Reduced shrinkage stress via photo-initiated copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition polymerizations of azide-alkyne resins.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Polymerization shrinkage stress and factors involved in the stress development such as volumetric shrinkage and modulus were investigated in photo-CuAAC (photo-initiated copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition) polymerization and compared with conventional BisGMA-based methacrylate polymerization for their use as alternative dental resins. METHODS:Tri-functional alkyne and di-functional azide monomers were synthesized for photo-CuAAC polymerization. Conversion kinetics, stress development and polymerization shrinkage were determined with FTIR spectroscopy, tensometery, and with a linometer, respectively, for CuAAC and BisGMA-based monomer mixtures using a camphorquinone/amine visible light photoinitiator system. Thermo-mechanical properties for the cured polymer matrices were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis and in three-point bending on a universal testing machine. Polymerization kinetics, polymerization shrinkage stress, dynamic volumetric shrinkage, glass transition temperature (Tg), flexural modulus, flexural strength, and flexural toughness were compared between the two different resin systems. RESULTS:A glassy CuAAC polymer (Tg=62°C) exhibited 15-25% lower flexural modulus of 2.5±0.2GPa and flexural strength of 117±8MPa compared to BisGMA-based polymer (Tg=160°C) but showed considerably higher energy absorption around 7.1MJ×m-3 without fracture when strained to 11% via three-point bend compared to the flexural toughness of 2.7MJ×m-3 obtained from BisGMA-based polymer. In contrast to BisGMA-based polymers at 75% functional group conversion, the CuAAC polymerization developed approximately three times lower shrinkage stress with the potential to achieve quantitative conversion under ambient temperature photocuring conditions. Moreover, relatively equivalent dynamic volumetric shrinkage of around 6-7% was observed via both CuAAC and dimethacrylate polymerization, suggesting that the low shrinkage stress of CuAAC polymerization was due to delayed gelation along with slower rate of polymerization and the formation of a more compliant network structure. SIGNIFICANCE:CuAAC crosslinked networks possessed high toughness and low polymerization shrinkage stress with quantitative conversion, which eliminated obstacles associated with BisGMA-based dental resins including limited conversion, unreacted extractable moieties, brittle failure, and high shrinkage stress.
Project description:Several features necessary for polymer composite materials in practical applications such as dental restorative materials were investigated in photo-curable CuAAC (copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition) thermosetting resin-based composites with varying filler loadings and compared to a conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA based composite.Tri-functional alkyne and di-functional azide monomers were synthesized for CuAAC resins and incorporated with alkyne-functionalized glass microfillers for CuAAC composites. Polymerization kinetics, in situ temperature change, and shrinkage stress were monitored simultaneously with a tensometer coupled with FTIR spectroscopy and a data-logging thermocouple. The glass transition temperature was analyzed by dynamic mechanical analysis. Flexural modulus/strength and flexural toughness were characterized in three-point bending on a universal testing machine.The photo-CuAAC polymerization of composites containing between 0 and 60wt% microfiller achieved ?99% conversion with a dramatic reduction in the maximum heat of reaction (?20°C decrease) for the 60wt% filled CuAAC composites as compared with the unfilled CuAAC resin. CuAAC composites with 60wt% microfiller generated more than twice lower shrinkage stress of 0.43±0.01MPa, equivalent flexural modulus of 6.1±0.7GPa, equivalent flexural strength of 107±9MPa, and more than 10 times higher energy absorption of 10±1MJm-3 when strained to 11% relative to BisGMA-based composites at equivalent filler loadings.Mechanically robust and highly tough, photo-polymerized CuAAC composites with reduced shrinkage stress and a modest reaction exotherm were generated and resulted in essentially complete conversion.
Project description:Step-growth thiol-Michael photopolymerizable resins, constituting an alternative chemistry to the current methacrylate-based chain-growth polymerizations, were developed and evaluated for use as dental restorative materials. The beneficial features inherent to anion-mediated thiol-Michael polymerizations were explored, such as rapid photocuring, low stress generation, ester content tunability, and improved mechanical performance in a moist environment. An ester-free tetrafunctional thiol and a ultraviolet-sensitive photobase generator were implemented to facilitate thiol-Michael photopolymerization. Thiol-Michael resins of varied ester content were fabricated under suitable light activation. Polymerization kinetics and shrinkage stress were determined with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with tensometery measurements. Thermomechanical properties of new materials were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis and in 3-point bending stress-strain experiments. Photopolymerization kinetics, polymerization shrinkage stress, glass transition temperature, flexural modulus, flexural toughness, and water sorption/solubility were compared between different thiol-Michael systems and the BisGMA/TEGDMA control. Furthermore, the mechanical performance of 2 thiol-Michael composites and a control composite were compared before and after extensive conditioning in water. All photobase-catalyzed thiol-Michael polymerization matrices achieved >90% conversion with a dramatic reduction in shrinkage stress as compared with the unfilled dimethacrylate control. One prototype of ester-free thiol-Michael formulations had significantly better water uptake properties than the BisGMA/TEGDMA control system. Although exhibiting relatively lower Young's modulus and glass transition temperatures, highly uniform thiol-Michael materials achieved much higher toughness than the BisGMA/TEGDMA control. Moreover, low-ester thiol-Michael composite systems show stable mechanical performance even after extensive water treatment. Although further resin/curing methodology optimization is required, the photopolymerized thiol-Michael prototype resins can now be recognized as promising candidates for implementation in composite dental restorative materials.
Project description:To detail the development of ester-free thiol-ene dental resins with enhanced mechanical performance, limited potential for water uptake/leachables/degradation and low polymerization shrinkage stress.Thiol-terminated oligomers were prepared via a thiol-Michael reaction and a bulky tetra-allyl monomer containing urethane linkages was synthesized. The experimental oligomers and/or monomers were photopolymerized using visible light activation. Several thiol-ene formulations were investigated and their performance ranked by comparisons of the thermo-mechanical properties, polymerization shrinkage stress, water sorption/solubility, and reactivity with respect to a control comprising a conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resin.The ester-free thiol-ene formulations had significantly lower viscosities, water sorption and solubility than the BisGMA/TEGDMA control. Depending on the resin, the limiting functional conversions were equivalent to or greater than that of BisGMA/TEGDMA. At comparable conversions, lower shrinkage stress values were achieved by the thiol-ene systems. The polymerization shrinkage stress was dramatically reduced when the tetra-allyl monomer was used as the ene in ester-free thiol-ene mixtures. Although exhibiting lower Young's modulus, flexural strength, and glass transition temperatures, the toughness values associated with thiol-ene resins were greater than that of the BisGMA/TEGDMA control. In addition, the thiol-ene polymerization resulted in highly uniform polymer networks as indicated by the narrow tan delta peak widths.Employing the developed thiol-ene resins in dental composites will reduce shrinkage stress and moisture absorption and form tougher materials. Furthermore, their low viscosities are expected to enable higher loadings of functionalized micro/nano-scale filler particles relevant for practical dental systems.
Project description:This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm(2) × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey's test (? = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and bond strength to dentin while demonstrating reduced contraction stress. All of these benefits are derived without compromising the methacrylate conversion of the resin component. The modification does not require changing the operatory technique.
Project description:A novel filler-resin matrix interphase structure was developed and evaluated for dental composite restoratives. Nanogel additives were chemically attached to the filler surface to use this created interphase as a potential source of compliance to minimize stress development during polymerization. In addition, we evaluated the effects of free nanogel dispersion into the resin matrix, combined or not with nanogel-modified fillers. Nanogels with varied characteristics were synthesized (i.e., size, 5 and 11 nm; glass transition temperature, 28 °C to 65 °C). Glass fillers were treated with trimethoxyvinylsilane and further reacted with thiol-functionalized nanogels via a free radical thiol-ene reaction. ?-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane-surface treated fillers were used as a control. Composites were formulated with BisGMA/TEGDMA resin blend with 60 wt% fillers with nanogel-modified fillers and/or free nanogel additives at 15 wt% in the resin phase. Polymerization kinetics, polymerization stress, volumetric shrinkage, and rheological and mechanical properties were evaluated to provide comprehensive characterization. Nanogel-modified fillers significantly reduced the polymerization stress from 2.2 MPa to 1.7 to 1.4 MPa, resulting in 20% stress reduction. A significantly greater nanogel content was required to generate the same magnitude stress reduction when the nanogels were dispersed only in the resin phase. When the nanogel-modified filler surface treatment and resin-dispersed nanogel strategies were combined, there was a stress reduction of 50% (values of 1.2 to 1.1 MPa). Polymerization rate and volumetric shrinkage were significantly reduced for systems with nanogel additives into the resin. Notably, the flexural modulus of the materials was not compromised, although a slight reduction in flexural strength associated with the nanogel-modified interphase was observed. Overall, modest amounts of free nanogel additives in the resin phase can be effectively combined with a limited nanogel content filler-resin interphase to lower volumetric shrinkage and dramatically reduce overall polymerization stress of composites.
Project description:To examine effects of shrinkage and modulus on the dynamic development of shrinkage stress as a function of methacrylate conversion and filler loading in a model photocurable dimethacrylate-based resin with a silanized barium glass filler.BisGMA/TEGDMA samples with filler loading levels of 0-70wt% were evaluated. Irradiation times and intensities were varied to achieve a wide range of conversion. Shrinkage stress measurements were accompanied with real-time conversion monitoring, while shrinkage and modulus measurements were made at different static conversion points.Shrinkage increased nearly linearly with respect to conversion, while for a given value of conversion, it decreased proportionally with increasing filler content. Modulus advanced in an exponential fashion with conversion and also increased incrementally with filler content; however, modulus values rose disproportionately rapidly for the highest filler loading. At either high or low filler loading levels, stress at limiting conversion, which was inversely proportional to the filler load, was high while at an intermediate filler content, a minimum in stress was observed due to the combined effects of filler based shrinkage reduction, restricted limiting conversion and only moderately enhanced modulus. The level of polymerization stress predicted from the conversion-indexed shrinkage and modulus measurements over-estimated the experimental stress states as modulus evolved due to system compliance that to some degree mimics the clinical situation presented by photocuring bonded composite restorations. Significance Measurement of monomer conversion provides a common basis by which different material properties can be rationally compared.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new synthesized multifunctional monomer, aminosilane functionalized methacrylate (ASMA), containing polymerizable methacrylate, tertiary amine, and methoxysilane functionalities in dental adhesive formulations, and to investigate the polymerization kinetics, leachates, thermal and mechanical properties of copolymers.<h4>Methods</h4>Adhesive contained HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w) was used as a control, and mixtures based on HEMA/BisGMA/ASMA at the mass ratio of 45/(55-x)/x were used as experimental adhesive. Adhesives were characterized with regard to water miscibility, photo-polymerization behavior (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR), leached co-monomers (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC), thermal properties (modulated differential scanning calorimeter, MDSC), and mechanical properties (dynamic mechanical analyzer, DMA). Stress relaxation times and the corresponding moduli, obtained from stress relaxation tests, are used in a simulated linear loading case.<h4>Results</h4>As compared to the control, ASMA-containing adhesives showed higher water miscibility, lower viscosity, improved monomer-to-polymer conversion, significantly greater T<sub>g</sub> and rubbery modulus. HPLC results indicated a substantial reduction of leached HEMA (up to 85wt%) and BisGMA (up to 55wt%) in ethanol. The simulation reveals that the ASMA-containing adhesive becomes substantially stiffer than the control.<h4>Significance</h4>ASMA monomer plays multiple roles, i.e. it serves as both a co-initiator and crosslinker while also providing autonomous strengthening and enhanced hydrolytic stability in the adhesive formulations. This multifunctional monomer offers significant promise for improving the durability of the adhesive at the composite/tooth interface.
Project description:To assess the performance of thiol-ene dental composites based on selected ester-free thiol-ene formulations. Further, to point out the benefits/drawback of having a hydrolytically stable thiol-ene matrix within a glass filled composite.Composite samples containing 50-65wt% of functionalized glass microparticles were prepared and photopolymerized in the presence of a suitable visible light photoinitiator. Shrinkage stress measurements were conducted as a function of the irradiation time. Degrees of conversion were measured by FT-IR analysis by comparing the double bond signals before and after photopolymerization. Mechanical tests were carried out on specimens after curing as well as after extended aging in water. Dynamic mechanical analysis was employed to track the changes in storage modulus near body temperature. The properties of the thiol-ene composites were compared with those of the BisGMA/TEGDMA control.Depending on the resin type, similar or higher conversions were achieved in thiol-ene composites when compared to the dimethacrylate controls. At comparable conversions, lower shrinkage stress values were achieved. Although exhibiting lower initial elastic moduli, the thiol-ene composites' flexural strengths were found to be comparable with the controls. Contrary to the control, the mechanical properties of the ester-free thiol-ene composites were shown to be unaffected by extensive aging in water and at least equaled that of the control after aging in water for just five weeks.Employing non-degradable step-growth networks as organic matrices in dental composites will provide structurally uniform, tough materials with extended service time.
Project description:Bulk photopolymerization of a library of synthesized multifunctional azides and alkynes was carried out toward developing structure-property relationships for CuAAC-based polymer networks. Multifunctional azides and alkynes were formulated with a copper catalyst and a photoinitiator, cured, and analyzed for their mechanical properties. Material properties such as the glass transition temperatures (Tg) show a strong dependence on monomer structure with Tg values ranging from 41 to 90 °C for the series of CuAAC monomers synthesized in this study. Compared to the triazoles, analogous thioether-based polymer networks exhibit a 45-49 °C lower Tg whereas analogous monomers composed of ethers in place of carbamates exhibit a 40 °C lower Tg. Here, the formation of the triazole moiety during the polymerization represents a critical component in dictating the material properties of the ultimate polymer network where material properties such as the rubbery modulus, cross-link density, and Tg all exhibit strong dependence on polymerization conversion, monomer composition, and structure postgelation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study probes how modifiedapproaches for filler surface treatment in dental composites based on alternative silanes and functional nanogel additives affects physicochemical properties of these materials with a focus on polymerization stress development. METHODS:Nanogels were synthesized from isobornyl methacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol-A dimethacrylate and isocyanatoethyl methacrylate followed by partial further reaction with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate to provide both isocyanate and methacrylate functionalization. A barium glass filler (˜1??m particle size) was treated with either ?-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), N-methylaminopropyltrimethoxy (MAP) or N-allylaminopropyltrimethoxy (AAP) silanes. The reactive nanogels were then covalently attached to the aminosilane-treated fillers. Surface treatment was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DR-IR). Composites were formulated with 60?wt% of the various functionalized fillers and the materials were evaluated for polymerization kinetics, polymerization stress (PS), volumetric shrinkage, mechanical properties and photorheology. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. RESULTS:Filler surface treatments were confirmed by TGA and DR-IR analyses. Nanogel-functionalized fillers significantly reduced PS up to 20%, while the degree of conversion and elastic modulus were not compromised. Similar storage modulus development during polymerization was observed among materials by photorheology although the rate of polymerization was significantly increased for nanogel-based treatments. A significant decrease in flexural strength was observed for amino functional silane groups; however, there was no statistical difference in strength for the MPS control group compared with the nanogel-modified composites. SIGNIFICANCE:Filler surface treatment modified with a reactive nanogel enables significant PS reduction, without compromise to degree of conversion or mechanical properties of dental composites.