Thalidomide enhanced the efficacy of CHOP chemotherapy in the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma: A phase II study.
ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone plus rituximab (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, rituximab cannot be popularly applied in a considerable number of patients with DLBCL because of economic reasons. To develop a new regimen to improve the outcome of these patients is extremely important. In our study, sixty five patients with DLBCL were randomly assigned to thalidomide plus CHOP group (n=32) or to CHOP alone group (n=33). Objective response rates (ORR) and complete remission rates (CRR) were 96.7% and 80.6% in T-CHOP group versus 78.9 % and 57.8 % in CHOP group, respectively (P <0.05). At a median follow-up of 96 months, median PFS for T-CHOP group was still not reached yet, and in CHOP group it was 22.9 months (95% CI [0-50.4]). (P=0.163). Median overall survival (OS) for T-CHOP group was also not reached, and the estimated median OS for CHOP group was 83.5 months, the difference of OS between the two groups is not significant (p=0.263). But, in patients with Bcl-2 positive and Bcl-6 negative, the median PFS in T-CHOP group was longer than that in CHOP group (111.0 vs 8.5 months (P=0.017). In addition, thalidomide did not significantly increase the grade 3/4 toxicity of CHOP. We concluded that the addition of thalidomide to the CHOP regimen significantly improved the CRR and showed a trend of improving clinical outcome in patients with DLBCL, especially for patients with Bcl-2 positive and Bcl-6 negative B-cell phenotype, without increased toxicity.
Project description:LESSONS LEARNED:The combination of ofatumumab and bendamustine in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrated modest efficacy compared with standard of care.The poor response may have been due to patient age and the high rate of treatment discontinuation. BACKGROUND:This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of bendamustine and ofatumumab in elderly patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who were not candidates for rituximab cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). METHODS:Patients received IV 90 mg/m2 bendamustine on days 1 and 2 of cycles 1 through 6 and IV 1,000 mg ofatumumab on days 1 and 8 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of cycles 2 through 6. Both drugs were administered at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved dose for combination therapy. All patients received premedications before each infusion of ofatumumab and hematopoietic growth factors. Treatment was administered in 21-day cycles, with restaging after cycle 3 and cycle 6. The primary endpoint was complete response rate (CRR). RESULTS:Twelve of 21 enrolled patients completed treatment; median age was 83 years. The most common reasons for treatment discontinuation were disease progression (three patients), intercurrent illness (two patients), and death (one patient due to drug-related sepsis and bowel necrosis and one patient due to unknown cause). Thrombocytopenia (14%), neutropenia (10%), diarrhea (10%), vomiting (10%), and dehydration (10%) were the most common grade ?3 treatment-related adverse events. The overall response rate was 90.5% and the CRR was 33.3%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.6 and 12.0 months, respectively. CONCLUSION:The combination of ofatumumab and bendamustine is feasible in elderly patients with DLBCL.
Project description:CD5 is a pan-T-cell surface marker and is rarely expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Large-scale studies of de novo CD5+ DLBCL are lacking in Western countries. In this study by the DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium, CD5 was expressed in 5.5% of 879 DLBCL patients from Western countries. CD5+ DLBCL was associated with higher frequencies of >1 ECOG performance status, bone marrow involvement, central nervous system relapse, activated B-cell-like subtype, Bcl-2 overexpression, and STAT3 and NF-?B activation, whereas rarely expressed single-stranded DNA-binding protein 2 (SSBP2), CD30 or had MYC mutations. With standard R-CHOP chemotherapy, CD5+ DLBCL patients had significantly worse overall survival (median, 25.3 months vs. not reached, P< .0001) and progression-free survival (median, 21.3 vs. 85.8 months, P< .0001) than CD5- DLBCL patients, which was independent of Bcl-2, STAT3, NF-?B and the International Prognostic Index. Interestingly, SSBP2 expression abolished the prognostic significance of CD5 expression, suggesting a tumor-suppressor role of SSBP2 for CD5 signaling. Gene-expression profiling demonstrated that B-cell receptor signaling dysfunction and microenvironment alterations are the important mechanisms underlying the clinical impact of CD5 expression. This study shows the distinctive clinical and biological features of CD5+ DLBCL patients in Western countries and underscores important pathways with therapeutic implications.
Project description:The phase 2 CAVALLI (NCT02055820) study assessed efficacy and safety of venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) inhibitor, with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in first-line (1L) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), including patients demonstrating Bcl-2 protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry (Bcl-2 IHC+). Eligible patients were ?18 years of age and had previously untreated DLBCL, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ?2, and International Prognostic Index 2 to 5. Venetoclax 800 mg (days 4-10, cycle 1; days 1-10, cycles 2-8) was administered with rituximab (8 cycles) and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (6-8 cycles) in 21-day cycles. Primary end points were safety, tolerability, and research_plete response (CR) at end of treatment (EOT). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Comparative analyses used covariate-adjusted R-CHOP controls from the GOYA/BO21005 study, an appropriate contemporary benchmark for safety and efficacy. Safety and efficacy analyses included 206 patients. CR rate at EOT was 69% in the overall population and was maintained across Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups. With a median follow-up of 32.2 months, trends were observed for improved investigator-assessed PFS for venetoclax plus R-CHOP in the overall population (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.87) and Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89) vs R-CHOP. Despite a higher incidence of grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events (86%), related mortality was not increased (2%). Chemotherapy dose intensity was similar in CAVALLI vs GOYA. The addition of venetoclax to R-CHOP in 1L DLBCL demonstrates increased, but manageable, myelosuppression and the potential of improved efficacy, particularly in high-risk Bcl-2 IHC+ patient subgroups.
Project description:Approximately 60% of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) are curable with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy. Epratuzumab (E) is an unlabeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed DLBCL. This phase 2 trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining E with R-CHOP (ER-CHOP) in untreated DLBCL. A secondary aim was to assess the efficacy of interim positron emission tomography (PET) to predict outcome in DLBCL. Standard R-CHOP with the addition of E 360 mg/m(2) intravenously was administered for 6 cycles. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. Toxicity was similar to standard R-CHOP. Overall response rate in the 81 eligible patients was 96% (74% CR/CRu) by computed tomography scan and 88% by PET. By intention to treat analysis, at a median follow-up of 43 months, the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in all 107 patients were 70% and 80%, respectively. Interim PET was not associated with EFS or OS. Comparison with a cohort of 215 patients who were treated with R-CHOP showed an improved EFS in the ER-CHOP patients. ER-CHOP is well tolerated and results appear promising as a combination therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00301821.
Project description:PURPOSE:Rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone administered every 3 weeks (R-CHOP-21) is the standard care for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is unknown whether the dose-dense R-CHOP (R-CHOP-14) could improve the outcome of the disease in Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were centrally, randomly assigned (1:1) to receive R-CHOP- 14 or R-CHOP-21. R-CHOP-14 was administered every 2 weeks, and R-CHOP-21 was administered every 3 weeks. Primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate and toxicities. RESULTS:Seven hundred and two patients were randomly assigned to receive R-CHOP-14 (n=349) or R-CHOP-21 (n=353). With a median follow-up of 45.6 months, the two groups did not differ significantly in 3-year DFS (79.6% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 83.2% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.311), 3-year OS (77.5% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 77.6% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.903), or 3-year PFS (63.2% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 66.1% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.447). Patients with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ? 2 had a poorer prognosis compared to those with an IPI score < 2. Grade 3/4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were manageable and similar between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21. CONCLUSION:R-CHOP-14 did not improve the outcome of DLBCL compared to R-CHOP-21 in Asian population. With manageable and similar toxicities, both of the two regimens were suitable for Asian DLBCL patients. For high-risk patients with IPI ? 2, new combination regimens based on R-CHOP deserve further investigation to improve efficacy.
Project description:Background:There is an on-going debate whether 2- or 3-weekly administration of R-CHOP is the preferred first-line treatment for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 randomized phase 3 trial did not demonstrate a difference in outcomes between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21 in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients aged 19-88 years, but data on elderly patients have not been reported in detail so far. Here, we provide a subgroup analysis of patients??60 years treated on the R-CHOP14v21 trial with extended follow-up. Patients and methods:Six hundred and four R-CHOP14v21 patients??60 years were included in this subgroup analysis, with a median follow-up of 77.7?months. To assess the impact of MYC rearrangements (MYC-R) and double-hit-lymphoma (DHL) on outcome in elderly patients, we performed a joint analysis of cases with available molecular data from the R-CHOP14v21 (N?=?217) and RICOVER-60 (N?=?204) trials. Results:Elderly DLBCL patients received high dose intensities with median total doses of??98% for all agents. Toxicities were similar in both arms with the exception of more grade??3 neutropenia (P?<?0.0001) and fewer grade??3 thrombocytopenia (P?=?0.05) in R-CHOP-21 versus R-CHOP-14. The elderly patient population had a favorable 5-year overall survival (OS) of 69% (95% CI: 65-73). We did not identify any subgroup of patients that showed differential response to either regimen. In multivariable analysis including individual factors of the IPI, gender, bulk, B2M and albumin levels, only age and B2M were of independent prognostic significance for OS. Molecular analyses demonstrated a significant impact of MYC-R (HR?=?1.96; 95% CI: 1.22-3.16; P?=?0.01) and DHL (HR?=?2.21; 95% CI: 1.18-4.11; P?=?0.01) on OS in the combined trial cohorts, independent of other prognostic factors. Conclusions:Our data support equivalence of both R-CHOP application forms in elderly DLBCL patients. Elderly MYC-R and DHL patients have inferior prognosis and should be considered for alternative treatment approaches. Trial numbers:ISCRTN 16017947 (R-CHOP14v21); NCT00052936 (RICOVER-60).
Project description:Expression of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) strongly correlates with resistance to standard therapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone, and rituximab (R-CHOP). Although studies focus mainly on the contribution of BCL-2, here we also investigate the contribution of other anti-apoptotic proteins to CHOP-therapy resistance in DLBCL. Functional dynamic BCL-2 homology (BH)3 profiling was applied to DLBCL cell lines upon CHOP treatment or single CHOP compounds. Cell-specific anti-apoptotic dependencies were validated with corresponding BH3-mimetics. We found high expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2, MCL-1, and BCL-XL in DLBCL cell lines and patients. CHOP treatment resulted in both enhanced and altered anti-apoptotic dependency. Enhanced sensitivity to different BH3-mimetics after CHOP treatment was confirmed in specific cell lines, indicating heterogeneity of CHOP-induced resistance in DLBCL. Analysis of single CHOP compounds demonstrated that similar changes could also be induced by doxorubicin or vincristine, providing evidence for clinical combination therapies of doxorubicin or vincristine with BH3-mimetics in DLBCL. In conclusion, we show for the first time that CHOP treatment induces increased anti-apoptotic dependency on MCL-1 and BCL-XL, and not just BCL-2. These results provide new perspectives for the treatment of CHOP-resistant DLBCL and underline the potential of BH3 profiling in predicting therapy outcomes.
Project description:Background:The standard frontline therapy for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is R-CHOP. However, patients older than 80?years are excluded from clinical trials. The importance of rituximab and anthracycline remains unknown in extremely elderly DLBCL patients. Here, we incorporated data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database (TCRD), National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), and National Death Registry to evaluate the clinical benefits of rituximab and anthracycline in elderly patients. From the TCRD and NHIRD, we included DLBCL patients aged older than 60?years who received R-CHOP, R-CVP, CHOP, or CVP between 2010 and 2015. Results:Of the 3228 eligible patients, 2559 were between 60 and 79?years (the 60-79 group), and 669 were older than 80?years (the 80+ group). The proportions of patients in the different Ann Arbor stages and the practice settings were similar in both groups. The male-to-female ratio and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores in the 80+ group were higher than those in the 60-79 group. Patients in the 60-79 group received R-CHOP more frequently than those in the 80+ group. In the 60-79 group, the median age of the patients receiving R-CVP or CVP was older than those receiving R-CHOP or CHOP. In the analysis of overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF), R-CHOP, female sex, younger age, lower Ann Arbor stage, lower CCI score, and care at a medical center predicted a favorable prognosis in the 60-79 group. However, only R-CHOP, younger age, and lower Ann Arbor stage remained independent favorable prognostic factors in the 80+ group. Conclusions:Our population-based study demonstrated the clinical benefits of rituximab and anthracycline in extremely elderly Asian patients with DLBCL.
Project description:PURPOSE:Utility of combined-modality therapy for patients with limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was shown in the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) S8736 study, where three cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) plus radiotherapy (CHOP3RT) improved 5-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with eight cycles of CHOP (CHOP8). Subsequent analysis showed an unexpected overlap of the PFS curves. We aimed to confirm and investigate this observation by performing long-term analysis of SWOG S8736 and evaluating these data alongside data from similar patients receiving rituximab and CHOP3RT (SWOG S0014 study). PATIENTS AND METHODS:A subset of patients with limited-stage DLBCL randomly assigned to CHOP8 (n = 150) or CHOP3RT (n = 158) in S8736 was analyzed along with a 56-patient subset treated in S0014 for long-term PFS and OS. RESULTS:Median follow-up in S8736 was 17.7 years. In patients receiving CHOP8 and CHOP3RT, median PFS was 12.0 (95% CI, 8.8 to 14.3) and 11.1 years (95% CI, 8.9 to 14.4), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in PFS between the groups (P = .73). Median OS was 13.0 (95% CI, 10.4 to 15.2) and 13.7 years (95% CI, 11.1 to 19.4) for patients treated with CHOP8 and CHOP3RT, respectively. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in OS between the groups (P = .38). With a median follow-up time 12 years in S0014, 5- and 10-year OS were 82% and 67%, respectively, with a persistent pattern of relapse despite the addition of rituximab. CONCLUSION:Although 5-year PFS and OS were improved after early analysis in patients with limited-stage DLBCL receiving CHOP3RT versus CHOP8, extended survival data showed similar PFS and OS, with continuous treatment failure. The addition of rituximab (S0014) to combined-modality therapy did not mitigate the continued relapse risk, underscoring the value of prolonged clinical trial patient observation and possible unique biology of limited-stage DLBCL.
Project description:We conducted a prospective randomized phase II study to evaluate two chemotherapy regimens: (i) rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (R-HCVAD) alternating with rituximab, high-dose methotrexate, and cytarabine (R-MA) and (ii) rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This study randomized patients aged ?60 years with DLBCL and an age-adjusted international prognostic index ?2 to R-HCVAD/R-MA or R-CHOP based on a Bayesian adaptive algorithm. Interim analysis of the first 26 eligible patients showed that the complete response rate (CRR) was higher with R-HCVAD/R-MA than R-CHOP (P = 0·03); thus, R-CHOP arm was closed. In the final analysis, 49 and 10 eligible patients were treated in R-HCVAD/R-MA and R-CHOP arms respectively; CRR were 82% and 60% respectively (P = 0·13); 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 75·7% and 77·8% respectively (P = 0·53). In the R-HCVAD/R-MA arm, 3-year PFS rates in patients aged 46-60 years and ?45 years were 70·3% and 87·1% respectively (P = 0·13), and the treatment-associated early mortality rate in patients >45 years was 12%. In conclusion, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with excellent outcome in patients ?45 years old. However, in patients >45 years old, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with unacceptable mortality rates.