Impact of the Motor and Tail Domains of Class III Myosins on Regulating the Formation and Elongation of Actin Protrusions.
ABSTRACT: Class III myosins (MYO3A and MYO3B) are proposed to function as transporters as well as length and ultrastructure regulators within stable actin-based protrusions such as stereocilia and calycal processes. MYO3A differs from MYO3B in that it contains an extended tail domain with an additional actin-binding motif. We examined how the properties of the motor and tail domains of human class III myosins impact their ability to enhance the formation and elongation of actin protrusions. Direct examination of the motor and enzymatic properties of human MYO3A and MYO3B revealed that MYO3A is a 2-fold faster motor with enhanced ATPase activity and actin affinity. A chimera in which the MYO3A tail was fused to the MYO3B motor demonstrated that motor activity correlates with formation and elongation of actin protrusions. We demonstrate that removal of individual exons (30-34) in the MYO3A tail does not prevent filopodia tip localization but abolishes the ability to enhance actin protrusion formation and elongation in COS7 cells. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that MYO3A slows filopodia dynamics and enhances filopodia lifetime in COS7 cells. We also demonstrate that MYO3A is more efficient than MYO3B at increasing formation and elongation of stable microvilli on the surface of cultured epithelial cells. We propose that the unique features of MYO3A, enhanced motor activity, and an extended tail with tail actin-binding motif, allow it to play an important role in stable actin protrusion length and ultrastructure maintenance.
Project description:Myosin IIIA (MYO3A) targets actin protrusion tips using a motility mechanism dependent on both motor and tail actin-binding activity . We show that myosin IIIB (MYO3B) lacks tail actin-binding activity and is unable to target COS7 cell filopodia tips, yet is somehow able to target stereocilia tips. Strikingly, when MYO3B is coexpressed with espin-1 (ESPN1), a MYO3A cargo protein endogenously expressed in stereocilia , MYO3B targets and carries ESPN1 to COS7 filopodia tips. We show that this tip localization is lost when we remove the ESPN1 C terminus actin-binding site. We also demonstrate that, like MYO3A , MYO3B can elongate filopodia by transporting ESPN1 to the polymerizing end of actin filaments. The mutual dependence of MYO3B and ESPN1 for tip localization reveals a novel mechanism for the cell to regulate myosin tip localization via a reciprocal relationship with cargo that directly participates in actin binding for motility. Our results are consistent with a novel form of motility for class III myosins that requires both motor and tail domain actin-binding activity and show that the actin-binding tail can be replaced by actin-binding cargo. This study also provides a framework to better understand the late-onset hearing loss phenotype in patients with MYO3A mutations.
Project description:In Drosophila photoreceptors, the NINAC-encoded myosin III is found in a complex with a small, MORN-repeat containing, protein Retinophilin (RTP). Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP. NINAC deletion constructs were used to map the RTP binding site within the proximal tail domain of NINAC. In vertebrates, the RTP ortholog is MORN4. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that human MORN4 binds to human myosin IIIA (MYO3A). In COS7 cells, MORN4 and MYO3A, but not MORN4 and MYO3B, co-localize to actin rich filopodia extensions. Deletion analysis mapped the MORN4 binding to the proximal region of the MYO3A tail domain. MYO3A dependent MORN4 tip localization suggests that MYO3A functions as a motor that transports MORN4 to the filopodia tips and MORN4 may enhance MYO3A tip localization by tethering it to the plasma membrane at the protrusion tips. These results establish conserved features of the RTP/MORN4 family: they bind within the tail domain of myosin IIIs to control their behavior.
Project description:The striped bass has two retina-expressed class III myosin genes, each composed of a kinase, motor, and tail domain. We report the cloning, sequence analysis, and expression patterns of the long (Myo3A) and short (Myo3B) class III myosins, as well as cellular localization and biochemical characterization of the long isoform, Myo3A. Myo3A (209 kDa) is expressed in the retina, brain, testis, and sacculus, and Myo3B (155 kDa) is expressed in the retina, intestine, and testis. The tails of these two isoforms contain two highly conserved domains, 3THDI and 3THDII. Whereas Myo3B has three IQ motifs, Myo3A has nine IQ motifs, four in its neck and five in its tail domain. Myo3A localizes to actin filament bundles of photoreceptors and is concentrated in the calycal processes. An anti-Myo3A antibody decorates the actin cytoskeleton of rod inner/outer segments, and this labeling is reduced by the presence of ATP. The ATP-sensitive actin association is a feature characteristic of myosin motors. The numerous IQ motifs may play a structural or signaling role in the Myo3A, and its localization to calycal processes indicates that this myosin mediates a local function at this site in vertebrate photoreceptors.
Project description:Bass Myo3A, a class III myosin, was expressed in HeLa cells as a GFP fusion in order to study its cellular localization. GFP-Myo3A localized to the cytoplasm and to the tips of F-actin bundles in filopodia, a localization that is consistent with the observed concentration toward the distal ends of F-actin bundles in photoreceptor cells. A mutation in the motor active site resulted in a loss of filopodia localization, suggesting that Myo3A motor activity is required for filopodial tip localization. Deletion analyses showed that the NH2-terminal kinase domain is not required but the CO2H-terminal 22 amino acids of the Myo3A tail are required for filopodial localization. Expression of this tail fragment alone produced fluorescence associated with F-actin throughout the cytoplasm and filopodia and a recombinant tail fragment bound to F-actin in vitro. An actin-binding motif was identified within this tail fragment, and a mutation within this motif abolished both filopodia localization by Myo3A and F-actin binding by the tail fragment alone. Calmodulin localized to filopodial tips when coexpressed with Myo3A but not in the absence of Myo3A, an observation consistent with the previous proposal that class III myosins bind calmodulin and thereby localize it in certain cell types.
Project description:The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping.
Project description:Hair cells tightly control the dimensions of their stereocilia, which are actin-rich protrusions with graded heights that mediate mechanotransduction in the inner ear. Two members of the myosin-III family, MYO3A and MYO3B, are thought to regulate stereocilia length by transporting cargos that control actin polymerization at stereocilia tips. We show that eliminating espin-1 (ESPN-1), an isoform of ESPN and a myosin-III cargo, dramatically alters the slope of the stereocilia staircase in a subset of hair cells. Furthermore, we show that espin-like (ESPNL), primarily present in developing stereocilia, is also a myosin-III cargo and is essential for normal hearing. ESPN-1 and ESPNL each bind MYO3A and MYO3B, but differentially influence how the two motors function. Consequently, functional properties of different motor-cargo combinations differentially affect molecular transport and the length of actin protrusions. This mechanism is used by hair cells to establish the required range of stereocilia lengths within a single cell.
Project description:Whole-exome sequencing of samples from affected members of two unrelated families with late-onset non-syndromic hearing loss revealed a novel mutation (c.2090?T?>?G; NM_017433) in MYO3A. The mutation was confirmed in 36 affected individuals, showing autosomal dominant inheritance. The mutation alters a single residue (L697W or p.Leu697Trp) in the motor domain of the stereocilia protein MYO3A, leading to a reduction in ATPase activity, motility, and an increase in actin affinity. MYO3A-L697W showed reduced filopodial actin protrusion initiation in COS7 cells, and a predominant tipward accumulation at filopodia and stereocilia when coexpressed with wild-type MYO3A and espin-1, an actin-regulatory MYO3A cargo. The combined higher actin affinity and duty ratio of the mutant myosin cause increased retention time at stereocilia tips, resulting in the displacement of the wild-type MYO3A protein, which may impact cargo transport, stereocilia length, and mechanotransduction. The dominant negative effect of the altered myosin function explains the dominant inheritance of deafness.
Project description:Class III myosins are important for the function and survival of photoreceptors and ciliary hair cells. Although vertebrates possess two class III myosin genes, myo3A and myo3B, recent studies have focused on Myo3A because mutations in the human gene are implicated in progressive hearing loss. Myo3B may compensate for defects in Myo3A, yet little is known about its distribution and function. This study focuses on Myo3B expression in the mouse retina. We cloned two variants of myo3B from mouse retina and determined that they are expressed early in retinal development. In this study we show for the first time in a mammal that both Myo3B and Myo3A proteins are present in inner segments of all photoreceptors. Myo3B is also present in outer segments of S opsin-immunoreactive cones but not M opsin dominant cones. Myo3B is also detected in rare cells of the inner nuclear layer and some ganglion cells. Myo3B may have diverse roles in retinal neurons. In photoreceptor inner segments Myo3B is positioned appropriately to prevent photoreceptor loss of function caused by Myo3A defects.
Project description:Two proteins implicated in inherited deafness, myosin IIIa, a plus-end-directed motor, and espin, an actin-bundling protein containing the actin-monomer-binding motif WH2, have been shown to influence the length of mechanosensory stereocilia. Here we report that espin 1, an ankyrin repeat-containing isoform of espin, colocalizes with myosin IIIa at stereocilia tips and interacts with a unique conserved domain of myosin IIIa. We show that combined overexpression of these proteins causes greater elongation of stereocilia, compared with overexpression of either myosin IIIa alone or espin 1 alone. When these two proteins were co-expressed in the fibroblast-like COS-7 cell line they induced a tenfold elongation of filopodia. This extraordinary filopodia elongation results from the transport of espin 1 to the plus ends of F-actin by myosin IIIa and depends on espin 1 WH2 activity. This study provides the basis for understanding the role of myosin IIIa and espin 1 in regulating stereocilia length, and presents a physiological example where myosins can boost elongation of actin protrusions by transporting actin regulatory factors to the plus ends of actin filaments.
Project description:Hereditary hearing loss (HL) is characterized by both allelic and locus genetic heterogeneity. Both recessive and dominant forms of HL may be caused by different mutations in the same deafness gene. In a family with post-lingual progressive non-syndromic deafness, whole-exome sequencing of genomic DNA from five hearing-impaired relatives revealed a single variant, p.Gly488Glu (rs145970949:G>A) in MYO3A, co-segregating with HL as an autosomal dominant trait. This amino acid change, predicted to be pathogenic, alters a highly conserved residue in the motor domain of MYO3A. The mutation severely alters the ATPase activity and motility of the protein in vitro, and the mutant protein fails to accumulate in the filopodia tips in COS7 cells. However, the mutant MYO3A was able to reach the tips of organotypic inner ear culture hair cell stereocilia, raising the possibility of a local effect on positioning of the mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) complex at the stereocilia tips. To address this hypothesis, we investigated the interaction of MYO3A with the cytosolic tail of the integral tip-link protein protocadherin 15 (PCDH15), a core component of MET complex. Interestingly, we uncovered a novel interaction between MYO3A and PCDH15 shedding new light on the function of myosin IIIA at stereocilia tips.