Cooperative Stimulation of Megakaryocytic Differentiation by Gfi1b Gene Targets Kindlin3 and Talin1.
ABSTRACT: Understanding the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes from progenitors is crucial for realizing the biology and functions of these vital cells. Previous gene ablation studies demonstrated the essential role of the transcriptional repressor Gfi1b (growth factor independence 1b) in the generation of both erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. However, our recent work has demonstrated the down-regulation of this factor during megakaryocytic differentiation. In this study we identify two new gene targets of Gfi1b, the cytoskeletal proteins Kindlin3 and Talin1, and demonstrate the inverse expression and functions of these cytoskeletal targets relative to Gfi1b, during megakaryocytic differentiation. Both kindlin3 and talin1 promoters exhibit dose dependent Gfi1b and LSD1 (lysine specific demethylase 1; a Gfi1b cofactor) enrichment in megakaryocytes and repression in non-hematopoietic cells. Accordingly the expression of these genes is elevated in gfi1b mutant and LSD1 inhibited hematopoietic cells, while during megakaryocytic differentiation, declining Gfi1b levels fostered the reciprocal upregulation of these cytoskeletal factors. Concordantly, manipulation of Kindlin3 and Talin1 expression demonstrated positive correlation with megakaryocytic differentiation with over-expression stimulating, and inhibition diminishing, this process. Co-operativity between these factors and integrins in promoting differentiation was further underscored by physical interactions between them and integrin?3/CD61 and by stimulation of differentiation by the Talin1 head domain, which is necessary and sufficient for integrin activation. Therefore this study demonstrates the significance of Gfi1b regulated Kindlin3-Talin1 expression in driving megakaryocytic differentiation and highlights the contribution of cytoskeletal agents in the developmental progression of these platelet progenitors.
Project description:Mutations in GFI1B are associated with inherited bleeding disorders called GFI1B-related thrombocytopenias. We show here that mice with a megakaryocyte-specific Gfi1b deletion exhibit a macrothrombocytopenic phenotype along a megakaryocytic dysplasia reminiscent of GFI1B-related thrombocytopenia. GFI1B deficiency increases megakaryocyte proliferation and affects their ploidy, but also abrogates their responsiveness towards integrin signaling and their ability to spread and reorganize their cytoskeleton. Gfi1b-null megakaryocytes are also unable to form proplatelets, a process independent of integrin signaling. GFI1B-deficient megakaryocytes exhibit aberrant expression of several components of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, with a dramatic reduction of ?-tubulin. Inhibition of FAK or ROCK, both important for actin cytoskeleton organization and integrin signaling, only partially restored their response to integrin ligands, but the inhibition of PAK, a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, completely rescued the responsiveness of Gfi1b-null megakaryocytes to ligands, but not their ability to form proplatelets. We conclude that Gfi1b controls major functions of megakaryocytes such as integrin-dependent cytoskeleton organization, spreading and migration through the regulation of PAK activity whereas the proplatelet formation defect in GFI1B-deficient megakaryocytes is due, at least partially, to an insufficient ?-tubulin content.
Project description:Growth factor independence 1B (GFI1B) coordinates assembly of transcriptional repressor complexes comprised of corepressors and histone-modifying enzymes to control gene expression programs governing lineage allocation in hematopoiesis. Enforced expression of GFI1B in K562 erythroleukemia cells favors erythroid over megakaryocytic differentiation, providing a platform to define molecular determinants of binary fate decisions triggered by GFI1B. We deployed proteome-wide proximity labeling to identify factors whose inclusion in GFI1B complexes depends upon GFI1B's obligate effector, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). We show that GFI1B preferentially recruits core and putative elements of the BRAF-histone deacetylase (HDAC) (BHC) chromatin-remodeling complex (LSD1, RCOR1, HMG20A, HMG20B, HDAC1, HDAC2, PHF21A, GSE1, ZMYM2, and ZNF217) in an LSD1-dependent manner to control acquisition of erythroid traits by K562 cells. Among these elements, depletion of both HMG20A and HMG20B or of GSE1 blocks GFI1B-mediated erythroid differentiation, phenocopying impaired differentiation brought on by LSD1 depletion or disruption of GFI1B-LSD1 binding. These findings demonstrate the central role of the GFI1B-LSD1 interaction as a determinant of BHC complex recruitment to enable cell fate decisions driven by GFI1B.
Project description:Gfi1b (growth factor independence 1b) is a zinc finger transcription factor essential for development of the erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. To elucidate the mechanism underlying Gfi1b function, potential downstream transcriptional targets were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression profiling approaches. The combination of these approaches revealed the oncogene meis1, which encodes a homeobox protein, as a direct and prominent target of Gfi1b. Examination of the meis1 promoter sequence revealed multiple Gfi1/1b consensus binding motifs. Distinct regions of the promoter were occupied by Gfi1b and its cofactors LSD1 and CoREST/Rcor1, in erythroid cells but not in the closely related megakaryocyte lineage. Accordingly, Meis1 was significantly upregulated in LSD1 inhibited erythroid cells, but not in megakaryocytes. This lineage specific upregulation in Meis1 expression was accompanied by a parallel increase in di-methyl histone3 lysine4 levels in the Meis1 promoter in LSD1 inhibited, erythroid cells. Meis1 was also substantially upregulated in gfi1b-/- fetal liver cells along with its transcriptional partners Pbx1 and several Hox messages. Elevated Meis1 message levels persisted in gfi1b mutant fetal liver cells differentiated along the erythroid lineage, relative to wild type. However, cells differentiated along the megakaryocytic lineage, exhibited no difference in Meis1 levels between controls and mutants. Transfection experiments further demonstrated specific repression of meis1 promoter driven reporters by wild type Gfi1b but neither by a SNAG domain mutant nor by a DNA binding deficient one, thus confirming direct functional regulation of this promoter by the Gfi1b transcriptional complex. Overall, our results demonstrate direct yet differential regulation of meis1 transcription by Gfi1b in distinct hematopoietic lineages thus revealing it to be a common, albeit lineage specific, target of both Gfi1b and its paralog Gfi1.
Project description:Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) demethylates nucleosomal histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) residues in collaboration with the corepressor CoREST/REST corepressor 1 (Rcor1) and regulates cell fates by epigenetically repressing gene targets. The balanced regulation of this demethylase, if any, is however unknown. We now demonstrate the actions of two other Rcor paralogs, Rcor2 and Rcor3, in regulating LSD1 enzymatic activity and biological function in hematopoietic cells. All three Rcor proteins interact with LSD1 and with the erythro-megakaryocytic transcription factor growth factor independence (Gfi)1b; however, whereas Rcor2, like Rcor1, facilitates LSD1-mediated nucleosomal demethylation, Rcor3 competitively inhibits this process. Appending the SANT2 domain of Rcor1 to Rcor3 confers the ability to facilitate LSD1-mediated demethylation on the chimeric Rcor protein. Consistent with their biochemical activities, endogenous Rcor1, Rcor2, and LSD1 promote differentiation, whereas Rcor3 opposes these processes. Recruitment of Rcor3 to cognate gene targets by Gfi1b and LSD1 leads to inhibition of H3K4 demethylation of chromatin and transcriptional derepression of these loci. Remarkably, profound alterations in Rcor1/3 levels during erythroid versus megakaryocytic differentiation potentiate antagonistic outcomes. In mature erythroid cells, a strong upsurge in Rcor3 and a sharp decline in Rcor1 levels counteract LSD1/Rcor1/2-mediated differentiation. In contrast, the opposite changes in Rcor1/3 levels in megakaryocytes favor differentiation and likely maintain homeostasis between these lineages. Overall, our results identify Rcor3 as a natural inhibitor of LSD1 and highlight a dual mechanism of regulating the enzymatic activity and restraining the epigenetic impact of this robust demethylase during hematopoietic differentiation.
Project description:Dominant-negative mutations in transcription factor Growth Factor Independence-1B (GFI1B) cause a bleeding disorder characterized by a plethora of megakaryocyte and platelet abnormalities. The deregulated molecular mechanisms and pathways are unknown. Here we show that normal and mutant GFI1B interacted most strongly with the LSD1-RCOR-HDAC corepressor complex in megakaryoblasts. Sequestration of this complex by mutant GFI1B and chemical separation of GFI1B from LSD1 induced abnormalities in normal megakaryocytes comparable to those seen in patients. Megakaryocytes derived from GFI1B-mutant induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) also phenocopied abnormalities seen in patients. Proteome studies on normal and mutant iPSC-derived megakaryocytes identified a multitude of deregulated pathways downstream of mutant GFI1B. Proteome studies on primary normal and GFI1B-mutant platelets showed reduced expression of proteins implicated in platelet function, and sustained expression of proteins normally downregulated during megakaryocyte differentiation. Thus, GFI1B regulates a broad developmental program during megakaryopoiesis. Mutant GFI1B deregulates this program through LSD1-RCOR-HDAC sequestering.
Project description:Integrins are critical for hemostasis and thrombosis because they mediate both platelet adhesion and aggregation. Talin is an integrin-binding cytoplasmic adaptor that is a central organizer of focal adhesions, and loss of talin phenocopies integrin deletion in Drosophila. Here, we have examined the role of talin in mammalian integrin function in vivo by selectively disrupting the talin1 gene in mouse platelet precursor megakaryocytes. Talin null megakaryocytes produced circulating platelets that exhibited normal morphology yet manifested profoundly impaired hemostatic function. Specifically, platelet-specific deletion of talin1 led to spontaneous hemorrhage and pathological bleeding. Ex vivo and in vitro studies revealed that loss of talin1 resulted in dramatically impaired integrin alphaIIbbeta3-mediated platelet aggregation and beta1 integrin-mediated platelet adhesion. Furthermore, loss of talin1 strongly inhibited the activation of platelet beta1 and beta3 integrins in response to platelet agonists. These data establish that platelet talin plays a crucial role in hemostasis and provide the first proof that talin is required for the activation and function of mammalian alpha2beta1 and alphaIIbbeta3 integrins in vivo.
Project description:Appropriate diversification of cellular lineages from multi-potent progenitors is essential for normal development and homeostasis. The specification of erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages represents an especially vital developmental event whose molecular regulation remains incompletely defined. We now demonstrate the role of Rgs18, a GTPase-activating protein and transcriptional target of the repressor Gfi1b, in regulating these processes in mouse and human cells. Gfi1b stringently represses Rgs18 expression in erythroid cells, whereas, during megakaryocytic differentiation, declining Gfi1b levels facilitate a robust induction of Rgs18. Concordantly, alterations in Rgs18 expression produce disparate outcomes by augmenting megakaryocytic and potently suppressing erythroid differentiation and vice versa. These phenotypes reflect the differential impact of Rgs18 on signaling through p38 MAPK family proteins, and ERK1 and ERK2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) in the two lineages, which in turn alter the balance between the mutually antagonistic transcription factors Fli1 and Klf1. Overall, these results identify Rgs18 as a new and crucial effector of Gfi1b that regulates downstream signaling and gene expression programs to orchestrate erythro-megakaryocytic lineage choices. This dual role of Rgs18 in reciprocally regulating divergent lineages could exemplify generic mechanisms characteristic of multiple family members in different contexts.
Project description:Dysregulation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders. Targeting lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), an H3K4 demethylase, is therefore a promising approach to treat these disorders. However, LSD1 forms complexes with cofactors including growth factor independent 1B (GFI1B), a critical regulator of hematopoietic differentiation. Known tranylcypromine-based irreversible LSD1 inhibitors bind to coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and disrupt the LSD1-GFI1B complex, which is associated with hematotoxicity such as thrombocytopenia, representing a major hurdle in the development of LSD1 inhibitors as therapeutic agents. To discover LSD1 inhibitors with potent epigenetic modulation and lower risk of hematotoxicity, we screened small molecules that enhance H3K4 methylation by the inhibition of LSD1 enzyme activity in primary cultured rat neurons but have little impact on LSD1-GFI1B complex in human TF-1a erythroblasts. Here we report the discovery of a specific inhibitor of LSD1 enzyme activity, T-448 (3-((1S,2R)-2-(cyclobutylamino)cyclopropyl)-N-(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)benzamide fumarate). T-448 has minimal impact on the LSD1-GFI1B complex and a superior hematological safety profile in mice via the generation of a compact formyl-FAD adduct. T-448 increased brain H3K4 methylation and partially restored learning function in mice with NMDA receptor hypofunction. T-448-type LSD1 inhibitors with improved safety profiles may provide unique therapeutic approaches for central nervous system disorders associated with epigenetic dysregulation.
Project description:Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone modifier for transcriptional repression involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We previously reported that a LSD1 inhibitor NCD38 induces transdifferentiation from erythroid lineage to granulomonocytic lineage and exerts anti-leukemia effect through de-repression of the specific super-enhancers of hematopoietic regulators including ERG in a human erythroleukemia cell line, HEL. However, the mechanistic basis for this specificity of NCD38 has remained unclear. Herein, we report major partners associated with LSD1 and clarify the mechanism in HEL cells. Proteome analysis identified 54 candidate proteins associated with LSD1, including several transcription factors such as GFI1B and RUNX1 as well as BRAF-histone deacetylase complex (BHC) components such as CoREST, HDAC1, and HDAC2. NCD38 selectively disrupted the interaction of LSD1 with GFI1B but not with RUNX1, CoREST, HDAC1 and HDAC2. Erg was downregulated in murine erythroid progenitors with prominent upregulation of Gfi1b. NCD38 induced ERG and attenuated an erythroid marker CD235a in HEL while this attenuation was mimicked by the lentiviral overexpression of ERG. The ERG super-enhancer contained the conserved binding motif of GFI1B and was actually occupied by GFI1B. NCD38 dissociated LSD1 and CoREST but not GFI1B from the ERG super-enhancer. Collectively, the selective separation of LSD1 from GFI1B by NCD38 restores the ERG super-enhancer activation and consequently upregulates ERG expression, inducing the transdifferentiation linked to the anti-leukemia effect.
Project description:GFI1B-related thrombocytopenia (GFI1B-RT) is a rare bleeding disorder mainly caused by the presence of truncated GFI1B proteins with dominant-negative properties. The disease is characterized by low platelet counts, the presence of abnormal platelets, a megakaryocytic expansion and mild erythroid defects. However, no animal models faithfully reproducing the GFI1B-RT phenotype observed in patients exist. We had previously generated mice with floxed Gfi1b alleles that can be eliminated by Cre recombinase, but those animals developed a much more severe phenotype than GFI1B-RT patients and were of limited interest in assessing the disease. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we have now established three independent mouse lines that carry mutated Gfi1b alleles producing proteins lacking DNA binding zinc fingers and thereby acting in a dominant negative (DN) manner. Mice heterozygous for these Gfi1b-DN alleles show reduced platelet counts and an expansion of megakaryocytes similar to features of human GFI1B-RT but lacking the distinctively large agranular platelets. In addition, Gfi1b-DN mice exhibit an expansion of erythroid precursors indicative of a mildly abnormal erythropoiesis but without noticeable red blood cell defects. When associated with megakaryocyte-specific ablation of the remaining allele, the Gfi1b-DN alleles triggered erythroid-specific deleterious defects. Gfi1b-DN mice also showed a delayed recovery from platelet depletion, indicating a defect in stress thrombopoiesis. However, injecting Gfi1b-DN mice with romiplostim, a thrombopoietin receptor super agonist, increased platelet numbers even beyond normal levels. Thus, our data support a causal link between DN mutations in GFI1B and thrombocytopenia and suggest that patients with GFI1B-RT could be treated successfully with thrombopoietin agonists.