Prevalence of Quinolone Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Sierra Leone and the Detection of qnrB Pseudogenes and Modified LexA Binding Sites.
ABSTRACT: A collection of 74 Enterobacteriaceae isolates found in Bo, Sierra Leone, were tested for quinolone antibiotic susceptibility and resistance mechanisms. The majority of isolates (62%) were resistant to quinolones, and 61% harbored chromosomal gyrA and/or parC mutations. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were ubiquitous, with qnrB and aac(6')-Ib-cr being the most prevalent. Mutated LexA binding sites were found in all qnrB1 genes, and truncated qnrB pseudogenes were found in the majority of Citrobacter isolates.
Project description:In the sequence upstream from qnrB (but not qnrA or qnrS) is a LexA binding site. qnrB was shown to be under SOS control by demonstrating that quinolone susceptibility decreased with increasing temperature in a strain with a recA441(Ts) allele, whereas qnrB expression increased in response to ciprofloxacin or mitomycin C in strains with an intact lexA gene.
Project description:A novel plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene, qnrB, has been discovered in a plasmid encoding the CTX-M-15 beta-lactamase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated in South India. It has less than 40% amino acid identity with the original qnr (now qnrA) gene or with the recently described qnrS but, like them, codes for a protein belonging to the pentapeptide repeat family. Strains with qnrB demonstrated low-level resistance to all quinolones tested. The gene has been cloned in an expression vector attaching a polyhistidine tag, which facilitated purification to >or=95% homogeneity. As little as 5 pM of QnrB-His6 protected purified DNA gyrase against inhibition by 2 microg/ml (6 microM) ciprofloxacin. With a PCR assay qnrB has been detected in Citrobacter koseri, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli isolates from the United States, linked to SHV-12 beta-lactamase and coding for a product differing in five amino acids from the Indian (now QnrB1) variety. The qnrB gene has been found near Orf1005 in some, but not all, plasmids and in association with open reading frames matching known chromosomal genes, suggesting that it too was acquired by plasmids from an as-yet-unknown bacterial source.
Project description:Plasmid-encoded protein QnrB1 protects DNA gyrase from ciprofloxacin inhibition. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, we evaluated the physical interactions between wild-type and mutant QnrB1, the GyrA and GyrB gyrase subunits, and a GyrBA fusion protein. The interaction of QnrB1 with GyrB and GyrBA was approximately 10-fold higher than that with GyrA, suggesting that domains of GyrB are important for stabilizing QnrB1 interaction with the holoenzyme. Sub-MICs of ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid reduced the interactions between QnrB1 and GyrA or GyrBA but produced no reduction in the interaction with GyrB or a quinolone-resistant GyrA:S83L (GyrA with S83L substitution) mutant, suggesting that quinolones and QnrB1 compete for binding to gyrase. Of QnrB1 mutants that reduced quinolone resistance, deletions in the C or N terminus of QnrB1 resulted in a marked decrease in interactions with GyrA but limited or no effect on interactions with GyrB and an intermediate effect on interactions with GyrBA. While deletion of loop B and both loops moderately reduced the interaction signal with GyrA, deletion of loop A resulted in only a small reduction in the interaction with GyrB. The loop A deletion also caused a substantial reduction in interaction with GyrBA, with little effect of loop B and dual-loop deletions. Single-amino-acid loop mutations had little effect on physical interactions except for a ?105I mutant. Therefore, loops A and B may play key roles in the proper positioning of QnrB1 rather than as determinants of the physical interaction of QnrB1 with gyrase.
Project description:The qnr genes are plasmid-borne fluoroquinolone-resistance determinants widespread in Enterobacteriaceae. Three families of qnr determinants (qnrA, B and S) have been described, but little is known about their expression and regulation. Two new determinants, qnrC and qnrD, have been found recently. Here, we describe the characterization of the qnrB2 promoter and the identification of a LexA-binding site in the promoter region of all qnrB alleles. LexA is the central regulator of the SOS response to DNA damage. We show that qnrB2 expression is regulated through the SOS response in a LexA/RecA-dependent manner, and that it can be induced by the quinolone ciprofloxacin, a known inducer of the SOS system. This is the first description of direct SOS-dependent regulation of an antibiotic-resistance mechanism in response to the antibiotic itself.
Project description:Background: There have been no reports in Bulgaria about quinolone resistance determinants among Enterobacter spp. Aims: To investigate plasmid and chromosomal quinolone resistance rates among 175 third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacter spp. isolates (167 Enterobacter cloacae complex and eight Enterobacter aerogenes isolates) collected at a university hospital in Varna, Bulgaria, as well as to reveal their association with ESBL/AmpC production and a carriage of specific plasmid replicon types. Methods: PCR, isoelectric focusing, replicon typing, sequencing, and epidemiology typing were carried out. Results: A high level of combined third-generation cephalosporin and quinolone resistant Enterobacter spp. was found - 79.4%. The ESBL production rate was 87%, consisting mainly of CTX-M-15 among E. cloacae complex (in 76%) and CTX-M-3 among E. aerogenes (in 88%). Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants were identified in 57% of the isolates. The most commonly detected PMQR determinants were qnrB (90%), consisting mainly of qnrB1 (in 61%), and qnrB9 (in 27%) of the isolates. Both alleles were transferred with CTX-M-15 genes; transconjugants showed HI2 replicons (for qnrB1 positive transconjugants) and were non-typeable (for qnrB9). One Enterobacter spp. isolate produced qnrB4. QnrA1, qnrS1, and aac(6')-Ib-cr were detected in single isolates only. QnrC, qnrD, qepA, and oqxAB genes were not found. QnrB was associated with CTX-M-15 production, and qnrS1 was linked to CTX-M-3. Alterations in 83 and 87 positions of gyrB in quinolone-resistance determining regions, and 80 position of parC were detected in high level quinolone resistant isolates. Among all the Enterobacter spp. isolates tested, one predominant clone A was identified (53%). Conclusion: Our data showed the necessity of more prudent use of quinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, because of the risk of promoting dissemination, and selection of multiple resistance determinants (ESBL, PMQR) among Enterobacter spp. isolates in Bulgaria.
Project description:qnrB is the most common of the five qnr families and has the greatest number of allelic variants. Almost two-thirds of the qnrB alleles have been reported in Citrobacter spp., and several were shown to be located on the chromosome. In this study, PCR was used to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in 71 clinical isolates belonging to the Citrobacter freundii complex. Thirty-seven percent contained qnrB alleles, including 7 (qnrB32 to qnrB38) that were novel and 1 pseudogene, while none contained qnrA, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, or aac(6')-Ib-cr. When the strains were arrayed by related 16S rRNA sequence and further separated into subspecies by biochemical criteria, clustering of qnrB-positive strains was evident. In only two strains with qnrB2 and qnrB4 was quinolone resistance transferable by conjugation, and only these strains contained the ISCR1 sequence that is often associated with qnrB on plasmids. Five of 26 qnrB-positive strains contained integrase genes, but these included the strains with qnrB2 and qnrB4 as well as two strains with other transmissible plasmids. In a fully sequenced genome of Citrobacter youngae, a member of the C. freundii complex, another novel qnrB allele, qnrB39, occurs in a sequence of genes that is 90% identical to sequence surrounding integron-associated qnrB4 incorporated into plasmids. The chromosome of Citrobacter is the likely source of plasmid-mediated qnrB.
Project description:Pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae, resistant to beta-lactam and quinolone drugs, is widely recognized as important bacteria causing array of diseases. The resistance property is obtained by acquisition of plasmid encoded blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, QNRA, QNRB and QNRS genes. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence and association of these resistant genes in K. pneumoniae infecting patients in India. Approximately 97 and 76.7 % of the 73 K. pneumoniae isolates showed resistance towards beta-lactam and quinolone drugs respectively. Bla genes were detected in 74 % of K. pneumoniae isolates; with prevalence in the following order: blaTEM > blaSHV > blaCTXM. QNR genes were detected in 67 % samples. Chi-square analysis revealed significant association between presence of bla and qnr genes in our study (P value = 0.000125). Sequence analysis of some blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and QNRB PCR products revealed presence of blaTEM1 (GenBank accession: JN193522), blaTEM116 (JN193523 and JN193524), blaSHV11, blaCTXM72 variants (JF523199) and QNRB1 (JN193526 and JN193527) in our samples.
Project description:The prevalence of three plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, QnrA, QnrB, and QnrS, among 526 nonreplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae collected at a Taiwanese university hospital in 2004 was determined by PCR and colony hybridization, and the association of Qnr with the IMP-8 metallo-beta-lactamase was investigated. Eighty-six (16.3%) of all isolates were qnr positive, and the qnrA1-like, qnrB2-like, and qnrS1-like genes were detected alone or in combination in 3 (0.6%), 53 (10.1%), and 34 (6.5%) isolates, respectively. Among 149 putative extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing isolates, 59 (39.6%) isolates, all of which were SHV-12 producers, harbored qnrA (0.7%; 1 isolate), qnrB (28.9%; 43 isolates), or qnrS (12.1%; 18 isolates). Forty-four (78.6%) of 56 IMP-8 producers carried qnrB (58.9%; 33 isolates), qnrS (25.0%; 14 isolates), or both. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that qnrA1 was located in a complex sul1-type integron that contains dhr15, aadA2, qacEDelta1, sul1, orf513, qnrA1, ampR, and qacEDelta1. Conjugation experiments revealed the coexistence of qnrB and bla(IMP-8) on the transferred plasmids and the absence of beta-lactamase content on the transferred qnrS-positive plasmids. The transferred bla(IMP-8)-positive plasmids with and without qnrB had very similar restriction patterns, suggesting the horizontal mobility of qnrB. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed six major patterns among the 44 qnr-positive IMP-8-producing isolates. Thus, the extremely high prevalence of qnr among the metallo-beta-lactamase-producing E. cloacae isolates in the hospital may be due mainly to the intrahospital spread of a few clones and the dissemination of plasmids containing both qnrB and blaIMP-8.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone resistance can be conferred through chromosomal mutations or by the acquisition of plasmids carrying genes such as the quinolone resistance gene (qnr). In this study, 3,309 strains of commensal Escherichia coli were isolated in Ecuador from: (i) humans and chickens in a rural northern coastal area (n = 2368, 71.5%) and (ii) chickens from an industrial poultry operation (n = 827, 25%). In addition, 114 fluoroquinolone-resistant strains from patients with urinary tract infections who were treated at three urban hospitals in Quito, Ecuador were analyzed. All of the isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility screening. Fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (FRIs) were then screened for the presence of qnrB genes. A significantly higher phenotypic resistance to fluoroquinolones was determined in E. coli strains from chickens in both the rural area (22%) and the industrial operation (10%) than in strains isolated from humans in the rural communities (3%). However, the rates of qnrB genes in E. coli isolates from healthy humans in the rural communities (11 of 35 isolates, 31%) was higher than in chickens from either the industrial operations (3 of 81 isolates, 6%) or the rural communities (7 of 251 isolates, 2.8%). The occurrence of qnrB genes in human FRIs obtained from urban hospitals was low (1 of 114 isolates, 0.9%). These results suggested that the qnrB gene is more widely distributed in rural settings, where antibiotic usage is low, than in urban hospitals and industrial poultry operations. The role of qnrB in clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones is thus far unknown.
Project description:Bacterial antibiotic resistance, a global health threat, is caused by plasmid transfer or genetic mutations. Quinolones are important antibiotics, partially because they are fully synthetic and resistance genes are unlikely to exist in nature; nonetheless, quinolone resistance proteins have been identified. The mechanism by which plasmid-borne quinolone resistance proteins promotes the selection of quinolone-resistant mutants is unclear. Here, we show that QnrB increases the bacterial mutation rate. Transcriptomic and genome sequencing analyses showed that QnrB promoted gene abundance near the origin of replication (oriC). In addition, the QnrB expression level correlated with the replication origin to terminus (oriC/ter) ratio, indicating QnrB-induced DNA replication stress. Our results also show that QnrB is a DnaA-binding protein that may act as an activator of DNA replication initiation. Interaction of QnrB with DnaA promoted the formation of the DnaA-oriC open complex, which leads to DNA replication over-initiation. Our data indicate that plasmid-borne QnrB increases bacterial mutation rates and that genetic changes can alleviate the fitness cost imposed by transmitted plasmids. Derivative mutations may impair antibiotic efficacy and threaten the value of antibiotic treatments. Enhanced understanding of how bacteria adapt to the antibiotic environment will lead to new therapeutic strategies for antibiotic-resistant infections.