Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in the General Population in Northeast Germany: Results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND-0).
ABSTRACT: Population-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. We examined the prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of S. aureus in the general population in Northeast Germany. Nasal swabs were obtained from 3,891 adults in the large-scale population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND). Isolates were characterized using spa genotyping, as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiling. We observed an S. aureus prevalence of 27.2%. Nasal S. aureus carriage was associated with male sex and inversely correlated with age. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 0.95% of the colonizing S. aureus strains. MRSA carriage was associated with frequent visits to hospitals, nursing homes, or retirement homes within the previous 24 months. All MRSA strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most MRSA isolates belonged to the pandemic European hospital-acquired MRSA sequence type 22 (HA-MRSA-ST22) lineage. We also detected one livestock-associated MRSA ST398 (LA-MRSA-ST398) isolate, as well as six livestock-associated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (LA-MSSA) isolates (clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC97, and CC398). spa typing revealed a diverse but also highly clonal S. aureus population structure. We identified a total of 357 spa types, which were grouped into 30 CCs or sequence types. The major seven CCs (CC30, CC45, CC15, CC8, CC7, CC22, and CC25) included 75% of all isolates. Virulence gene patterns were strongly linked to the clonal background. In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA prevalences and the molecular diversity of S. aureus in Northeast Germany are consistent with those of other European countries. The detection of HA-MRSA and LA-MRSA within the general population indicates possible transmission from hospitals and livestock, respectively, and should be closely monitored.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) attributed to clonal complex (CC) 398 and exhibiting spa-type t571 received attention in Europe and in the USA for being associated with severe infections in humans. As this spa-type is exhibited by livestock-associated (LA) Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well, it is important to discriminate LA- and human-derived strains by easy to perform, PCR-based methods. MSSA t571 contain phage int3 carrying scn and chp, whereas LA-MRSA t571 lack these markers. In contrast, pathogenicity island SaPIbov5 (detected by PCR bridging vwbbov and scn) is contained by LA-MRSA t571 and absent in the human MSSA subpopulation. Furthermore, MSSA t571 contain erm(T), the particular genomic arrangement of which was assessed by a PCR bridging erm(T) and the adjacent transposase gene. MSSA t571 are rare so far in Germany among isolates from infections in humans (0.14%) as well as among isolates from nasal colonization (0.13%). LA-MRSA t571 are also infrequent among MRSA isolated from carriage at admission to hospitals (0.1%) and also among isolates from infections in humans (0.013%).
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST)398 is a livestock associated (LA) lineage with zoonotic potential, especially in humans with live pig contact. The objective of this study was to characterize two S. aureus strains of lineage ST398 (one methicillin-resistant (MRSA), one methicillin-susceptible (MSSA)) isolated from the same nasal sample of a patient admitted in the Intensive-Care Unit of a Spanish Hospital, and with previous occupational exposure to live pigs, by whole-genome-sequencing (WGS). The sample was obtained during routine surveillance for MRSA colonization. Purified genomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 and processed using conventional bioinformatics software. The two isolates recovered were both S. aureus t011/ST398 and showed similar resistance-phenotypes, other than methicillin susceptibility. The possession of antibiotic resistance genes was the same, except for the mecA-gene located in SCCmecV in the MRSA isolate. The MSSA isolate harbored remnants of a SCCmec following the deletion of 17342bp from a recombination between two putative primases. Both isolates belonged to the livestock-associated clade as defined by three canonical single-nucleotide-polymorphisms, and neither possessed the human immune evasion cluster genes, chp, scn, or sak. The core genome alignment showed a similarity of 99.6%, and both isolates harbored the same mobile genetic elements. The two nasal ST398 isolates recovered from the patient with previous occupational exposure to pigs appeared to have a livestock origin and could represent different evolutionary steps of animal-human interface lineage. The MSSA strain was formed as a result of the loss of the mecA gene from the livestock-associated-MRSA lineage.
Project description:UNLABELLED:A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone known as ST398 has emerged as a major cause of acute infections in individuals who have close contact with livestock. More recently, the emergence of an animal-independent ST398 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) clone has been documented in several countries. However, the limited surveillance of MSSA has precluded an accurate assessment of the global spread of ST398 and its clinical relevance. Here we provide evidence that ST398 is a frequent source of MSSA infections in northern Manhattan and is readily transmitted between individuals in households. This contrasts with the limited transmissibility of livestock-associated ST398 (LA-ST398) MRSA strains between humans. Our whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that the chromosome of the human-associated ST398 MSSA clone is smaller than that of the LA-ST398 MRSA reference strain S0385, due mainly to fewer mobile genetic elements (MGEs). In contrast, human ST398 MSSA isolates harbored the prophage ?3 and the human-specific immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes chp and scn. While most of the core genome was conserved between the human ST398 MSSA clone and S0385, these strains differed substantially in their repertoire and composition of intact adhesion genes. These genetic changes were associated with significantly enhanced adhesion of human ST398 MSSA isolates to human skin keratinocytes and keratin. We propose that the human ST398 MSSA clone can spread independent of animal contact using an optimized repertoire of MGEs and adhesion molecules adapted to transmission among humans. IMPORTANCE:Staphylococcus aureus strains have generally been considered to be species specific. However, cross-species transfers of S. aureus clones, such as ST398 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), from swine to humans have been reported. Recently, we observed the emergence of ST398 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as a colonizing strain of humans in northern Manhattan. Here we report that ST398 is a frequent cause of MSSA infections in this urban setting. The ST398 MSSA clone was readily transmitted within households, independent of animal contact. We discovered that human ST398 MSSA genomes were smaller than that of the LA-ST398 strain S0385 due to fewer mobile genetic elements. Human and LA-ST398 strains also differed in their composition of adhesion genes and their ability to bind to human skin keratinocytes, providing a potential mechanism of S. aureus host adaptation. Our findings illustrate the importance of implementing molecular surveillance of MSSA given the evidence for the rapid and clinically undetected spread of ST398 MSSA.
Project description:Whereas the emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) in animal husbandry and its transmission to humans are well documented, less is known about factors driving the epidemic spread of this zoonotic lineage within the human population. One factor could be the bacteriophage phi3, which is rarely detected in S. aureus isolates from animals but commonly found among isolates from humans, including those of the human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) CC398 clade. The proportion of phi3-carrying MRSA spa-CC011 isolates, which constitute presumptively LA-MRSA within the multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 398, was systematically assessed for a period of 16 years to investigate the role of phi3 in the adaptation process of LA-MRSA to the human host. For this purpose, 632 MRSA spa-CC011 isolates from patients of a university hospital located in a pig farming-dense area in Germany were analyzed. Livestock-associated acquisition of MRSA spa-CC011 was previously reported as having increased from 1.8% in 2000 to 29.4% in 2014 in MRSA-positive patients admitted to this hospital. However, in this study, the proportion of phi3-carrying isolates rose only from 1.1% (2000 to 2006) to 3.9% (2007 to 2015). Characterization of the phi3 genomes revealed 12 different phage types ranging in size from 40,712 kb up to 44,003 kb, with four hitherto unknown integration sites (genes or intergenic regions) and several modified bacterial attachment (attB) sites. In contrast to the MSSA CC398 clade, phi3 acquisition seems to be no major driver for the readaptation of MRSA spa-CC011 to the human host.
Project description:Clonal complex 398 livestok-associated-MRSA (CC398 LA-MRSA) clone is described as a major animal pathogen that can also colonize and infect humans. CC398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CC398 MSSA) is less described. We identified 126 CC398 MSSA strains of human origin within 6380 S. aureus isolates gathered between 2009 and 2011, from the French National Reference Centre for Staphylococci. They were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarrays (Identibac S. aureus Genotyping ®, Alere), CC398-specific sequence PCR, ermT (encoding macrolides résistance) PCR. Fifty-three CC398 LA-MRSA collected from French pigs and veal were used as comparators, and phylogenetic relations between human CC398 MSSA and animal CC398 MRSA populations were explored on the basis of spa-typing and DNA microarrays. CC398 MSSA were able to induce a large spectrum of infections (especially skin, bloodstream, and pneumonias). The prevalence rate of this clone was high in MSSA population, i.e., 24.7% in a local prospective study on nasal colonization, and 7.5% in a national prospective study on infective endocarditis. CC398 MSSA isolates were frequently (89%) erythromycin resistant, due to the presence of the ermT gene, a gene not detected in erythromycin resistant CC398 LA-MRSA strains. Expression of staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein (chp), was also specific to this population. The CC398 MRSA signature included also a panel of antibiotic resistance genes, especially a type IV or V cassette mec and tetM. CC398 MSSA and CC398 LA-MRSA populations were closely related based on spa-typing and DNA microarrays, with the MRSA strains forming the most derived lineage in phylogenic trees. Both MSSA and MRSA populations may come from common ancestors, which would have evolved in the settings of different selective pressures, explaining the acquisition of ermT, chp and scn for MSSA, and antibiotic resistance genes for MRSA.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC). Pig ST398 strains contained a large region of recombination representing imports from multiple sequence types (STs). Phylogeographic analyses supported the spread of ST398-MSSA along local cultural and migratory links between parts of the Caribbean, North America, and France, respectively. Applying pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distances as a measure of genetic relatedness between isolates, we observed that ST398 not only clustered in households but also frequently extended across local social networks. Isolates collected from environmental surfaces reflected the full diversity of colonizing individuals, highlighting their potentially critical role as reservoirs for transmission and diversification. Strikingly, we observed high within-host SNP variability compared to our previous studies on the dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone USA300. Our data indicate that the dynamics of colonization, persistence, and transmission differ substantially between USA300-MRSA and ST398-MSSA. Taken together, our study reveals local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone, indicating key impacts of recombination and mutation on genetic diversification and highlighting important ecological differences from epidemic USA300. Our study demonstrates extensive local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone despite the lack of substantial antibiotic resistance. IMPORTANCE:Unlike methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), surprisingly little is known about the clonal evolution of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), although these strains account for the majority of S. aureus infections. To better understand how MSSA spreads and becomes established in communities, we applied comparative bacterial whole-genome sequencing to pandemic ST398-MSSA, a clone of clinical importance affecting humans and livestock in different geographic regions. Phylogeographic analyses identified that ST398-MSSA spread along local cultural and migratory links between parts of the Caribbean, North America, and France, respectively. We observed high within-host SNP variability compared to our previous studies on the dominant MRSA clone USA300. Our data indicate that the dynamics of colonization, persistence, and transmission differ substantially between USA300 MRSA and ST398 MSSA.
Project description:Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is an emerging MRSA lineage rapidly evolving in the community. In this report, we present the draft genome sequences of nine LA-MRSA strains. These strains were isolated from meat and a human nasal swab sample and belong to one unique spa type (t899), but to three different sequence types, ST398, ST9, and ST4034.
Project description:Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiome of many humans and has become a significant public health burden due to infections with antibiotic-resistant strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Several lineages of S. aureus, including MRSA, are found in livestock species and can be acquired by humans through contact with animals. These livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates raise public health concerns because of the potential for livestock to act as reservoirs for MRSA outside the hospital setting. In the United States, swine harbor a mixed population of LA-MRSA isolates, with the sequence type 398 (ST398), ST9, and ST5 lineages being detected. LA-MRSA ST5 isolates are particularly concerning to the public health community because, unlike the isolates in the ST398 and ST9 lineages, isolates in the ST5 lineage are a significant cause of human disease in both the hospital and community settings globally. The ability of swine-associated LA-MRSA ST5 isolates to adhere to human keratinocytes in vitro was investigated, and the adherence genes harbored by these isolates were evaluated and compared to those in clinical MRSA ST5 isolates from humans with no swine contact. The two subsets of isolates adhered equivalently to human keratinocytes in vitro and contained an indistinguishable complement of adherence genes that possessed a high degree of sequence identity. Collectively, our data indicate that, unlike LA-MRSA ST398 isolates, LA-MRSA ST5 isolates do not exhibit a reduced genotypic or phenotypic capacity to adhere to human keratinocytes.IMPORTANCE Our data indicate that swine-associated livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) ST5 isolates are as capable of adhering to human skin and have the same genetic potential to adhere as clinical MRSA ST5 isolates from humans. This suggests that humans in contact with livestock have the potential to become colonized with LA-MRSA ST5 isolates; however, the genes that contribute to the persistence of S. aureus on human skin were absent in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates. The data presented here are important evidence in evaluating the potential risks that LA-MRSA ST5 isolates pose to humans who come into contact with livestock.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 is a livestock associated-bacterium that is most prevalent in Europe. Human-adapted MRSA ST398 was recently reported from China, but there is no data available yet for Taiwan. METHODS:To identify S. aureus ST398 isolates, we examined 6413?S. aureus isolates (5632 MRSA and 781 susceptible strains) that were collected in Taiwan between 1995 and 2017. If isolates could not be typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis upon Sma I digestion, we performed further characterization and complete genome sequencing. RESULTS:We identified 18 ST398 S. aureus isolates from 16 subjects (0.28%), including 6 sensitive and 12 resistant strains. Of these, 14 were colonizing isolates, 3 were clinical (infecting) isolates and one isolate was from a pork specimen. All 3 infecting isolates were MSSA strains identified in 2015 from two children with recurrent otitis media or sinusitis. The other 3 MSSA isolates were identified from workers handling pork (2) or pork meat (1) in 2015. The first 5 MRSA colonizing isolates were identified from residents in two nursing homes in 2012. Six MRSA isolates were identified from residents and foreign employees at a nursing home in 2016 and one MRSA from a foreign worker in 2017. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences indicated that all 12 local ST398 MRSA strains cluster together, human-adapted and phylogenetically related to a human MRSA strain identified in China in 2002. Two local MSSA isolates could be linked to isolates from livestock. The toxin profiles were similar for the MRSA and MSSA isolates. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that S. aureus ST398 was present in Taiwan in 2012 and potentially earlier. Although some isolates could be linked to livestock, most ST398 S. aureus isolates identified in Taiwan, particularly MRSA, represent human-adapted strains. Local transmission of human-adapted MRSA ST398 strains has occurred in nursing homes in Taiwan, possibly after import from China. Further surveillance is needed.