BNIP3 Protein Suppresses PINK1 Kinase Proteolytic Cleavage to Promote Mitophagy.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) cause early onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 accumulates on the outer membrane of damaged mitochondria followed by recruiting parkin to promote mitophagy. Here, we demonstrate that BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a mitochondrial BH3-only protein, interacts with PINK1 to promote the accumulation of full-length PINK1 on the outer membrane of mitochondria, which facilitates parkin recruitment and PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy. Inactivation of BNIP3 in mammalian cells promotes PINK1 proteolytic processing and suppresses PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy. Hypoxia-induced BNIP3 expression results in increased expression of full-length PINK1 and mitophagy. Consistently, expression of BNIP3 in Drosophila suppresses muscle degeneration and the mitochondrial abnormality caused by PINK1 inactivation. Together, the results suggest that BNIP3 plays a vital role in regulating PINK1 mitochondrial outer membrane localization, the proteolytic process of PINK1 and PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy under physiological conditions. Functional up-regulation of BNIP3 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to suppress the progression of PD.
Project description:Despite their importance as signaling hubs, the function of mitochondria-ER contact sites in mitochondrial quality control pathways remains unexplored. Here we describe a mechanism by which Mfn2, a mitochondria-ER tether, gates the autophagic turnover of mitochondria by PINK1 and parkin. Mitochondria-ER appositions are destroyed during mitophagy, and reducing mitochondria-ER contacts increases the rate of mitochondrial degradation. Mechanistically, parkin/PINK1 catalyze a rapid burst of Mfn2 phosphoubiquitination to trigger p97-dependent disassembly of Mfn2 complexes from the outer mitochondrial membrane, dissociating mitochondria from the ER. We additionally demonstrate that a major portion of the facilitatory effect of p97 on mitophagy is epistatic to Mfn2 and promotes the availability of other parkin substrates such as VDAC1. Finally, we reconstitute the action of these factors on Mfn2 and VDAC1 ubiquitination in a cell-free assay. We show that mitochondria-ER tethering suppresses mitophagy and describe a parkin-/PINK1-dependent mechanism that regulates the destruction of mitochondria-ER contact sites.
Project description:Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson's disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid reimport of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation.
Project description:Mitophagy is the selective autophagic targeting and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. While PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy is well-characterized, PINK1/Parkin-independent route is poorly understood. Using structure illumination microscopy (SR-SIM), we demonstrate that the SNARE protein Syntaxin 17 (STX17) initiates mitophagy upon depletion of outer mitochondrial membrane protein Fis1. With proteomics analysis, we identify the STX17-Fis1 interaction, which controls the dynamic shuffling of STX17 between ER and mitochondria. Fis1 loss results in aberrant STX17 accumulation on mitochondria, which exposes the N terminus and promotes self-oligomerization to trigger mitophagy. Mitochondrial STX17 interacts with ATG14 and recruits core autophagy proteins to form mitophagosome, followed by Rab7-dependent mitophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, Fis1 loss impairs mitochondrial respiration and potentially sensitizes cells to mitochondrial clearance, which is mediated through canonical autophagy machinery, closely linking non-selective macroautophagy to mitochondrial turnover. Our findings uncover a PINK1/Parkin-independent mitophagic mechanism in which outer mitochondrial membrane protein Fis1 regulates mitochondrial quality control.
Project description:A critical function of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)-Parkin pathway is to mediate the clearing of unhealthy or damaged mitochondria via mitophagy. Loss of either PINK1 or Parkin protein expression is associated with Parkinson's disease. Here, using a high-throughput screening approach along with recombinant protein expression and kinase, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence live-cell imaging assays, we report that celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from extracts of the medicinal plant <i>Tripterygium wilfordii</i>, blocks recruitment pof Parkin to mitochondria, preventing mitophagy in response to mitochondrial depolarization induced by carbonyl cyanide <i>m</i>-chlorophenylhydrazone or to gamitrinib-induced inhibition of mitochondrial heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Celastrol's effect on mitophagy was independent of its known role in microtubule disruption. Instead, we show that celastrol suppresses Parkin recruitment by inactivating PINK1 and preventing it from phosphorylating Parkin and also ubiquitin. We also observed that PINK1 directly and strongly associates with TOM20, a component of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) machinery and relatively weak binding to another TOM subunit, TOM70. Moreover, celastrol disrupted binding between PINK1 and TOM20 both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> but did not affect binding between TOM20 and TOM70. Using native gel analysis, we also show that celastrol disrupts PINK1 complex formation upon mitochondrial depolarization and sequesters PINK1 to high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. These results reveal that celastrol regulates the mitochondrial quality control pathway by interfering with PINK1-TOM20 binding.
Project description:PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a very short-lived protein that is required for the removal of damaged mitochondria through Parkin translocation and mitophagy. Because the short half-life of PINK1 limits its ability to be trafficked into neurites, local translation is required for this mitophagy pathway to be active far from the soma. The Pink1 transcript is associated with and cotransported with neuronal mitochondria. In concert with translation, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Synaptojanin 2 Binding Protein (SYNJ2BP) and Synaptojanin 2 (SYNJ2) are required for tethering Pink1 mRNA to mitochondria via an RNA-binding domain in SYNJ2. This neuron-specific adaptation for local translation of PINK1 provides distal mitochondria with a continuous supply of PINK1 for activation of mitophagy. Overall design: Examination of the impact of SYNJ2BP mutants on the SYNJ2BP binding RNA
Project description:Mitophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. PTEN-induced kinase (PINK1), a key regulator of mitophagy, is degraded constitutively under steady-state conditions. During mitophagy, it becomes stabilized in the outer mitochondrial membrane, particularly under mitochondrial stress conditions, such as in treatment with uncouplers, generation of excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and formation of protein aggregates in mitochondria. Stabilized PINK1 recruits and activates E3 ligases, such as Parkin and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase (MUL1), to ubiquitinate mitochondrial proteins and induce ubiquitin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we found that the anticancer drug gemcitabine induces the stabilization of PINK1 and subsequent mitophagy, even in the absence of Parkin. We also found that gemcitabine-induced stabilization of PINK1 was not accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization. Interestingly, the stabilization of PINK1 was mediated by MUL1. These results suggest that gemcitabine induces mitophagy through MUL1-mediated stabilization of PINK1 on the mitochondrial membrane independently of mitochondrial depolarization.
Project description:The E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is a key effector of the removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Parkin determines cell fate in response to mitochondrial damage, with its loss promoting early onset Parkinson's disease and potentially also cancer progression. Controlling a cell's apoptotic response is essential to co-ordinate the removal of damaged mitochondria. We report that following mitochondrial damage-induced mitophagy, Parkin directly ubiquitinates the apoptotic effector protein BAK at a conserved lysine in its hydrophobic groove, a region that is crucial for BAK activation by BH3-only proteins and its homo-dimerisation during apoptosis. Ubiquitination inhibited BAK activity by impairing its activation and the formation of lethal BAK oligomers. Parkin also suppresses BAX-mediated apoptosis, but in the absence of BAX ubiquitination suggesting an indirect mechanism. In addition, we find that BAK-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation during apoptosis promotes PINK1-dependent Parkin activation. Hence, we propose that Parkin directly inhibits BAK to suppress errant apoptosis, thereby allowing the effective clearance of damaged mitochondria, but also promotes clearance of apoptotic mitochondria to limit their potential pro-inflammatory effect.
Project description:The E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is a key effector of the removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Parkin determines cell fate in response to mitochondrial damage, with its loss promoting early onset Parkinson's disease and potentially also cancer progression. Controlling a cell's apoptotic response is essential to co-ordinate the removal of damaged mitochondria. We report that following mitochondrial damage-induced mitophagy, Parkin directly ubiquitinates the apoptotic effector protein BAK at a conserved lysine in its hydrophobic groove, a region that is crucial for BAK activation by BH3-only proteins and its homo-dimerisation during apoptosis. Ubiquitination inhibited BAK activity by impairing its activation and the formation of lethal BAK oligomers. Parkin also suppresses BAX-mediated apoptosis, but in the absence of BAX ubiquitination suggesting an indirect mechanism. In addition, we find that BAK-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation during apoptosis promotes PINK1-dependent Parkin activation. Hence, we propose that Parkin directly inhibits BAK to suppress errant apoptosis thereby allowing the effective clearance of damaged mitochondria, but also promotes clearance of apoptotic mitochondria to limit their potential pro-inflammatory effect.
Project description:Mitophagy alleviates neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia by selectively removing dysfunctional mitochondria. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is the most well-known type of mitophagy. However, little is known about the role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in ischemic tolerance induced by hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) with 8% O<sub>2</sub> against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). Hence, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HPC-mediated PINK1/Parkin-induced mitochondrial ubiquitination and promotes mitophagy, thus exerting neuroprotection in the hippocampal CA1 subregion against tGCI. We found that mitochondrial clearance was disturbed at the late phase of reperfusion after tGCI, which was reversed by HPC, as evidenced by the reduction of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 homologs (TOMM20), translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23 (TIMM23) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in CA1 after HPC. In addition, HPC further increased the ratio of LC3II/I in mitochondrial fraction and promoted the formation of mitophagosomes in CA1 neurons after tGCI. The administration of lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) intraperitoneally or mitophagy inhibitor (Mdivi-1) intracerebroventricularly abrogated HPC-induced mitochondrial turnover and neuroprotection in CA1 after tGCI. We also found that HPC activated PINK1/Parkin pathway after tGCI, as shown by the augment of mitochondrial PINK1 and Parkin and the promotion of mitochondrial ubiquitination in CA1. In addition, PINK1 or Parkin knockdown with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the activation of PINK1/Parkin pathway and hampered mitochondrial clearance and attenuated neuroprotection induced by HPC, whereas PINK1 overexpression promoted PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and ameliorated neuronal damage in CA1 after tGCI. Taken together, the new finding in this study is that HPC-induced neuroprotection against tGCI through promoting mitophagy mediated by PINK1/Parkin-dependent pathway.
Project description:Within the mitochondrial matrix, protein aggregation activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy to mitigate proteotoxicity. We explore how autophagy eliminates protein aggregates from within mitochondria and the role of mitochondrial fission in mitophagy. We show that PINK1 recruits Parkin onto mitochondrial subdomains after actinonin-induced mitochondrial proteotoxicity and that PINK1 recruits Parkin proximal to focal misfolded aggregates of the mitochondrial-localized mutant ornithine transcarbamylase (?OTC). Parkin colocalizes on polarized mitochondria harboring misfolded proteins in foci with ubiquitin, optineurin, and LC3. Although inhibiting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission suppresses the segregation of mitochondrial subdomains containing ?OTC, it does not decrease the rate of ?OTC clearance. Instead, loss of Drp1 enhances the recruitment of Parkin to fused mitochondrial networks and the rate of mitophagy as well as decreases the selectivity for ?OTC during mitophagy. These results are consistent with a new model that, instead of promoting mitophagy, fission protects healthy mitochondrial domains from elimination by unchecked PINK1-Parkin activity.