Development and calibration of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Nitrate and nitrite are probable human carcinogens when ingested under conditions that increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds. There have been limited efforts to develop US databases of dietary nitrate and nitrite for standard FFQ. Here we describe the development of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database and its calibration. DESIGN:We analysed data from a calibration study of 1942 members of the NIH-AARP (NIH-AARP, National Institutes of Health-AARP) Diet and Health Study who reported all foods and beverages consumed on the preceding day in two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) and completed an FFQ. Based on a literature review, we developed a database of nitrate and nitrite contents for foods reported on these 24HR and for food category line items on the FFQ. We calculated daily nitrate and nitrite intakes for both instruments, and used a measurement error model to compute correlation coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ-based intake estimates using 24HR-based values as reference data. RESULTS:FFQ-based median nitrate intake was 68·9 and 74·1 mg/d, and nitrite intake was 1·3 and 1·0 mg/d, in men and women, respectively. These values were similar to 24HR-based intake estimates. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between FFQ- and 24HR-based values for men and women respectively were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·59 and 0·58 for nitrite; energy-adjusted attenuation factors were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·47 and 0·38 for nitrite. CONCLUSIONS:The performance of the FFQ in assessing dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes is comparable to that for many other macro- and micronutrients.
Project description:Objective To determine the association of different types of meat intake and meat associated compounds with overall and cause specific mortality.Design Population based cohort study.Setting Baseline dietary data of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (prospective cohort of the general population from six states and two metropolitan areas in the US) and 16 year follow-up data until 31 December 2011.Participants 536?969 AARP members aged 50-71 at baseline.Exposures Intake of total meat, processed and unprocessed red meat (beef, lamb, and pork) and white meat (poultry and fish), heme iron, and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat based on dietary questionnaire. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the lowest fifth of calorie adjusted intakes as reference categories.Main outcome measure Mortality from any cause during follow-up.Results An increased risk of all cause mortality (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest fifth 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.29) and death due to nine different causes associated with red meat intake was observed. Both processed and unprocessed red meat intakes were associated with all cause and cause specific mortality. Heme iron and processed meat nitrate/nitrite were independently associated with increased risk of all cause and cause specific mortality. Mediation models estimated that the increased mortality associated with processed red meat was influenced by nitrate intake (37.0-72.0%) and to a lesser degree by heme iron (20.9-24.1%). When the total meat intake was constant, the highest fifth of white meat intake was associated with a 25% reduction in risk of all cause mortality compared with the lowest intake level. Almost all causes of death showed an inverse association with white meat intake.Conclusions The results show increased risks of all cause mortality and death due to nine different causes associated with both processed and unprocessed red meat, accounted for, in part, by heme iron and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat. They also show reduced risks associated with substituting white meat, particularly unprocessed white meat.
Project description:With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.
Project description:Measurement error in exposure variables is a serious impediment in epidemiological studies that relate exposures to health outcomes. In nutritional studies, interest could be in the association between long-term dietary intake and disease occurrence. Long-term intake is usually assessed with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is prone to recall bias. Measurement error in FFQ-reported intakes leads to bias in parameter estimate that quantifies the association. To adjust for bias in the association, a calibration study is required to obtain unbiased intake measurements using a short-term instrument such as 24-hour recall (24HR). The 24HR intakes are used as response in regression calibration to adjust for bias in the association. For foods not consumed daily, 24HR-reported intakes are usually characterized by excess zeroes, right skewness, and heteroscedasticity posing serious challenge in regression calibration modeling. We proposed a zero-augmented calibration model to adjust for measurement error in reported intake, while handling excess zeroes, skewness, and heteroscedasticity simultaneously without transforming 24HR intake values. We compared the proposed calibration method with the standard method and with methods that ignore measurement error by estimating long-term intake with 24HR and FFQ-reported intakes. The comparison was done in real and simulated datasets. With the 24HR, the mean increase in mercury level per ounce fish intake was about 0.4; with the FFQ intake, the increase was about 1.2. With both calibration methods, the mean increase was about 2.0. Similar trend was observed in the simulation study. In conclusion, the proposed calibration method performs at least as good as the standard method.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is an increasing interest in estimating environmental impact of individuals' diets by using individual-level food consumption data. However, like assessment of nutrient intakes, these data are prone to substantial measurement errors dependent on the method of dietary assessment, and this often result in attenuation of associations. PURPOSE:To investigate the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating the environmental impact of the diet as compared to independent 24-h recalls (24hR), and to study the association between environmental impact and dietary quality for the FFQ and 24hR. METHODS:We analysed cross-sectional data from 1169 men and women, aged 20-76?years, who participated in the NQplus study, the Netherlands. They completed a 216-item FFQ and two replicates of web-based 24hR. Life cycle assessments of 207 food products were used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy and land use, summarised into an aggregated score, pReCiPe. Validity of the FFQ was evaluated against 24hRs using correlation coefficients and attenuation coefficients. Associations with dietary quality were based on Dutch Healthy Diet 15-index (DHD15-index) and Nutrient Rich Diet score (NRD9.3). RESULTS:For pReCiPe, correlation coefficient between FFQ and 24hR was 0.33 when adjusted for covariates age, gender and BMI, and increased to 0.76 when de-attenuated for within-subject variation in the 24hR. Energy-adjustment slightly reduced these correlations (r?=?0.71 for residuals of observed values and 0.59 for residuals of density values). Covariate-adjusted attenuation coefficient for the FFQ was 0.56 (?1?=?0.56 and ?1?=?0.65 for observed and density residuals), slightly lower than without covariate adjustment. Diet-related environmental impact was inversely associated with the food-based DHD15-index for both FFQ and 24hR, while associations with the nutrient-based NRD9.3 were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS:The FFQ slightly underestimated environmental impact when compared to 24hR. Associations with dietary quality are highly dependent on the diet score used, and less dependent on the method of dietary assessment.
Project description:We pooled data from 5 large validation studies (1999-2009) of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents, to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls (24HRs). Here we report on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were similar by sex but were heterogeneous across studies. For potassium, potassium density, sodium, sodium density, and sodium:potassium ratio, average correlation coefficients for the correlation of reported intake with true intake on the FFQs were 0.37, 0.47, 0.16, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. For the same nutrients measured with a single 24HR, they were 0.47, 0.46, 0.32, 0.31, and 0.46, respectively, rising to 0.56, 0.53, 0.41, 0.38, and 0.60 for the average of three 24HRs. Average underreporting was 5%-6% with an FFQ and 0%-4% with a single 24HR for potassium but was 28%-39% and 4%-13%, respectively, for sodium. Higher body mass index was related to underreporting of sodium. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction, except for sodium density. In summary, self-reports capture potassium intake quite well but sodium intake less well. Using densities improves the measurement of potassium and sodium on an FFQ. Sodium:potassium ratio is measured much better than sodium itself on both FFQs and 24HRs.
Project description:The consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables can acutely lower blood pressure and improve mediators shown to optimise vascular health. However, we do not yet understand the impact of long-term habitual dietary nitrate intake and its association with CVD. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and risk of CHD in women from the Nurses' Health Study. We prospectively followed 62 535 women who were free from diabetes, CVD and cancer at baseline in 1986. Information on diet was updated every 4 years with validated FFQ. The main outcome was CHD defined by the occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 26 years of follow-up, 2257 cases of CHD were identified. When comparing the highest quintile of nitrate intake with the lowest quintile, in aged-adjusted analysis there was a protective association for CHD (RR=0·77, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·97; P=0·0002) which dissipated after further adjustment for smoking, physical activity, BMI and race (RR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·04; P=0·27). This magnitude of association was further attenuated once we adjusted for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index excluding vegetable and fruit consumption (RR=1·04, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·20; P=0·34). Dietary nitrate intake was not related to the risk of CHD after adjustment for other lifestyle and non-vegetable dietary factors in a large group of US women.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Adults often misreport dietary intake; the magnitude varies by the methods used to assess diet and classify participants. The objective was to quantify the accuracy of the Goldberg method for categorizing misreporters on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and two 24-h recalls (24HRs). SUBJECTS/METHODS:We compared the Goldberg method, which uses an equation to predict total energy expenditure (TEE), with a criterion method that uses doubly labeled water (DLW), in a study of 451 men and women. Underreporting was classified using recommended cut points and calculated values. Sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Predictive models of underreporting were contrasted for the Goldberg and DLW methods. RESULTS:AUCs were 0.974 and 0.972 on the FFQ, and 0.961 and 0.938 on the 24HR for men and women, respectively. The sensitivity of the Goldberg method was higher for the FFQ (92%) than the 24HR (50%); specificity was higher for the 24HR (99%) than the FFQ (88%); PPV was high for the 24HR (92%) and FFQ (88%). Simulation studies indicate attenuation in odds ratio estimates and reduction of power in predictive models. CONCLUSIONS:Although use of the Goldberg method may lead to bias and reduction in power in predictive models of underreporting, the method has high predictive value for both the FFQ and the 24HR. Thus, in the absence of objective measures of TEE or physical activity, the Goldberg method is a reasonable approach to characterize underreporting.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence on the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and cancer risk from published prospective and case-control studies. PubMed database was searched to identify eligible publications through April 30th, 2016. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies were pooled by using random- or fixed- model, and heterogeneity and publication bias analyses were conducted. Data from 62 observational studies, 49 studies for nitrates and 51 studies for nitrites, including a total of 60,627 cancer cases were analyzed. Comparing the highest vs. lowest levels, dietary nitrate intake was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (RR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.67-0.91) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 42.3%). In contrast, dietary nitrite intake was positively associated with adult glioma and thyroid cancer risk with pooled RR of 1.21 (95%CI = 1.03-1.42) and 1.52 (95%CI = 1.12-2.05), respectively. No significant associations were found between dietary nitrate/nitrite and cancers of the breast, bladder, colorectal, esophagus, renal cell, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ovarian, and pancreas. The present meta-analysis provided modest evidence that positive associations of dietary nitrate and negative associations of dietary nitrite with certain cancers.
Project description:We developed a culturally-specific Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to the Ethiopian context and evaluate its validity in comparison to two 24-h dietary recalls (24-HRs) of food and nutrient intake. To evaluate the validity of a culturally-specific FFQ against two 24-HRs, we used a paired <i>t</i>-test, Wilcoxon-signed-rank test, Correlation coefficients, cross-classification, <i>κ</i> and Bland-Altman analysis. The FFQ was obtained 15 d after the second 24-HR was completed. A total of 105 adults, of which 43 (41 %) were men and 62 (59 %) women, aged 20-65 years participated in this present study. Mean energy and macronutrient intake obtained from the FFQ were significantly higher than those obtained from the mean of two 24-HRs. For energy and nutrient intakes, the crude correlation ranged from 0⋅05 (total fat) to 0⋅49 (vitamin B1). The de-attenuated correlation ranged from to 0⋅10 (total fat) to 0⋅80 (vitamin A). For the majority of food groups, no significant difference was observed in the median intake of food and nutrients. Crude correlation for food groups ranged from 0⋅12 (egg) to 0⋅78 (legumes). The de-attenuated correlation ranged from 0⋅24 (egg) to 1⋅00 (meat/poultry/fish and dairy). The FFQ is valid to assess and rank individuals in terms of intake of most food groups according to high and low intake categories.
Project description:Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) which are potent animal carcinogens for the organs of the digestive system. We evaluated dietary intakes of nitrate and nitrite, as well as nitrate ingestion from drinking water (public drinking water supplies (PWS)), in relation to the incidence (1986-2014) of cancers of the esophagus (n = 36), stomach (n = 84), small intestine (n = 32), liver (n = 31), gallbladder (n = 66), and bile duct (n = 58) in the Iowa Women's Health Study (42,000 women aged from 50 to 75 in 1986). Dietary nitrate and nitrite were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and a database of nitrate and nitrite levels in foods. Historical nitrate measurements from PWS were linked to the enrollment address by duration. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for exposure quartiles (Q), tertiles (T), or medians, depending on the number of cancer cases. In adjusted models, nitrite intake from processed meats was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer (HR<sub>Q4vsQ1</sub> = 2.2, CI: 1.2-4.3). A high intake of total dietary nitrite was inversely associated with gallbladder cancer (HR<sub>Q4vsQ1</sub> = 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.96), driven by an inverse association with plant sources of nitrite (HR<sub>Q4vsQ1</sub> = 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9). Additionally, small intestine cancer was inversely associated with a high intake of animal nitrite (HR<sub>T3vsT1</sub> = 0.2, CI: 0.1-0.7). There were no other dietary associations. Nitrate concentrations in PWS (average, years ≥ 1/2 the maximum contaminant level) were not associated with cancer incidence. Our findings for stomach cancer are consistent with prior dietary studies, and we are the first to evaluate nitrate and nitrite ingestion for certain gastrointestinal cancers.