Long-Range Signaling in MutS and MSH Homologs via Switching of Dynamic Communication Pathways.
ABSTRACT: Allostery is conformation regulation by propagating a signal from one site to another distal site. This study focuses on the long-range communication in DNA mismatch repair proteins MutS and its homologs where intramolecular signaling has to travel over 70 Å to couple lesion detection to ATPase activity and eventual downstream repair. Using dynamic network analysis based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations, multiple preserved communication pathways were identified that would allow such long-range signaling. The pathways appear to depend on the nucleotides bound to the ATPase domain as well as the type of DNA substrate consistent with previously proposed functional cycles of mismatch recognition and repair initiation by MutS and homologs. A mechanism is proposed where pathways are switched without major conformational rearrangements allowing for efficient long-range signaling and allostery.
Project description:Postreplication DNA mismatch repair is essential for maintaining the integrity of genomic information in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The first step in mismatch repair is the recognition of base-base mismatches and insertions/deletions by bacterial MutS or eukaryotic MSH2-MSH6. Crystal structures of both proteins bound to mismatch DNA reveal a similar molecular architecture but provide limited insight into the detailed molecular mechanism of long-range allostery involved in mismatch recognition and repair initiation. This study describes normal-mode calculations of MutS and MSH2-MSH6 with and without DNA. The results reveal similar protein flexibilities and suggest common dynamic and functional characteristics. A strongly correlated motion is present between the lever domain and ATPase domains, which suggests a pathway for long-range allostery from the N-terminal DNA binding domain to the C-terminal ATPase domains, as indicated by experimental studies. A detailed analysis of individual low-frequency modes of both MutS and MSH2-MSH6 shows changes in the DNA-binding domains coupled to the ATPase sites, which are interpreted in the context of experimental data to arrive at a complete molecular-level mismatch recognition cycle. Distinct conformational states are proposed for DNA scanning, mismatch recognition, repair initiation, and sliding along DNA after mismatch recognition. Hypotheses based on the results presented here form the basis for further experimental and computational studies.
Project description:Guanine quadruplex (G4 DNA) is a four-stranded structure that contributes to genome instability and site-specific recombination. G4 DNA folds from sequences containing tandemly repetitive guanines, sequence motifs that are found throughout prokaryote and eukaryote genomes. While some cellular activities have been identified with binding or processing G4 DNA, the factors and pathways governing G4 DNA metabolism are largely undefined. Highly conserved mismatch repair factors have emerged as potential G4-responding complexes because, in addition to initiating heteroduplex correction, the human homologs bind non-B form DNA with high affinity. Moreover, the MutS homologs across species have the capacity to recognize a diverse range of DNA pairing variations and damage, suggesting a conserved ability to bind non-B form DNA.Here, we asked if E. coli MutS and a heteroduplex recognition mutant, MutS F36A, were capable of recognizing and responding to G4 DNA structures. We find by mobility shift assay that E. coli MutS binds to G4 DNA with high affinity better than binding to G-T heteroduplexes. In the same assay, MutS F36A failed to recognize G-T mismatched oligonucleotides, as expected, but retained an ability to bind to G4 DNA. Association with G4 DNA by MutS is not likely to activate the mismatch repair pathway because nucleotide binding did not promote release of MutS or MutS F36A from G4 DNA as it does for heteroduplexes. G4 recognition activities occur under physiological conditions, and we find that M13 phage harboring G4-capable DNA poorly infected a MutS deficient strain of E. coli compared to M13mp18, suggesting functional roles for mismatch repair factors in the cellular response to unstable genomic elements.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that E. coli MutS has a binding activity specific for non-B form G4 DNA, but such binding appears independent of canonical heteroduplex repair activation.
Project description:MutS homologs, identified in nearly all bacteria and eukaryotes, include the bacterial proteins MutS1 and MutS2 and the eukaryotic MutS homologs 1 to 7, and they often are involved in recognition and repair of mismatched bases and small insertion/deletions, thereby limiting illegitimate recombination and spontaneous mutation. To explore the relationship of MutS2 to other MutS homologs, we examined conserved protein domains. Fundamental differences in structure between MutS2 and other MutS homologs suggest that MutS1 and MutS2 diverged early during evolution, with all eukaryotic homologs arising from a MutS1 ancestor. Data from MutS1 crystal structures, biochemical results from MutS2 analyses, and our phylogenetic studies suggest that MutS2 has functions distinct from other members of the MutS family. A mutS2 mutant was constructed in Helicobacter pylori, which lacks mutS1 and mismatch repair genes mutL and mutH. We show that MutS2 plays no role in mismatch or recombinational repair or deletion between direct DNA repeats. In contrast, MutS2 plays a significant role in limiting intergenomic recombination across a range of donor DNA tested. This phenotypic analysis is consistent with the phylogenetic and biochemical data suggesting that MutS1 and MutS2 have divergent functions.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair is an essential safeguard of genomic integrity by removing base mispairings that may arise from DNA polymerase errors or from homologous recombination between DNA strands. In Escherichia coli, the MutS enzyme recognizes mismatches and initiates repair. MutS has an intrinsic ATPase activity crucial for its function, but which is poorly understood. We show here that within the MutS homodimer, the two chemically identical ATPase sites have different affinities for ADP, and the two sites alternate in ATP hydrolysis. A single residue, Arg697, located at the interface of the two ATPase domains, controls the asymmetry. When mutated, the asymmetry is lost and mismatch repair in vivo is impaired. We propose that asymmetry of the ATPase domains is an essential feature of mismatch repair that controls the timing of the different steps in the repair cascade.
Project description:MutS functions in mismatch repair (MMR) to scan DNA for errors, identify a target site and trigger subsequent events in the pathway leading to error removal and DNA re-synthesis. These actions, enabled by the ATPase activity of MutS, are now beginning to be analyzed from the perspective of the protein itself. This study provides the first ensemble transient kinetic data on MutS conformational dynamics as it works with DNA and ATP in MMR. Using a combination of fluorescence probes (on Thermus aquaticus MutS and DNA) and signals (intensity, anisotropy and resonance energy transfer), we have monitored the timing of key conformational changes in MutS that are coupled to mismatch binding and recognition, ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as sliding clamp formation and signaling of repair. Significant findings include (a) a slow step that follows weak initial interaction between MutS and DNA, in which concerted conformational changes in both macromolecules control mismatch recognition, and (b) rapid, binary switching of MutS conformations that is concerted with ATP binding and hydrolysis and (c) is stalled after mismatch recognition to control formation of the ATP-bound MutS sliding clamp. These rate-limiting pre- and post-mismatch recognition events outline the mechanism of action of MutS on DNA during initiation of MMR.
Project description:The multidomain protein Thermus aquaticus MutS and its prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs recognize DNA replication errors and initiate mismatch repair. MutS actions are fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis, which modulate its interactions with DNA and other proteins in the mismatch-repair pathway. The DNA binding and ATPase activities are allosterically coupled over a distance of ∼70 Å, and the molecular mechanism of coupling has not been clarified. To address this problem, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of ∼150 ns including explicit solvent were performed on two key complexes--ATP-bound and ATP-free MutS⋅DNA(+T bulge). We used principal component analysis in fluctuation space to assess ATP ligand-induced changes in MutS structure and dynamics. The molecular dynamics-calculated ensembles of thermally accessible structures showed markedly small differences between the two complexes. However, analysis of the covariance of dynamical fluctuations revealed a number of potentially significant interresidue and interdomain couplings. Moreover, principal component analysis revealed clusters of correlated atomic fluctuations linking the DNA and nucleotide binding sites, especially in the ATP-bound MutS⋅DNA(+T) complex. These results support the idea that allosterism between the nucleotide and DNA binding sites in MutS can occur via ligand-induced changes in motion, i.e., dynamical allosterism.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) identifies and corrects errors made during replication. In all organisms except those expressing MutH, interactions between a DNA mismatch, MutS, MutL, and the replication processivity factor (β-clamp or PCNA) activate the latent MutL endonuclease to nick the error-containing daughter strand. This nick provides an entry point for downstream repair proteins. Despite the well-established significance of strand-specific nicking in MMR, the mechanism(s) by which MutS and MutL assemble on mismatch DNA to allow the subsequent activation of MutL's endonuclease activity by β-clamp/PCNA remains elusive. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, MutS homologs undergo conformational changes to a mobile clamp state that can move away from the mismatch. However, the function of this MutS mobile clamp is unknown. Furthermore, whether the interaction with MutL leads to a mobile MutS-MutL complex or a mismatch-localized complex is hotly debated. We used single molecule FRET to determine that Thermus aquaticus MutL traps MutS at a DNA mismatch after recognition but before its conversion to a sliding clamp. Rather than a clamp, a conformationally dynamic protein assembly typically containing more MutL than MutS is formed at the mismatch. This complex provides a local marker where interaction with β-clamp/PCNA could distinguish parent/daughter strand identity. Our finding that MutL fundamentally changes MutS actions following mismatch detection reframes current thinking on MMR signaling processes critical for genomic stability.
Project description:MutS homologs function in several cellular pathways including mismatch repair (MMR), the process by which mismatches introduced during DNA replication are corrected. We demonstrate that the C terminus of Bacillus subtilis MutS is necessary for an interaction with beta clamp. This interaction is required for MutS-GFP focus formation in response to mismatches. Reciprocally, we show that a mutant of the beta clamp causes elevated mutation frequencies and is reduced for MutS-GFP focus formation. MutS mutants defective for interaction with beta clamp failed to support the next step of MMR, MutL-GFP focus formation. We conclude that the interaction between MutS and beta is the major molecular interaction facilitating focus formation and that beta clamp aids in the stabilization of MutS at a mismatch in vivo. The striking ability of the MutS C terminus to direct focus formation at replisomes by itself, suggests that it is mismatch recognition that licenses MutS's interaction with beta clamp.
Project description:MutL assists the mismatch recognition protein MutS to initiate and coordinate mismatch repair in species ranging from bacteria to humans. The MutL N-terminal ATPase domain is highly conserved, but the C-terminal region shares little sequence similarity among MutL homologs. We report here the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli MutL C-terminal dimerization domain and the likelihood of its conservation among MutL homologs. A 100-residue proline-rich linker between the ATPase and dimerization domains, which generates a large central cavity in MutL dimers, tolerates sequence substitutions and deletions of one-third of its length with no functional consequences in vivo or in vitro. Along the surface of the central cavity, residues essential for DNA binding are located in both the N- and C-terminal domains. Each domain of MutL interacts with UvrD helicase and is required for activating the helicase activity. The DNA-binding capacity of MutL is correlated with the level of UvrD activation. A model of how MutL utilizes its ATPase and DNA-binding activities to mediate mismatch-dependent activation of MutH endonuclease and UvrD helicase is proposed.
Project description:MutS protein initiates mismatch repair with recognition of a non-Watson-Crick base-pair or base insertion/deletion site in DNA, and its interactions with DNA are modulated by ATPase activity. Here, we present a kinetic analysis of these interactions, including the effects of ATP binding and hydrolysis, reported directly from the mismatch site by 2-aminopurine fluorescence. When free of nucleotides, the Thermus aquaticus MutS dimer binds a mismatch rapidly (k(ON)=3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) and forms a stable complex with a half-life of 10 s (k(OFF)=0.07 s(-1)). When one or both nucleotide-binding sites on the MutS*mismatch complex are occupied by ATP, the complex remains fairly stable, with a half-life of 5-7 s (k(OFF)=0.1-0.14 s(-1)), although MutS(ATP) becomes incapable of (re-)binding the mismatch. When one or both nucleotide-binding sites on the MutS dimer are occupied by ADP, the MutS*mismatch complex forms rapidly (k(ON)=7.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) and also dissociates rapidly, with a half-life of 0.4 s (k(OFF)=1.7 s(-1)). Integration of these MutS DNA-binding kinetics with previously described ATPase kinetics reveals that: (a) in the absence of a mismatch, MutS in the ADP-bound form engages in highly dynamic interactions with DNA, perhaps probing base-pairs for errors; (b) in the presence of a mismatch, MutS stabilized in the ATP-bound form releases the mismatch slowly, perhaps allowing for onsite interactions with downstream repair proteins; (c) ATP-bound MutS then moves off the mismatch, perhaps as a mobile clamp facilitating repair reactions at distant sites on DNA, until ATP is hydrolyzed (or dissociates) and the protein turns over.