Plasma miR-19b and miR-183 as Potential Biomarkers of Lung Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is a complex disease that often manifests at the point when treatment is not effective. Introduction of blood-based complementary diagnostics using molecular markers may enhance early detection of this disease and help reduce the burden of lung cancer. Here we evaluated the diagnostic potential of seven plasma miRNA biomarkers (miR-21, -19b, -126, -25, -205, -183, -125b) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Influence clinical and demographical characteristics, including age, tumor stage and cancer subtype on miRNA levels was investigated. Four miRNAs were significantly dysregulated (miR-19b, -21, -25, -183) in lung cancer patients. Combination of miR-19b and miR-183 provided detection of lung cancer with 94.7% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity (AUC = 0.990). Thus, miRNAs have shown the potential to discriminate histological subtypes of lung cancer and reliably distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals.
Project description:Argonaute2 (AGO2) is an effector of small RNA mediated gene silencing. Increasing evidence show that post-translational modifications of AGO2 can change miRNA activity at specific or global levels. Among the six mature miRNAs that are encoded by miR-17-92, miR-19b1 is the most powerful to exert the oncogenic properties of the entire cluster. Here we identify that AGO2 can be acetylated by P300/CBP and deacetylated by HDAC7, and that acetylation occurs at three sites K720, K493, and K355. Mutation of K493R/K720R, but not K355R at AGO2, inhibits miR-19b biogenesis. We demonstrate that acetylation of AGO2 specifically increases its recruiting pre-miR-19b1 to form the miPDC (miRNA precursor deposit complex), thereby to enhance miR-19b maturation. The motif UGUGUG in the terminal-loop of pre-miR-19b1, as a specific processing feature that is recognized and bound by acetylated AGO2, is essential for the assembly of miRISC (miRNA-induced silencing complex) loading complex. Analyses on public clinical data, xenograft mouse models, and IHC and ISH staining of lung cancer tissues, further confirm that the high levels of both AGO2 acetylation and miR-19b correlate with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Our finding reveals a novel function of AGO2 acetylation in increasing oncogenic miR-19b biogenesis and suggests that modulation of AGO2 acetylation has potential clinical implications.
Project description:Lung cancer causes approximately one fifth of all cancer deaths. Tumour cells actively communicate with the surrounding microenvironment to support malignant progression. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in intercellular communication and modulate recipient cells by delivering their contents, including proteins and nucleic acids such as microRNAs (miRNAs). We isolated EVs from the conditioned medium (CM) of human lung cancer cell lines and plasma of lung cancer patients and cancer-free smokers using an ultracentrifugation method. A significant increase in bronchial HBEC-KRAS<sup>V12high</sup> cell proliferation, confirmed by cell cycle analysis, was observed after treatment with cancer-derived EVs. Lung cancer-derived EVs induced transcription of the pri-miR-92a gene, resulting in the overexpression of mature miR-19b and miR-92a in recipient bronchial cells. Modulation of these two miRNAs using miRNA mimics or inhibitors confirmed their ability to promote proliferation. In silico analysis and experimental validation showed that miR-19b and miR-92a impaired the TGF-beta (TGFB) pathway and identified TGFBRI and TGFBRII as target genes involved in EV-mediated bronchial cell proliferation. Interestingly, the oncoprotein c-Myc, a well-known miR-17-92 cluster activator, was detected only in the EVs derived from lung cancer patients and cell lines and was able to modulate the proliferation of HBEC-KRAS<sup>V12high</sup> recipient cells. These data support the role of c-Myc shuttling in lung cancer-derived EVs in inducing the upregulation of onco-miR-19b and miR-92a expression with concomitant impairment of the TGFB signalling pathway in recipient cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of fundamental cellular functions has placed them at the fore of ongoing investigations into the processes underlying carcinogenesis. MiRNA expression patterns have been shown to be dysregulated in numerous human malignancies, including breast cancer, suggesting their probable involvement as novel classes of oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. The identification of differentially expressed miRNAs and elucidation of their functional roles may provide insight into the complex and diverse molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. MiR-183 is located on chromosome 7q32 and is part of a miRNA family which are dysregulated in numerous cancers. The aims of this study were to further examine the expression and functional role of miR-183 in breast cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>MiR-183 expression was quantitated in primary breast tumours, tumour associated normal tissue and breast cancer cell lines using RQ-PCR. Gain of function analysis was performed in breast cancer cells using pre-miR-183 and the effect of miR-183 overexpression on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and migration was examined. Customized Taqman Low Density Arrays (TLDA) were used to identify dysregulated genes in breast cancer cells transfected with pre-miR-183.<h4>Results</h4>We demonstrate that miR-183 is dysregulated in breast cancer and expression correlates with estrogen receptor and HER2/neu receptor expression. Induced overexpression of miR-183 inhibited migration of breast cancer cells. This finding was substantiated by RQ-PCR of mRNA from cells overexpressing miR-183 which showed dysregulation of several migration and invasion related genes. Specifically, the VIL2-coding protein Ezrin was confirmed as a target of miR-183 and downregulation of this protein was confirmed with immunocytochemistry.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings indicate that miR-183 targets VIL2 and may play a central role in the regulation of migration and metastasis in breast cancer. Consequently, this miRNA may present an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:An abnormal acyl-CoA synthetase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase (ACSL/SCD) lipid network fuels colon cancer progression, endowing cells with invasive and migratory properties. Therapies against this metabolic network may be useful to improve clinical outcomes. Because micro-RNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are important epigenetic regulators, we investigated novel miRNAs targeting this pro-tumorigenic axis; hence to be used as therapeutic or prognostic miRNAs. Thirty-one putative common miRNAs were predicted to simultaneously target the three enzymes comprising the ACSL/SCD network. Target validation by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and luciferase assays showed miR-544a, miR-142, and miR-19b-1 as major regulators of the metabolic axis, ACSL/SCD Importantly, lower miR-19b-1 expression was associated with a decreased survival rate in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, accordingly with ACSL/SCD involvement in patient relapse. Finally, miR-19b-1 regulated the pro-tumorigenic axis, ACSL/SCD, being able to inhibit invasion in colon cancer cells. Because its expression correlated with an increased survival rate in CRC patients, we propose miR-19b-1 as a potential noninvasive biomarker of disease-free survival and a promising therapeutic miRNA in CRC.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common cancer in China and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Identifying circulating biomarkers is helpful to improve theranostics of gastric cancer. Herein, we are for the first time to report miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p were identified to be the novel potential plasma biomarkers to detect gastric cancer. Differentially expressed miRNAs were initially screened out by genome-wide miRNA profiling microarrays between 16 plasma samples of gastric cancer and 18 matched normal controls, and then were quantified and validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method between 155 gastric cancer cases and 111 normal controls. Additionally, 30 plasma samples from precancerous lesions and 18 paired samples from gastric cancer patients with gastrectomy were further detected. Results showed that based on two normalization methods, miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p in plasma were found to be capable of distinguishing normal population from GC cases with different TNM stages and differentiation grades, particularly including the early cancer cases (P<0.05). And the two miRNAs were down-regulated in GC cases (FC<0.5). Especially, the down-regulation degree was correlated with the progression of the GC cases from the early stage to the advanced stage (0.2< r s<0.3, P<0.01). And the same weak down-regulation of the two biomarkers as the early GC occurred initially in the precancerous diseases (P<0.05). The corresponding performance of the two miRNAs to detect GC in ROC analysis gradually performed better with the disease progression from the earlier stages or lower grades to the advanced stages (TNM ? stage: AUC=0.832 for miR-16-5p; TNM ? stage: AUC=0.822 for miR-19b-3p) or high grade (Poorly differentiated: AUC=0.801, 0.791 respectively for miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p). Additionally, miR-19b-3p remained down-regulated in patient plasma within 9 days after gastrectomy. In conclusion, miR-19b-3p and miR-16-5p maybe prospective biomarkers to detect gastric cancer and indicate its progression, and thus may own great potential in applications such as early screening and progression evaluation of gastric cancer in the near future.
Project description:Lung fibroblasts play a pivotal role in pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating lung disease, by producing extracellular matrix. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress numerous genes post-transcriptionally; however, the roles of miRNAs in activated fibroblasts in fibrotic lungs remain poorly understood. To elucidate these roles, we performed global miRNA-expression profiling of fibroblasts from bleomycin- and silica-induced fibrotic lungs and investigated the functions of miRNAs in activated lung fibroblasts. Clustering analysis of global miRNA-expression data identified miRNA signatures exhibiting increased expression during fibrosis progression. Among these signatures, we found that a miR-19a-19b-20a sub-cluster suppressed TGF-?-induced activation of fibroblasts in vitro. Moreover, to elucidate whether fibroblast-specific intervention against the sub-cluster modulates pathogenic activation of fibroblasts in fibrotic lungs, we intratracheally transferred the sub-cluster-overexpressing fibroblasts into bleomycin-treated lungs. Global transcriptome analysis of the intratracheally transferred fibroblasts revealed that the sub-cluster not only downregulated expression of TGF-?-associated pro-fibrotic genes, including Acta2, Col1a1, Ctgf, and Serpine1, but also upregulated expression of the anti-fibrotic genes Dcn, Igfbp5, and Mmp3 in activated lung fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings indicated that upregulation of the miR-19a-19b-20a sub-cluster expression in lung fibroblasts counteracted TGF-?-associated pathogenic activation of fibroblasts in murine pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:Breast cancer type 2, early onset susceptibility gene (BRCA2) is a major component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. It acts as a tumor suppressor whose function is often lost in cancers. Patients with specific mutations in the BRCA2 gene often display discrete clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. However, a subset of sporadic cancers has wild type BRCA2 and display defects in the homology-directed repair pathway, which is the hallmark of 'BRCAness.' The mechanisms by which BRCAness arises are not well understood but post-transcriptional regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenotype. Here, we examine the post-transcriptional effects that some members of the six-miRNA cluster known as the miR-17/92 cluster have on the abundance of BRCA2's messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We discuss two interactions involving the miR-19a and miR-19b members of the cluster and the 3'UTR of BRCA2's mRNA. We investigated these miRNA:mRNA interactions in 15 cell lines derived from pancreatic, breast, colon, and kidney tissue. We show that over-expression of these two miRNAs results in a concomitant decrease of BRCA2's mRNA and protein expression in a subset of the tested cell lines. Additionally, using luciferase reporter assays we identified direct interactions between miR-19a/miR-19b and a miRNA response element (MRE) in BRCA2's 3'UTR. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is subject to a complex post-transcriptional regulatory program that has specific dependencies on the genetic and phenotypic background of cell types.
Project description:Blood-circulating miRNAs could be useful as a biomarker to detect lung cancer early. We investigated the serum levels of four different miRNAs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assessed their diagnostic value for NSCLC. Serum samples from 112 NSCLC patients and 104 controls (20 current smokers without lung cancer, 23 pneumonia patients, 21 gastric cancer patients, and 40 healthy controls) were subjected to Taqman probe-based quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data showed that the serum levels of miR-182, miR-183, and miR-210 were significantly upregulated and that the miR-126 level was significantly downregulated in NSCLC patients, compared with the healthy controls. Further receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the serum miR-182, miR-183, miR-210, or miR-126 level could serve as a diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC early detection, with a high sensitivity and specificity. The combination of these four miRNAs with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) further increased the diagnostic value, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.965 (sensitivity, 81.3%; specificity, 100.0%; and accuracy, 90.8%) using logistic regression model analysis. In addition, the relative levels of serum miR-182, miR-183, miR-210, and miR-126 could distinguish NSCLC or early-stage NSCLC from current tobacco smokers without lung cancer and pneumonia or gastric cancer patients with a high sensitivity and specificity. Data from the current study validated that the four serum miRNAs could serve as a tumor biomarker for NSCLC early diagnosis.
Project description:Atherosclerotic plaque growth requires angiogenesis, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is usually triggered by the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Previous studies have identified typically circulating microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles in patients with ACS. miRNAs serve important roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque progression. The present study aimed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of miR?19b in plaque stability. miRNA array data indicated that 28 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma of patients with unstable angina (UA; n=12) compared with in control individuals (n=12), and miR?19b exhibited the most marked upregulation. Circulating miR?19b levels were further validated in another independent cohort, which consisted of 34 patients with UA and 24 controls, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology annotations of the predicted target genes of miR?19b suggested that miR?19b may be involved in endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, which was confirmed by Cell Counting kit?8, wound healing and tube formation assays in the present study. Finally, the present study indicated that miR?19b may suppress signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity in ECs, as determined by western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay. In conclusion, the present study revealed that increased miR?19b expression may delay unstable plaque progression in patients with UA by inhibiting EC proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the suppression of STAT3 transcriptional activity.
Project description:Objectives:The clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (current major depressive episode) (BD) overlap with unipolar depressive disorder (UD), which makes it difficult to perform an accurate diagnosis. We identified plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) that distinguished BD from UD and explored the relationship between miRNA expression levels and clinical characteristics. Methods:Total miRNAs from blood plasma from seven UD patients, seven BD patients, and six controls were analyzed. The identified miRNAs were validated in a separate population group. Depression severity and early life adversities were assessed. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to investigate the target genes that were identified and the pathways associated with the altered miRNAs. Results:Compared to controls, 42 miRNAs were differentially expressed in patients. miR-19b-3p, miR-3921, and miR-1180-3p were selected to validate the microarray results. Only miR-19b-3p was validated as down-regulated in patients. The primary predicted genes associated with miR-19b-3p were MAPK1, PTEN, and PRKAA1. The most relevant KEGG pathways included mTOR, FoxO, and the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway. BD patients were more likely to have higher expression levels of miR-19b-3p and more severe childhood trauma experience compared to UD patients. Conclusions:Plasma miR-19b-3p is a potential non-invasive biomarker that might be useful in distinguishing UD from BD. miR-19b3p was predicted to be involved in the pathway of inflammatory dysregulation associated with experiencing early childhood trauma.