in comparison to conventional DST. CONCLUSION:Introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic test for TB in public health facilities significantly increased case-notification rates of all bacteriologically confirmed TB by 39% and rifampicin-resistant TB case notification by fivefold.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A critical challenge in providing TB care to People Living with HIV (PLHIV) is establishing an accurate bacteriological diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents results from PLHIV taking part in a large demonstration study across India wherein upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities. METHOD:The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU), with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each TU. All HIV-infected patients suspected of TB (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB)) accessing public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and provided upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing. RESULT:2,787 HIV-infected presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 867 (31.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 29.4?32.8) HIV-infected TB cases were diagnosed under the study. Overall 27.6% (CI 25.9-29.3) of HIV-infected presumptive PTB cases were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 12.9% (CI 11.6-14.1) who had positive sputum smears. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 73 (9.5%, CI 7.6?11.8) and 16 (11.2%, CI 6.7?17.1) rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) for rifampicin resistance detection was high 97.7% (CI 89.3?99.8), with no significant difference with or without prior history of TB treatment. CONCLUSION:The study results strongly demonstrate limitations of using smear microscopy for TB diagnosis in PLHIV, leading to low TB and DR-TB detection which can potentially lead to either delayed or sub-optimal TB treatment. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of addressing this diagnostic gap with upfront of Xpert MTB/RIF testing, leading to overall strengthening of care and support package for PLHIV.
Project description:Effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem in many countries, including Brazil, especially when considering drug-resistant disease. Xpert MTB/RIF has been implemented in many countries to reduce the time to TB diagnosis and to rapidly detect rifampicin resistance. The study aimed to describe and evaluate Xpert MTB/RIF performance in diagnosing pulmonary TB and rifampicin resistance in a tertiary healthcare facility in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed, which included all isolates of confirmed pulmonary TB patients from 2015 to 2018. Both Xpert MTB/RIF and GenoType MTBDRplus assays were performed to detect rifampicin and isoniazid resistance. In addition, isolates with detected resistance to rifampicin and/or isoniazid were analysed by phenotypic testing using MGIT-960 SIRE kit and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System. 2148 respiratory specimens tested with Xpert MTB/RIF were included: n=1556 sputum, n=348 bronchoalveolar lavage and n=244 gastric washing. The overall Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity in sputum was 94% and the overall specificity was 98%. The negative predictive value in sputum of all the patients was 99% with a positive predictive value of 89%. The concordance between Xpert MTB/RIF and phenotypic susceptibility test was 94.1%, while its concordance with WGS was 78.9%. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and accurate diagnostic strategy for pulmonary TB, which can contribute to improvement in TB control. However, detection of rifampicin resistance might be associated with false-positive results.
Project description:Background:The 3-month difference in turnaround time between Xpert and conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) causes patient treatment challenges when pDST rifampin (RIF) susceptibility results and earlier Xpert results disagree, resulting in unnecessary tuberculosis (TB) patient exposure to toxic second-line drugs. Here, the prevalence of discordant RIF susceptibility test results, specifically Xpert (resistant) vs pDST (susceptible) results, was determined. Methods:Tuberculosis patients enrolled between January 2015 and June 2018 at Beijing Chest Hospital who consecutively tested positive for RIF resistance using Xpert then negative using pDST were studied. DNA sequences and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) results provided insights for understanding discordant results. Results:Of 26?826 patients with suggestive TB symptoms undergoing Xpert MTB/RIF testing, 728 diagnosed as RIF-resistant were evaluated. Of these, 118 (16.2%) exhibiting Xpert RIF resistance and phenotypic RIF susceptibility yielded 104 successfully subcultured isolates; of these, 86 (82.7%) harbored rpoB gene RIF resistance-determining region mutations and 18 (17.3%) did not. The Leu511Pro (25.0%) and Leu533Pro (17.3%) mutations were most frequently associated with discordant RIF susceptibility test results. Of the 86 isolates with rpoB mutations, 42 (48.8%) with MICs??1.0 mg/L were assigned to the RIF-susceptible group, with Leu511Pro being the most common mutation observed. Isolates with a very low bacterial load were most frequently misdiagnosed as RIF-resistant by Xpert. Conclusions:Approximately one-sixth of RIF-resistant TB isolates identified via Xpert yielded discordant pDST results due to questionable interpretation of specific "disputed" mutations. Thus, a diagnostic flowchart should be used to correctly interpret Xpert RIF resistance results to best guide patient treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diagnosis of pulmonary (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in smear-negative patients can be difficult. We assessed retrospectively the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF system (Xpert, Cepheid) in diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), which represents the most common form of TB in a low incidence setting. METHODS:Performance of Xpert was compared to acid-fast microscopic examination using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain in patients with culture-confirmed TB. RESULTS:386 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture-positive samples were detected out of 5170 specimens tested with smear microscopy, Xpert and culture: 323 were both culture- and Xpert-positive, and 63 culture-positive only. Of these, 234 (60.6%) were smear-negative. In addition Xpert detected 40 probable TB cases, based on clinical findings, which were culture-negative. Compared to culture, Xpert showed an overall sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 99.1%; sensitivity was higher for respiratory samples (86.5%) than for non-respiratory samples (76.8%). Xpert sensitivity for smear-negative culture-confirmed TB was 73.1% and was not influenced by TB localization. As sensitivity of microscopy alone was poor (39.4%), Xpert improved both diagnosis of pulmonary TB (? = 36.5%) and extra-pulmonary TB (? = 63.4%). CONCLUSIONS:Xpert MTB/RIF is a sensitive method for rapid diagnosis of TB compared to the conventional ZN staining. Xpert can serve as a sensitive and time-saving diagnostic method for microbiological diagnosis of smear-negative TB in countries with a low TB prevalence.
Project description:Childhood TB diagnosis is challenging. Studies in adults suggest Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) culture or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay might be used to expand bacteriological diagnosis. However data from children are more limited. We prospectively compared MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF with standard microscopy and culture using the BD MGIT 960 system among 1442 Kenyan children with suspected TB. 97 specimens from 54 children were TB culture-positive: 91 (94%) by MGIT and 74 (76%) by MODS (p?=?0.002). 72 (74%) culture-positive and 7 culture-negative specimens were Xpert MTB/RIF positive. Xpert MTB/RIF specificity was 100% (99.7-100%) among 1164 specimens from 892 children in whom TB was excluded, strongly suggesting all Xpert MTB/RIF positives are true positives. The sensitivity of MGIT, MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF was 88%, 71% and 76%, respectively, among all 104 true positive (culture and/or Xpert MTB/RIF positive) specimens. MGIT, MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF on the initial specimen identified 40/51 (78%), 33/51 (65%) and 33/51 (65%) culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases, respectively; Xpert MTB/RIF detected 5 additional culture-negative cases. The high sensitivity and very high specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay supports its inclusion in the reference standard for bacteriological diagnosis of childhood TB in research and clinical practice.
Project description:Introduction:The World Health Organization endorsed (2010) the use of Xpert MTB/RIF and countries are shifting from smear microscopy (smear)-based to Xpert MTB/RIF-based tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic algorithms. As with smear, sputum quality may predict the likelihood of obtaining a bacteriologically-confirmed TB when using Xpert MTB/RIF. Methods:From 08/12-11/2014, all people living with HIV were recruited at 22 clinics. For patients screened positive using the four TB symptoms their sputa were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF and smear. Laboratorians assessed and recorded sputum appearance and volume. The yield of bacteriologically-positive sputum evaluated using Xpert MTB/RIF and smear, likelihood-ratios were calculated. Results:Among 6,041 patients enrolled 2,296 were presumptive TB, 1,305 (56.8%) had > 1 sputa collected and 644/1,305 (49.3%) had both Xpert MTB/RIF and smear results. Since >1 sputa collected from 644 patients 954 sputa were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF and smear. Bacteriologically-positive sputum was two-fold higher with Xpert MTB/RIF 11.4% versus smear 5.3%, p < 0.001. Sputum appearance and quantity were not predictive of bacteriologically-positive results, except volume of 2ml to < 3ml, tested by Xpert MTB/RIF LR+= 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05-1.50). Conclusion:Xpert MTB/RIF test yield to bacteriologically-positive sputum was superior to smear. Sputum quality and quantity, however, were not consistently predictive of bacteriologically-positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF or smear.