TR4 nuclear receptor enhances the cisplatin chemo-sensitivity via altering the ATF3 expression to better suppress HCC cell growth.
ABSTRACT: Early studies indicated that TR4 nuclear receptor (TR4) may play a key role to modulate the prostate cancer progression, its potential linkage to liver cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Here we found that higher TR4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells might enhance the efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy to better suppress the HCC progression. Knocking down TR4 with TR4-siRNA in HCC Huh7 and Hep3B cells increased cisplatin chemotherapy resistance and overexpression of TR4 with TR4-cDNA in HCC LM3 and SNU387 cells increased cisplatin chemotherapy sensitivity. Mechanism dissection found that TR4 might function through altering the ATF3 expression at the transcriptional level to enhance the cisplatin chemotherapy sensitivity, and interrupting ATF3 expression via ATF3-siRNA reversed TR4-enhanced cisplatin chemotherapy sensitivity in HCC cells. The in vivo HCC mouse model using xenografted HCC LM3 cells also confirmed in vitro cell lines data showing TR4 enhanced the cisplatin chemotherapy sensitivity. Together, these results provided a new potential therapeutic approach via altering the TR4-ATF3 signals to increase the efficacy of cisplatin to better suppress the HCC progression.
Project description:Early studies indicated that testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) could function as a suppressor in the transcriptional regulation of the HBV core gene expression, which might then influence the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The direct linkage between TR4 and HCC progression, however, remained unclear. Here, via a human clinical sample survey, we found that 13 of the 18 HCC patients studied had lower TR4 expression in metastatic lesions than in matched primary HCC lesions, suggesting that TR4 may play a negative role in HCC metastasis. Results from in vitro cell migration/invasion studied confirmed that TR4 could suppress HCC cell migration/invasion. Mechanism dissection revealed that TR4 might function through downregulating ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) expression at the transcriptional level via direct binding to the TR4REs located on the 5' promoter of EphA2 to suppress HCC cell migration/invasion. Targeting the EphA2 via EphA2-siRNA partially reversed the enhanced HCC cell migration/invasion with confirmed TR4 knockdown. Notably, results from preclinical studies using in vivo mouse model with orthotopic xenograft of HCC LM3 cells also confirmed the in vitro findings. Taking these findings together, preclinical studies using multiple in vitro HCC cell lines and an in vivo mouse model all led to the conclusion that TR4 may function as a suppressor of HCC metastasis and that targeting this newly identified TR4-EphA2 signaling may improve our ability to suppress HCC metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of TMEM176A in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. This study explored the epigenetic regulation and function of TMEM176A in human HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twelve HCC cell lines and 126 cases of primary cancer were analyzed. Methylation-specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and xenograft mouse models were employed. RESULTS:TMEM176A was highly expressed in SNU387, SNU182, Huh1, and SNU475 cells; reduced expression was observed in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells; and no expression was found in SNU449, HBXF344, SMMC7721, Huh7, and LM3 cells. Unmethylation of the TMEM176A promoter was detected in SNU387, SNU182, Huh1, and SNU475 cells; partial methylation was observed in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells; and complete methylation was found in SNU449, HBXF344, SMMC7721, Huh7, and LM3 cells. Upon treatment with 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine, re-expression of TMEM176A was detected in SNU449, HBXF344, SMMC7721, Huh7, and LM3 cells; increased expression of TMEM176A was observed in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells; and no expression changes were found in SNU387, SNU182, Huh1, and SNU475 cells. The TMEM176A promoter region was methylated in 75.4% (95/126) of primary human HCC. Reduced expression of TMEM176A was associated with promoter region methylation (P?<?0.05). No association was found between TMEM176A promoter methylation and age, gender, HBV infection, liver cirrhosis, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, vessel cancerous embolus, number of lesions, and TNM stage (all P?>?0.05). These results demonstrated that the expression of TMEM176A is regulated by promoter region methylation. Methylation of the TMEM176A promoter was significantly associated with tumor cell differentiation (P?<?0.05) and was an independent prognostic factor for poor 3-year overall survival (OS, P <?0.05). TMEM176A expression induced cell apoptosis; inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; suppressed human HCC cell xenograft growth in mice; and inhibited ERK signaling in HCC cells. CONCLUSION:The promoter region of TMEM176A is frequently methylated in human HCC, and the expression of TMEM176A is regulated by promoter region methylation. Methylation of the TMEM176A promoter may serve as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in HCC. TMEM176A suppresses HCC growth by inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Dysregulation of HomeoboxD10 (HOXD10) was found to suppress or promote cancer progression in different cancer types. The function and regulation of HOXD10 remain unclear in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Primary HCC samples (117), normal liver tissue samples (15), and 13 HCC cell lines (SNU182, SNU449, HBXF344, SMMC7721, Huh7, HepG2, LM3, PLC/PRF/5, BEL7402, SNU387, SNU475, QGY7703, and Huh1) were included in this study. Methylation-specific PCR, flow cytometry, western blot, transwell, siRNA, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed.HOXD10 was methylated in 76.9% (90/117) of human primary HCC samples. HOXD10 methylation was significantly associated with vessel cancerous embolus, tumor cell differentiation, and the 3-year overall survival rate (all P < 0.05). The expression of HOXD10 was regulated by promoter region methylation. HOXD10 suppressed colony formation, cell proliferation, cell invasion and migration, and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells. HOXD10 suppressed HCC cell xenograft growth in mice. HOXD10 suppresses HCC growth by inhibiting ERK signaling.HOXD10 is frequently methylated in human HCC, and the expression of HOXD10 is regulated by promoter region methylation. HOXD10 suppresses HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. HOXD10 suppresses human HCC by inhibiting ERK signaling.
Project description:The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of cisplatin on the efficacy of natural killer (NK) cells immunotherapy to suppress HCC progression, and provide valuable information on better application of cisplatin in clinical settings. By using in vitro cell cytotoxicity test and in vivo liver orthotopic xenograft mice model, we identified the role of cisplatin in modulating NK cells cytotoxicity. Luciferase report assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were applied for mechanism dissection. Immunohistochemistry is performed for sample staining. We found cisplatin could enhance the efficacy of NK cells immunotherapy to better suppress HCC progression via altering the androgen receptor (AR)-UL16-binding protein 2 (ULBP2) signals both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism dissection revealed that cisplatin could suppress AR expression via two distinct ways: increasing miR-34a-5p to suppress AR expression and altering the ubiquitination to accelerate the AR protein degradation. The suppressed AR might then function through up-regulating ULBP2, a natural-killer group 2 member D ligand, to enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells. Together, these results indicated an unrecognized favoring effect of cisplatin in HCC treatment. By suppressing AR in HCC, cisplatin could up-regulate cytotoxicity of NK cells to better target HCC. This finding may provide a potential new approach to control HCC by combining traditional chemotherapy with immunotherapy.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in America, and there are no curative options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Docetaxel (DTX) has been used as a standard chemotherapy for the mCRPC. However, resistance to DTX is a significant clinical problem as half of patients fail to respond to therapy. The TR4 nuclear receptor has been reported to play an important role in PCa progression, however, its linkage to the DTX resistance remains unclear. Here we found that TR4 was upregulated after DTX chemotherapy in the mCRPC cells and patients, and TR4 expression is correlated with DTX sensitivity with a higher level conferring chemo-resistance. Targeting TR4 with an antagonist bexarotene (Bex, a derivative of retinoid) suppressed the TR4 transactivation with increased DTX chemo-sensitivity. Mechanism dissection studies revealed that TR4 might alter the DTX chemo-sensitivity via modulating the TR4/lincRNA-p21/HIF-1?/VEGF-A signaling. Together, these results suggest that targeting this newly identified TR4/lincRNA-p21/HIF-1?/VEGF-A signaling with Bex, an FDA-approved drug, may increase the DTX chemo-sensitivity to better suppress the mCRPC progression.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urological tumors. Using sunitinib to improve the survival has become the first-line therapy for metastatic RCC patients. However, the occurrence of sunitinib resistance in the clinical application has curtailed its efficacy. Here we found TR4 nuclear receptor might alter the sunitinib resistance to RCC via altering the TR4/lncTASR/AXL signaling. Mechanism dissection revealed that TR4 could modulate lncTASR (ENST00000600671.1) expression via transcriptional regulation, which might then increase AXL protein expression via enhancing the stability of AXL mRNA to increase the sunitinib resistance in RCC. Human clinical surveys also linked the expression of TR4, lncTASR, and AXL to the RCC survival, and results from multiple RCC cell lines revealed that targeting this newly identified TR4-mediated signaling with small molecules, including tretinoin, metformin, or TR4-shRNAs, all led to increase the sunitinib sensitivity to better suppress the RCC progression, and our preclinical study using the in vivo mouse model further proved tretinoin had a better synergistic effect to increase sunitinib sensitivity to suppress RCC progression. Future successful clinical trials may help in the development of a novel therapy to better suppress the RCC progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common primary malignant tumor which usually progresses to an advanced stage because of late diagnosis. Sorafenib (Sora) is a first line medicine for advanced stage HCC; however, it has been faced with enormous resistance. Simvastatin (Sim) is a cholesterol-lowering drug and has been reported to inhibit tumor growth. The present study aims to determine whether Sora and Sim co-treatment can improve Sora resistance in HCC. METHODS:The HCC cell line LM3 and an established Sora-resistant LM3 cell line (LM3-SR) were used to study the relationship between Sora resistance and aerobic glycolysis. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and glycolysis levels were analyzed by western blotting, flow cytometry analysis and biomedical tests. A xenograft model was also used to examine the effect of Sim in vivo. Detailed mechanistic studies were also undertaken by the use of activators and inhibitors, and lentivirus transfections. RESULTS:Our results demonstrated that the resistance to Sora was associated with enhanced aerobic glycolysis levels. Furthermore, LM3-SR cells were more sensitive to Sim than LM3 cells, suggesting that combined treatment with both Sora and Sim could enhance the sensitivity of LM3-SR cells to Sora. This finding may be due to the suppression of the HIF-1?/PPAR-?/PKM2 axis. CONCLUSIONS:Simvastatin can inhibit the HIF-1?/PPAR-?/PKM2 axis, by suppressing PKM2-mediated glycolysis, resulting in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in HCC cells, and re-sensitizing HCC cells to Sora.
Project description:Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapy drugs and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cervical cancer, but its therapeutic benefit is limited by the development of resistance. Our previous studies demonstrated that BCAT1 promoted cell proliferation and decreased cisplatin sensitivity in HCC cells. However, the exact role and mechanism of how BCAT1 is involved in cisplatin cytotoxicity remain undefined. In this study, we revealed that cisplatin triggered autophagy in cancer cells, with an increase in BCAT1 expression. The cisplatin-induced up-regulation of BCAT1 decreased the cisplatin sensitivity by regulating autophagy through the mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, branched-chain amino acids or leucine treatment inhibited cisplatin- or BCAT1-mediated autophagy and increased cisplatin sensitivity by activating mTOR signaling in cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine increased cisplatin sensitivity in vivo. Also, the knockdown of BCAT1 or the administration of leucine activated mTOR signaling, inhibited autophagy, and increased cisplatin sensitivity in cancer cells in vivo. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism, revealing that BCAT1 decreases cisplatin sensitivity in cancer cells by inducing mTOR-mediated autophagy via branched-chain amino acid leucine metabolism, providing an attractive pharmacological target to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.
Project description:Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths, with platin-based combination chemotherapy the most efficacious therapies. Gains in overall survival are modest, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches including the development of next-generation platin combination regimens. The goal of this study was to identify novel regulators of platin-induced cytotoxicity as potential therapeutic targets to further enhance platin cytotoxicity. Employing RNA-seq transcriptome analysis comparing two parental NSCLC cell lines Calu6 and H23 to their cisplatin-resistant sublines, Calu6cisR1 and H23cisR1, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was robustly induced in cisplatin-treated parental sensitive cell lines but not their resistant sublines, and in three of six tumors evaluated, but not in their corresponding normal adjacent lung tissue (0/6). Cisplatin-induced JNK activation was a key regulator of this ATF3 induction. Interestingly, in both resistant sublines, this JNK induction was abrogated, and the expression of an activated JNK construct in these cells enhanced both cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and ATF3 induction. An FDA-approved drug compound screen was employed to identify enhancers of cisplatin cytotoxicity that were dependent on ATF3 gene expression. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was identified in this screen and demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity with cisplatin in both the parental Calu6 and H23 cell lines and importantly in their resistant sublines as well that was dependent on ATF3 expression. Thus, we have identified ATF3 as an important regulator of cisplatin cytotoxicity and that ATF3 inducers in combination with platins are a potential novel therapeutic approach for NSCLC.
Project description:Chemoresistance is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The gene encoding transmembrane protein 47 (TMEM47) was previously identified to be significantly upregulated in HCC cell lines with acquired chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to characterize the clinical significance and function of TMEM47 in HCC chemoresistance. The results demonstrated that the TMEM47 expression levels in the tumors of patients not responding to cisplatin?based transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment was significantly higher compared with those in patients who responded to TACE treatment. Moreover, analyses from clinical samples and HCC cell lines indicated that TMEM47 expression may be upregulated in HCC in response to cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, the TMEM47 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with the degree of cisplatin resistance of HCC cells. Overexpression of TMEM47 in HCC cells significantly promoted cisplatin resistance. The present study also demonstrated that targeted inhibition of TMEM47 could significantly reduce cisplatin resistance of cisplatin?resistant HCC cells via enhancing caspase?mediated apoptosis. In addition, targeted inhibition of TMEM47 enhanced the sensitivity of cisplatin?resistant cells to cisplatin via suppressing cisplatin?induced activation of the genes involved in drug efflux and metabolism. The present study also validated that TMEM47 expression was significantly correlated with multidrug resistance?associated protein 1 in patients with HCC who received TACE treatment. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that TMEM47 may be a useful biomarker for predicting the response to chemotherapy and a potential therapeutic target for overcoming HCC chemoresistance.