Transient increase of fractional anisotropy in reversible vasogenic edema.
ABSTRACT: Brain vasogenic edema, involving disruption of the blood-brain barrier, is a common pathological condition in several neurological diseases, with a heterogeneous prognosis. It is sometimes reversible, as in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, but often irreversible and our current clinical tools are insufficient to reveal its reversibility. Here, we show that increased fractional anisotropy in magnetic resonance imaging is associated with the reversibility of vasogenic edema. Spontaneously, hypertensive rats-stroke prone demonstrated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome-like acute encephalopathy in response to high-dose cyclosporine A treatment; the deteriorating neurological symptoms and worsening scores in behavioral tests, which were seen in acute phase, dissappered after recovery by cessation of cyclosporine A. In the acute phase of encephalopathy, the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient increased in areas with IgG leakage. This increase of fractional anisotropy occurred in the absence of demyelination: fluid leakage into the myelinated space increased the axial, but not the radial, diffusivity, resulting in the increased fractional anisotropy. This increased fractional anisotropy returned to pre-encephalopathy values in the recovery phase. Our results highlight the importance of the fractional anisotropy increase as a marker for the reversibility of brain edema, which can delineate the brain areas for which recovery is possible.
Project description:Cerebral edema is the common pathogenic mechanism for cognitive impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Whether complete reversibility of brain edema, cognitive deficits, and their associated imaging can be achieved after liver transplantation remains an open question. To characterize white matter integrity before and after liver transplantation in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy, multiple diffusivity indices acquired via diffusion tensor imaging was applied. Twenty-eight patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included. Multiple diffusivity indices were obtained from diffusion tensor images, including mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The assessment was repeated 6-12 month after transplantation. Differences in white matter integrity between groups, as well as longitudinal changes, were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistical analysis. Correlation analyses were performed to identify first scan before transplantation and interval changes among the neuropsychiatric tests, clinical laboratory tests, and diffusion tensor imaging indices. After transplantation, decreased water diffusivity without fractional anisotropy change indicating reversible cerebral edema was found in the left anterior cingulate, claustrum, postcentral gyrus, and right corpus callosum. However, a progressive decrease in fractional anisotropy and an increase in radial diffusivity suggesting demyelination were noted in temporal lobe. Improved pre-transplantation albumin levels and interval changes were associated with better recoveries of diffusion tensor imaging indices. Improvements in interval diffusion tensor imaging indices in the right postcentral gyrus were correlated with visuospatial function score correction. In conclusion, longitudinal voxel-wise analysis of multiple diffusion tensor imaging indices demonstrated different white matter changes in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients. Transplantation improved extracellular cerebral edema and the results of associated cognition tests. However, white matter demyelination may advance in temporal lobe.
Project description:Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of cerebrovascular autoregulation that can result in brain edema, hemorrhage, and infarction. We sought to investigate whether certain imaging characteristics in PRES are associated with clinically significant patient outcomes.We retrospectively reviewed all cases of PRES occurring between 2008 and 2014 at two major academic medical centers. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected. We analyzed imaging studies for vasogenic edema, hemorrhage, and diffusion restriction. We performed univariate analysis and stepwise logistic regression to assess the association between our radiologic findings of interest and clinical outcomes as defined by hospital discharge disposition and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at time of discharge.We identified 99 cases of PRES in 96 patients. The median age was 55 years (IQR 30-65) and 74% were women. In 99 cases, 60% of patients had active cancer, 19% had history of bone marrow or organ transplantation, 14% had autoimmune disease, and 8% were peripartum. Imaging at clinical presentation showed extensive vasogenic edema in 39%, hemorrhage in 36%, hemorrhage with mass effect in 7%, and restricted diffusion in 16%. In our final logistic regression models, the presence of extensive vasogenic edema, hemorrhage with mass effect, or diffusion restriction was associated with worse clinical outcome as defined by both discharge disposition (OR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.4-36.3; p = 0.047) and mRS (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.7; p = 0.019).Extensive vasogenic edema, hemorrhage, and restricted diffusion on initial imaging in PRES are associated with worse clinical outcomes.
Project description:Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) on high-salt diet are characterized by extremely high arterial pressures, and have been endorsed as a model for hypertensive small vessel disease and vascular cognitive impairment. However, rapidly developing malignant hypertension is a well-known cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in humans, associated with acute neurological deficits, seizures, vasogenic cerebral edema and microhemorrhages. In this study, we aimed to examine the overlap between human PRES and SHRSP on high-salt diet. In SHRSP, arterial blood pressure progressively increased after the onset of high-salt diet and seizure-like signs emerged within three to five weeks. MRI revealed progressive T2-hyperintense lesions suggestive of vasogenic edema predominantly in the cortical watershed and white matter regions. Histopathology confirmed severe blood-brain barrier disruption, white matter vacuolization and microbleeds that were more severe posteriorly. Hematological data suggested a thrombotic microangiopathy as a potential underlying mechanism. Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion protected the ipsilateral hemisphere from neuropathological abnormalities. Notably, all MRI and histopathological abnormalities were acutely reversible upon switching to regular diet and starting antihypertensive treatment. Altogether our data suggest that SHRSP on high-salt diet recapitulates the neurological, histopathological and imaging features of human PRES rather than chronic progressive small vessel disease.
Project description:Children who are born preterm are at risk for encephalopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay and behavioral disorders. Current interventions are limited and none have been shown to reverse cognitive and behavioral impairments, a primary determinant of poor quality of life for these children. Moreover, the mechanisms of perinatal brain injury that result in functional deficits and imaging abnormalities in the mature brain are poorly defined, limiting the potential to target interventions to those who may benefit most. To determine whether impairments are reversible after a prenatal insult, we investigated a spectrum of functional deficits and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) abnormalities in young adult animals. We hypothesized that prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia (TSHI) would induce multiple functional deficits concomitant with reduced microstructural white and gray matter integrity, and tested whether these abnormalities could be ameliorated using postnatal erythropoietin (EPO), an emerging neurorestorative intervention. On embryonic day 18 uterine arteries were transiently occluded for 60min via laparotomy. Shams underwent anesthesia and laparotomy for 60min. Pups were born and TSHI pups were randomized to receive EPO or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection on postnatal days 1 to 5. Gait, social interaction, olfaction and open field testing was performed from postnatal day 25-35 before brains underwent ex vivo DTI to measure fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Prenatal TSHI injury causes hyperactivity, impaired gait and poor social interaction in young adult rats that mimic the spectrum of deficits observed in children born preterm. Collectively, these data show for the first time in a model of encephalopathy of prematurity that postnatal EPO treatment mitigates impairments in social interaction, in addition to gait deficits. EPO also normalizes TSHI-induced microstructural abnormalities in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in multiple regions, consistent with improved structural integrity and recovery of myelination. Taken together, these results show behavioral and memory deficits from perinatal brain injury are reversible. Furthermore, resolution of DTI abnormalities may predict responsiveness to emerging interventions, and serve as a biomarker of CNS injury and recovery.
Project description:Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an acute neurotoxic syndrome that is characterized by a spectrum neurological and radiological feature from various risk factors. Common neurological symptoms includes headache, impairment in level of consciousness, seizures, visual disturbances, and focal neurological deficits. Common triggering factors include blood pressure fluctuations, renal failure, eclampsia, exposure to immunosuppressive or cytotoxic agents and autoimmune disorders. The classic radiographic findings include bilateral subcortical vasogenic edema predominantly affecting the parieto-occipital regions but atypical features include involvement of other regions, cortical involvement, restricted diffusion, hemorrhage, contrast enhancement. This review is aimed to summarize the updated knowledge on the typical and atypical clinical and imaging features, prognostic markers and identify gaps in literature for future research. Methods: Systematic literature review using PUBMED search from 1990 to 2019 was performed using terms PRES was performed. Results: While clinical and radiographic reversibility is common, long-standing morbidity and mortality can occur in severe forms. In patients with malignant forms of PRES, aggressive care has markedly reduced mortality and improved functional outcomes. Although seizures were common, epilepsy is rare. Various factors that have been associated with poor outcome include altered sensorium, hypertensive etiology, hyperglycemia, longer time to control the causative factor, elevated C reactive protein, coagulopathy, extensive cerebral edema, and hemorrhage on imaging. Conclusion: Large prospective studies that accurately predict factors that are associated with poor outcomes, determine the pathophysiology, and targeted therapy are required.
Project description:Brain dysfunction is frequently observed in sepsis as a consequence of changes in cerebral structure and metabolism, resulting in worse outcome and reduced life-quality of surviving patients. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-associated encephalopathy development and a better characterization of this syndrome in vivo are lacking. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess brain morphology and metabolism in a murine sepsis model (cecal ligation and puncture, CLP). Sham-operated and CLP mice were subjected to a complete MRI session at baseline, 6 and 24 h after surgery. Accumulation of vasogenic edematic fluid at the base of the brain was observed in T(2)-weighted image at 6 and 24 h after CLP. Also, the water apparent diffusion coefficients in both hippocampus and cortex were decreased, suggesting a cytotoxic edema in brains of nonsurvival septic animals. Moreover, the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was reduced in brains of septic mice, indicating neuronal damage. In conclusion, noninvasive assessment by MRI allowed the identification of new aspects of brain damage in sepsis, including cytotoxic and vasogenic edema as well as neuronal damage. These findings highlight the potential applications of MRI techniques for the diagnostic and therapeutic studies in sepsis.
Project description:Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of brain tumors and may result in cellular, vascular and axonal injury and further behavioral deficits. The non-invasive longitudinal imaging assessment of brain injury caused by radiation therapy is important for determining patient prognoses. Several rodent studies have been performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but further studies in rabbits and large mammals with advanced magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are needed. Previously, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate radiation-induced rabbit brain injury. However, DTI is unable to resolve the complicated neural structure changes that are frequently observed during brain injury after radiation exposure. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) is a more accurate and sophisticated diffusion MR approach that can extract additional information about the altered diffusion environments. Therefore, herein, a longitudinal study was performed that used GQI indices, including generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), quantitative anisotropy (QA), and the isotropic value (ISO) of the orientation distribution function and DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) over a period of approximately half a year to observe long-term, radiation-induced changes in the different brain compartments of a rabbit model after a hemi-brain single dose (30 Gy) radiation exposure. We revealed that in the external capsule, the GFA right to left (R/L) ratio showed similar trends as the FA R/L ratio, but no clear trends in the remaining three brain compartments. Both the QA and ISO R/L ratios showed similar trends in the all four different compartments during the acute to early delayed post-irradiation phase, which could be explained and reflected the histopathological changes of the complicated dynamic interactions among astrogliosis, demyelination and vasogenic edema. We suggest that GQI is a promising non-invasive technique and as compared with DTI, it has better potential ability in detecting and monitoring the pathophysiological cascades in acute to early delayed radiation-induced brain injury by using clinical MR scanners.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia-induced brain edema is a severe clinical event that often results in death. The mechanisms by which hypoglycemia induces brain edema are unclear. METHODS: In a hypoglycemic injury model established in adult rats, brain edema was verified by measuring brain water content and visualizing water accumulation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Temporal expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were evaluated. We assessed the distribution and expression of AQP4 following glucose deprivation in astrocyte cultures. RESULTS: Brain edema was induced immediately after severe hypoglycemia but continued to progress even after recovery from hypoglycemia. Upregulation of AQP4 expression and moderate breakdown of the BBB were observed 24 h after recovery. In vitro, significant redistribution of AQP4 to the plasma membrane was induced following 6 h glucose deprivation. CONCLUSION: Hypoglycemia-induced brain edema is caused by cytotoxic and vasogenic factors. Changes in AQP4 location and expression may play a protective role in edema resolution.
Project description:Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a potentially severe disorder of the autoregulation of cerebral perfusion. The major clinical manifestations are headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual loss. The typical radiological finding is vasogenic edema predominating in the white matter of occipital and parietal lobes. PRES is increasingly recognized as a clinico-radiological entity owing to improvements and fast availability of brain imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present the exceptional case of a 67-year-old female patient with a gastric adenocarcinoma at stage IIB (T3N0M0) treated by FLOT chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, docetaxel, and folinic acid). Two months after the unique administration of FLOT regimen, she developed sudden posterior headache and visual loss. Blood pressure values were normal. Cerebral tomography showed ischemic-like occipital bilateral lesions, and angiographic sequences revealed breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). MRI revealed bilateral parieto-occipital T1 hypointensity and T2 hyperintensity, which demonstrated vasogenic edema. The rest of the parts of the lesions were T1 hyperintensity, T2 hyperintensity, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity, which indicate cortical laminar necrosis. After injection of gadolinium, a linear enhancement of the cortex was observed. She was treated with oral nimodipine. Follow-up was characterized by permanent visual sequelae and tetraparesis. PRES represents an urgent neurological condition. Our observation highlights that PRES should be considered in patients under chemotherapy, even when their blood pressure remains within normal range. This is the first report of PRES triggered by FLOT chemotherapy and with a silent window of 2 months between chemotherapy and PRES, widening further the spectrum of chemotherapy-induced PRES. Our case highlights the potential role of FLOT regimen in the pathogenesis of PRES and the need for a novel approach in terms of prevention of this potentially fatal complication when patients receive chemotherapy.
Project description:There is a critical need for understanding the progression of neuropathology in blast-induced traumatic brain injury using valid animal models to develop diagnostic approaches. In the present study, we used diffusion imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) morphometry to characterize axonal injury in white matter structures of the rat brain following a blast applied via blast tube to one side of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed on acute and subacute phases of pathology from which fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were calculated for corpus callosum (CC), cingulum bundle, and fimbria. Ventricular volume and CC thickness were measured. Blast-injured rats showed temporally varying bilateral changes in diffusion metrics indicating persistent axonal pathology. Diffusion changes in the CC suggested vasogenic edema secondary to axonal injury in the acute phase. Axonal pathology persisted in the subacute phase marked by cytotoxic edema and demyelination which was confirmed by ultrastructural analysis. The evolution of pathology followed a different pattern in the cingulum bundle: axonal injury and demyelination in the acute phase followed by cytotoxic edema in the subacute phase. Spatially, structures close to midline were most affected. Changes in the genu were greater than in the body and splenium; the caudal cingulum bundle was more affected than the rostral cingulum. Thinning of CC and ventriculomegaly were greater only in the acute phase. Our results reveal the persistent nature of blast-induced axonal pathology and suggest that diffusion imaging may have potential for detecting the temporal evolution of blast injury.