Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan, 2013-2014.
ABSTRACT: Although severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was first reported from Japan in 2013, the precise clinical features and the risk factors for SFTS have not been fully investigated in Japan. Ninety-six cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) were notified through the national surveillance system between April 2013 and September 2014 in Japan. All cases were from western Japan, and 82 cases (85%) had an onset between April and August. A retrospective observational study of the notified SFTS cases was conducted to identify the clinical features and laboratory findings during the same period. Of 96 notified cases, 49 (51%) were included in this study. Most case-patients were of advanced age (median age 78 years) and were retired or unemployed, or farmers. These case-patients had a history of outdoor activity within 2 weeks before the onset of illness. The median serum C-reactive protein concentration was slightly elevated at admission. Fungal infections such as invasive aspergilosis were found in 10% of these case-patients. Hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 of the 18 case-patients (83%) whose bone marrow samples were available. Fifteen cases were fatal, giving a case-fatality proportion of 31%. The proportion of neurological abnormalities and serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher in the fatal cases than in the nonfatal cases during hospitalization. Appearance of neurological abnormality may be useful for predicting the prognosis in SFTS patients.
Project description:We report a retrospectively identified fatal case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in South Korea from 2012. SFTS virus was isolated from the stored blood of the patient. Phylogenetic analysis revealed this isolate was closely related to SFTS virus strains from China and Japan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic in central and northeastern China. This article describes the first identified patient with SFTS and a retrospective study on SFTS in Japan. METHODS:?Virologic and pathologic examinations were performed on the patient's samples. Laboratory diagnosis of SFTS was made by isolation/genome amplification and/or the detection of anti-SFTSV immunoglobulin G antibody in sera. Physicians were alerted to the initial diagnosis and asked whether they had previously treated patients with symptoms similar to those of SFTS. RESULTS:A female patient who died in 2012 received a diagnosis of SFTS. Ten additional patients with SFTS were then retrospectively identified. All patients were aged ?50 years and lived in western Japan. Six cases were fatal. The ratio of males to females was 8:3. SFTSV was isolated from 8 patients. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all of the Japanese SFTSV isolates formed a genotype independent to those from China. Most patients showed symptoms due to hemorrhage, possibly because of disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or hemophagocytosis. CONCLUSIONS:SFTS has been endemic to Japan, and SFTSV has been circulating naturally within the country.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging life-threatening infectious disease identified in 2009. Given high case-fatality rate among patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, identification of the risk factors at acute phase associated with fatality is crucial for treatment. Therefore, we aimed to meta-analytically evaluate risk factors of fatal clinical outcome of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. 238 fatal cases and 873 non-fatal cases from 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Elder age and high viral load were significantly associated with fatal clinical outcome. Further, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome patients with fatal clinical outcome had significantly reduced level of albumin and platelet count, higher level of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspirate aminotransferase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatinine phosphokinase, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, comparing with mild patients. These disturbed parameters function as predictors to warn fatal clinical outcome of the disease. Moreover, ribavirin has a minimal impact to alleviate disease progression of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. In conclusion, our finding demonstrates a panel of factors associated with fatality of SFTS disease, which have important implications during clinical practice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was recently identified in China, South Korea and Japan. The objective of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of SFTS in South Korea.<h4>Methods/principal findings</h4>SFTS is a reportable disease in South Korea. We included all SFTS cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from January 2013 to December 2015. Clinical information was gathered by reviewing medical records, and epidemiologic characteristics were analyzed using both KCDC surveillance data and patient medical records. Risk factors for mortality in patients with SFTS were assessed. A total of 172 SFTS cases were reported during the study period. SFTS occurred throughout the country, except in urban areas. Hilly areas in the eastern and southeastern regions and Jeju island (incidence, 1.26 cases /105 person-years) were the main endemic areas. The yearly incidence increased from 36 cases in 2013 to 81 cases in 2015. Most cases occurred from May to October. The overall case fatality ratio was 32.6%. The clinical progression was similar to the 3 phases reported in China: fever, multi-organ dysfunction, and convalescence. Confusion, elevated C-reactive protein, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times were associated with mortality in patients with SFTS. Two outbreaks of nosocomial SFTS transmission were observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SFTS is an endemic disease in South Korea, with a nationwide distribution and a high case-fatality ratio. Confusion, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times were associated with mortality in patients with SFTS.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging epidemic infectious disease caused by the SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) with an estimated high case-fatality rate of 12.7% to 32.6%. Currently, the disease has been reported in mainland China, Japan, Korea, and the United States. At present, there is no specific antiviral therapy for SFTSV infection. Considering the higher mortality rate and rapid clinical progress of SFTS, supporting the appropriate treatment in time to SFTS patients is critical. Therefore, it is very important for clinicians to predict these SFTS cases who are more likely to have a poor prognosis or even more likely to decease. In the present study, we established a simple and feasible model for assessing the severity and predicting the prognosis of SFTS patients with high sensitivity and specificity. This model may aid the physicians to immediately initiate prompt treatment to block the rapid development of the illness and reduce the fatality of SFTS patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009, caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). The disease usually presents as fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with case-fatality rates ranging from 2.5% to 30%. Haemaphysalis longicornis was suspected to be the most likely vector of SFTSV. By the end of 2012, the disease had expanded to 13 provinces of China. SFTS patients have been reported in Japan and South Korea, and a disease similar to SFTS has been reported in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the epidemiologic features of 504 confirmed SFTS cases in Xinyang Region, the most severely SFTS-afflicted region in China from 2011 to 2012, and assessed the environmental risk factors. All cases occurred during March to November, with the epidemic peaking from May to July. The patients' ages ranged from 7 to 87 years (median 61 years), and the annual incidence increased with age (?2 test for trend, P<0.001). The female-to-male ratio of cases was 1.58, and 97.0% of the cases were farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region. The Poisson regression analysis revealed that the spatial variations of SFTS incidence were significantly associated with the shrub, forest, and rain-fed cropland areas. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of SFTS showed highly significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity in Xinyang Region, with the majority of SFTS cases being elderly farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region, mostly acquiring infection between May and July when H. longicornis is highly active. The shrub, rain-fed, and rain-fed cropland areas were associated with high risk for this disease.
Project description:Background:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral hemorrhagic fever in China, Korea, and Japan. Japanese spotted fever (JSF), which belongs to spotted fever group rickettsioses, is also endemic to Western Japan. Patients with SFTS and those with JSF display many of the same clinical manifestations. Sudden fever, rash, tick bite, and neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms may be seen in both infections, but the frequency and severity of each disease have not been compared and studied. Because laboratory confirmation of pathogens takes time, it is important to predict diagnosis of SFTS vs JSF based on the features of the clinical characteristics at the initial presentation, particularly in primary care settings. Methods:We conducted a case series review at 4 medical facilities in Miyazaki, Japan. Based on the medical records, clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with SFTS and those with JSF. Results:Eighty-one patients were enrolled in this study, including 41 with SFTS and 40 with JSF. The absence of rash (P?<?.001), leukopenia (P?<?.001), and normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P?<?.001) were the variables distinguishing SFTS from JSF. Normal CRP levels (?1.0 mg/dL) had a 95% sensitivity (84%-99%) and 97% specificity (87%-100%) for SFTS, with a positive likelihood ratio of 37.1 (5.35-257). Conclusions:Normal serum CRP levels were shown to differentiate SFTS from JSF with a very high probability.
Project description:Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV), with fatal outcome developed in approximately 17% of the cases. Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark feature of SFTS, and associated with a higher risk of fatal outcome, however, the pathophysiological involvement of platelet in the clinical outcome of SFTS remained under-investigated. In the current study, by retrospectively analyzing 1538 confirmed SFTS patients, we observed that thrombocytopenia was associated with enhanced activation of the cytokine network and the vascular endothelium, also with a disturbed coagulation response. The platelet phenotypes were also extensively altered in the process of thrombocytopenia development of SFTS patients. More importantly, all these disturbed host responses were related to the severity of thrombocytopenia, thus were considered to play in a synergistic way to influence the disease outcome. Moreover, the clinical effect of platelet transfusion was assessed by comparing two groups of patients with or without receiving this therapy. As a result, we observed no therapy effect in altering frequencies of fatal outcome, clinical bleeding development, or dynamic change of platelet count during the hospitalization. It's suggested that platelet supplementation alone acted a minor role in improving disease outcome, therefore new therapeutic intervention to regulate host response should be proposed. The current results revealed some evidence of interrelationship between platelet count and clinical outcome of SFTS disease from the perspective of activation of the cytokine network, the vascular endothelium, and the coagulation/fibrinolysis system. These evaluations might help to attain a better understanding of the pathogenesis and therapy choice in SFTS.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease that is caused by a novel bunyavirus, referred to as SFTS virus. During January 2011 to December 2011 we conducted a case-control study in Henan, Hubei and Shandong Provinces of China to determine the risk factors for SFTS.Case-patients were identified in hospitals and reported to provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention while being notified electronically to the National Surveillance System. Controls were randomly selected from a pool of patients admitted to the same hospital ward within one week of the inclusion of the cases. They were matched by age (+/-5 years) and gender.A total of 422 patients participated in the study including 134 cases and 288 matched controls. The median age of the cases was 58.8 years, ranging from 47.6 to 70.1 years; 54.5% were male. No differences in demographics were observed between cases and controls; however, farmers were frequent and more common among cases (88.8%) than controls (58.7%). In multivariate analysis, the odds for SFTS was 2.4?4.5 fold higher with patients who reported tick bites or presence of tick in the living area. Other independent risk factors included cat or cattle ownership and reported presence of weeds and shrubs in the working environment.Our findings support the hypothesis that ticks are important vectors of SFTS virus. Further investigations are warranted to understand the detailed modes of transmission of SFTS virus while vector management, education on tick bites prevention and personal hygiene management should be implemented for high-risk groups in high incidence areas.
Project description:To investigate nationwide severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection status, we isolated SFTSVs from patients with suspected severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in 207 hospitals throughout South Korea between 2013 and April 2017. A total of 116 SFTSVs were isolated from 3137 SFTS-suspected patients, with an overall 21.6% case fatality rate. Genetic characterization revealed that at least 6 genotypes of SFTSVs were co-circulating in South Korea, with multiple reassortments among them. Of these, the genotype B-2 strains were the most prevalent, followed by the A and F genotypes. Clinical and epidemiologic investigations revealed that genotype B strains were associated with the highest case fatality rate, while genotype A caused only one fatality among 10 patients. Further, ferret infection studies demonstrated varying clinical manifestations and case mortality rates with different strains of SFTSV, which suggests this virus could exhibit genotype-dependent pathogenicity.